The incidence of renal-related adverse events (AEs) with canagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from a pooled population of patients in 7 active- and placebo-controlled trials (N = 5598) and in a 104-week study vs glimepiride (N = 1450) was low and similar in canagliflozin and non-canagliflozin groups. In the study vs glimepiride, canagliflozin was associated with an initial acute decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) that attenuated over time, while eGFR declined progressively over 104 weeks with glimepiride. The incidence of renal-related AEs with canagliflozin was generally stable over time, while the incidence with glimepiride increased over 104 weeks. In the present analysis, based on postmarketing reports from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, a potential signal was identified for acute kidney injury with all approved sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (ie, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin). The early onset of acute kidney injury events with SGLT2 inhibitors in postmarketing reports probably reflects the acute changes in eGFR attibutable to the known renal haemodynamic effects of SGLT2 inhibition.
amaryl 2mg tablets
In all, 360 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease were treated with pioglitazone or glimepiride for 18 months in the PERISCOPE (Pioglitazone Effect on Regression of Intravascular Sonographic Coronary Obstruction Prospective Evaluation) study. Coronary atheroma progression was evaluated by serial intravascular ultrasound. The relationship between changes in biochemical parameters, percent atheroma volume, and total atheroma volume was investigated.
amaryl 2mg tablet
Using a weekly dose-titration liraglutide is well tolerated up to 2 mg daily. While liraglutide caused transient gastrointestinal side effects, this rarely interfered with continuing treatment. An improvement in FSG over that in control groups was seen for liraglutide as an add-on to metformin. In the latter case, body weight was reduced in comparison to metformin plus glimepiride. Liraglutide is a promising drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
tab amaryl 3mg
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and progressive β cell failure; therefore, β cell secretagogues are useful for achieving sufficient glycemic control. Glimepiride is a second-generation sulfonylurea that stimulates pancreatic β cells to release insulin. Additionally, is has been shown to work via several extra pancreatic mechanisms. It is administered as monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in whom glycemic control is not achieved by dietary and lifestyle modifications. It can also be combined with other antihyperglycemic agents, including metformin and insulin, in patients who are not adequately controlled by sulfonylureas alone. The effective dosage range is 1 to 8 mg/day; however, there is no significant difference between 4 and 8 mg/day, but it should be used with caution in the elderly and in patients with renal or hepatic disease. In clinical studies, glimepiride was generally associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia and less weight gain compared to other sulfonylureas. Glimepiride use may be safer in patients with cardiovascular disease because of its lack of detrimental effects on ischemic preconditioning. It is effective in reducing fasting plasma glucose, post-prandial glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and is a useful, cost-effective treatment option for managing type 2 diabetes mellitus.
amaryl 3 mg
Randomised controlled clinical trials of at least two months' duration comparing insulin monotherapy with combinations of insulin with one or more oral glucose-lowering agent in people with type 2 diabetes.
amaryl dosage form
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00708578. The approval number of Kangbuk Samsung hospital's institutional review board (IRB): C0825.
amaryl 2mg tab
In all, 3118 patients were randomized (vildagliptin, n = 1562; glimepiride, n = 1556). From similar baseline values (7.3%), after 2 years adjusted mean (s.e.) change in HbA1c was comparable between vildagliptin and glimepiride treatment: -0.1% (0.0%) and -0.1% (0.0%), respectively. The primary objective of non-inferiority was met. A similar proportion of patients reached HbA1c <7% (36.9 and 38.3%, respectively), but with vildagliptin more patients reached this target without hypoglycaemia (36.0% vs. 28.8%; p = 0.004). The initial response (IR) was sustained for a mean (s.d.) of 309 (244) days with vildagliptin versus 270 (223) days for glimepiride (p < 0.001) (IR = nadir HbA1c where change from baseline > or =0.5% or HbA1c < or =6.5% within the first six months of treatment. After IR was detected, sustained response = time between nadir and an increase of >0.3% above IR). Independent of disease duration, age was a predictor of effect sustainability. Fewer patients experienced hypoglycaemia with vildagliptin (2.3% vs. 18.2% with glimepiride) with a 14-fold difference in the number of hypoglycaemic events (59 vs. 838). Vildagliptin had a beneficial effect on body weight [mean (s.e.) change from baseline -0.3 (0.1) kg; between-group difference -1.5 kg; p < 0.001]. Overall, both treatments were well tolerated and displayed similar safety profiles.
amaryl 1 mg
Glimepiride is an oral sulfonylurea drug; nicotinamide is an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase and a precursor of NAD. Three studies were carried out to determine whether glimepiride and/or nicotinamide could prevent diabetes in BB rats. In Study I, we administered glimepiride treatment 200 mg/kg/day orally from the 35th to 143rd day of age. The incidence of diabetes in the glimepiride group was lower than in the control group (32% vs 55%, p < 0.02). In Study II, the treatment period was from the 35th to 147th day of age, and rats received glimepiride combined with nicotinamide (500 mg/kg/day IP). The treatment group showed a 22% incidence of diabetes compared to 53 in controls (p < 0.03). In Study III, nicotinamide treatment alone (1000 mg/kg/day orally) and combined with glimepiride were compared to untreated controls. The treatment period was from the 35th to 167th day of age. Nicotinamide-treated rats showed a 42% incidence of diabetes compared to 60% in controls (p = NS). In the nicotinamide combined with glimepiride treatment group, a lower incidence (28%) was observed when compared to the controls (60%, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that glimepiride can prevent diabetes in BB rats; however, nicotinamide when used in young animals shows only a trend to lower the incidence of diabetes, and when combined with glimepiride, no significant effect is observed.
amaryl glucose pill
A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0ml/min. Promocil C18 5µ 100Aº 4.6 x 100mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4ppm to 16ppm for glimepiride and 170ppm to 680ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion.
Glimepiride, as an antidiabetic from the group of sulfonylurea, is administered perorally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare pharmacokinetic profiles and relative bioavailabilities of the two oral formulations of glimepiride, generic and innovator tablets, after a single dose of the active drug.
Significant reductions in HbA(1c) were observed within 8 weeks of treatment with liraglutide plus OADs (p < 0.0001) and maintained until week 26. Furthermore, liraglutide plus OADs led to significant reductions in FPG within 2 weeks (p < 0.0001) and sustained over 26 weeks. Adding liraglutide to metformin or metformin plus rosiglitazone also led to early reductions and maintained reductions in body weight (within 8 weeks, p < 0.0001); however, liraglutide treatment plus glimepiride was weight neutral. Rapid reductions in SBP were observed for liraglutide plus OADs (within 2 weeks, p < 0.05-0.001) and maintained for 26 weeks. Some patients experienced nausea, which for the majority it diminished within 2 weeks.
daily dosage amaryl
Serum IGF-I levels were found to decrease from 577.2 ng/ml to 253.0 ng/ml after streptozotocin (p<0.005). After 1 month, IGF-1 levels were found 524.0 ng/ml in insulin group, 449.3 ng/ml in sulphonylurea group, and 313.1 ng/ml in control group. The increase in IGF-I was statistically significant in insulin group (p<0.005), and in sulphonylurea group (p<0.05), but it was not significant in control group (p>0.05).
amaryl 6 mg
The addition of sitagliptin 100 mg/day produced a statistically significant reduction in mean HbA1c level (mean HbA1c reduction of 0.99±0.85%, P<0.01). In the group taking a combination of sitagliptin and metformin (n=143, initial mean HbA1c level=7.48%), the reductions in HbA1c, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and fasting glucose levels were 0.72±0.76% (P<0.01), 47±65 mg/dL (P<0.01), and 15±44 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. In the group taking a combination of sitagliptin, glimepiride, and metformin (n=125, initial mean HbA1c level=8.42%), the reductions in HbA1c, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and fasting glucose levels were 1.09±0.86% (P<0.01), 62±64 mg/dL (P<0.01), and 31±45 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. In the group taking a combination of sitagliptin, glimepiride, metformin, and α-glucosidase inhibitor (n=63, initial mean HbA1c level=9.19%), the reductions in HbA1c, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and fasting glucose levels were 1.27±0.70% (P<0.01), 72±65 mg/dL (P<0.01), and 35±51 mg/dL (P<0.01), respectively. In the group that had previous hypoglycemic events and that changed from glimepiride to sitagliptin, HbA1c level did not change but fasting glucose increased significantly (14±29 mg/dL, P<0.01).
amaryl renal dosing
Insulin secretion from the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans is mainly regulated by glucose entry via its transporter. The intracellular glucose metabolism induces a rise in ATP/ADP ratio which increases the degree of closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels), inducing a higher intracellular K+, which, in turn, depolarizes the membrane and opens voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The ensuing Ca2+ entry triggers extrusion of insulin-containing secretory granules and, thus, hormone secretion. The analysis of the structure of the genes encoding K(ATP) channels that are made of four Kir subunits (forming the ionic pore) and four regulatory SUR subunits (that contain the binding site for antidiabetic sulfonylureas) allowed to several subclasses of those ionic channels to be described: Insulin secreting beta cells contain the SUR1/Kir 6.2 complex, while heart and skeletal muscles contain the SUR2A/Kir 6.2 set, vascular smooth muscles (such as those present in coronary arteries) have SUR2B/Kir 6.1 and nonvascular smooth muscle SUR2B/Kir 6.2. The pharmacological specificity of each sulfonylurea depends on the type of SUR protein present in each tissue: most of the second generation sulfonylureas used in diabetic clinics (e.g. glibenclamide, glimepiride) display almost the same affinity for SUR1 SUR2A and SUR2B, leading to possible harmful adverse effects in type 2 diabetic patients with an associated cardiovascular pathology. In contrast, among the second generation sulfonylureas, only gliclazide displays a remarkable specificity towards the beta-cell K(ATP) channels, making this drug particularly safe in all situations, as it does not induce any interference with the cardiovascular system.
amaryl 1mg tablets
Compared with glimepiride, Sita/Met as an initial treatment led to significantly greater improvements in glycemic control and body weight changes, with a lower incidence of hypoglycemia, over 30 weeks.
amaryl green pill
In this five-country observational study, nearly 20% of sulphonylurea-treated Muslim subjects with type 2 diabetes experienced symptomatic hypoglycaemia while fasting during Ramadan, with variations across sulphonylureas and countries.
amaryl pill picture
The sulfonylurea glibenclamide (Glib) abolishes the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (IP), presumably by inhibiting mitochondrial K(ATP) channel opening in myocytes. Glimepiride (Glim) is a new sulfonylurea reported to affect nonpancreatic K(ATP) channels less than does Glib. We examined the effects of Glim on IP and on the protection afforded by diazoxide (Diaz), an opener of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels.
amaryl bid dosing
Although metformin is not a new agent, it deserves attention because it is a novelty in our country. It is extremely useful in therapy of obese diabetics with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, glimepiride--a new sulphonyluretic agent is also at disposal, being better than the previous due to not inhibiting vasodilatory reaction and so it can be used in treatment of some heart diseases. A completely new group of oral hypoglycemics is represented by thiazolidine agents which represent the so-called insulin sensitisers. Apart from that, they have a favourable effect on some lipid fractions and arterial blood pressure.
amaryl starting dose
The objective of this work was to prepare an oil/water glimepiride (GM) microemulsion (ME) for oral administration to improve its solubility and enhance its bioavailability. Based on a solubility study, pseudoternary phase diagrams, and Box-Behnken design, the oil/water GMME formulation was optimized and prepared. GMME was characterized by dynamic laser light scattering, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, and viscosity. The in vitro drug release, storage stability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of GMME were investigated. The optimized GMME was composed of Capryol 90 (oil), Cremophor RH40 (surfactant), and Transcutol (cosurfactant), and increased GM solubility up to 544.6±4.91 µg/mL. The GMME was spherical in shape. The particle size and its polydispersity index were 38.9±17.46 nm and 0.266±0.057, respectively. Meanwhile, the GMME was physicochemically stable at 4°C for at least 3 months. The short-term efficacy in diabetic mice provided the proof that blood glucose had a consistent and significant reduction at a dose of 375 µg/kg whether via IP injection or IG administration of GMME. Compared with the glimepiride suspensions or glimepiride-meglumine complex solution, the pharmacokinetics of GMME in Wistar rats via IG administration exhibited higher plasma drug concentration, larger area under the curve, and more enhanced oral bioavailability. There was a good correlation of GMME between the in vitro release values and the in vivo oral absorption. ME could be an effective oral drug delivery system to improve bioavailability of GM.
amaryl buy online
To evaluate long-run cost-effectiveness in a Swedish setting for liraglutide compared with sulphonylureas (glimepiride) or sitagliptin, all as add-on to metformin for patients with type 2 diabetes insufficiently controlled with metformin in monotherapy.
amaryl drug classification
To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of vildagliptin, a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, as add-on to glimepiride in Japanese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were inadequately controlled.
amaryl 500 mg
Data were sourced from a clinical trial comparing liraglutide vs. glimepiride, both in combination with metformin, and a clinical trial comparing liraglutide vs. sitagliptin, both as add-on to metformin. Only the subgroup of patients in whom liraglutide was added to metformin monotherapy was included in the cost-utility analysis. The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate outcomes and costs with liraglutide 1.2 and 1.8 mg vs. glimepiride and vs. sitagliptin over patients' lifetimes. Treatment effects were taken directly from the trials. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 3.5% per annum and costs were accounted from a third-party payer (UK National Health System) perspective.
amaryl tablet composition
The point estimates of the ratios of geometric means (test/reference) of maximal concentrations and areas under the curve were 1.046 (90% confidence interval: 0.906-1.208) and 1.022 (90% confidence interval: 0.856-1.220), respectively, while the median values of times to reach maximal concentration, at 5% level of significance, did not differ significantly. Both formulations were well tolerated. Transient mild hypoglycaemia, which had been noted in 6 participants, resolved spontaneously within 30-60 minutes.
amaryl 40 mg
Liraglutide caused decreased gastric emptying and increased reduction in bodyweight. The mechanisms of the liraglutide-induced weight-loss may involve a combined effect on energy intake and energy expenditure.
This analysis included patients from three phase 3, 26-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Prior to randomisation, patients underwent a run-in and titration period with metformin (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes-2, LEAD-2), glimepiride (LEAD-1) or metformin plus rosiglitazone (LEAD-4). Patients were then randomised to receive liraglutide (0.6, 1.2 or 1.8 mg once-daily), active comparator and/or placebo. For this analysis, only the 1.2 mg and 1.8 mg liraglutide doses were included. Outcome measures included change in HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP). The safety profile was also investigated.
amaryl generic name
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the protective effects of sitagliptin, glimepiride, rosuvastatin and their combinations on oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the aortic tissues in fructose-fed type-2 diabetic rats. Sitagliptin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), glimepiride (2 mg/kg, p.o.), rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and their combinations were administered for 6 w after induction of diabetes by fructose (66%, w/v solution, p.o. for 8 w) in wistar rats. The effects were examined on body weight, serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate, nitric oxide and antioxidant defensive enzymes. After completion of treatment schedule, the blood pressure was determined by invasive method and vascular reactivity was tested with adrenaline, noradrenaline and phenylephrine. Endothelial dysfunction was determined by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation studies on isolated rat aortas. Long term treatments significantly decreased body weight gain, serum glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels; normalize the heart rate, and blood pressure in fructose fed rats. The treatments significantly improved vascular reactivity to catecholamines with reduction in elevated blood pressure in type-2 diabetic rats. The significant improvement in the relaxant response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was obtained on isolated aortas. All the treatments were effective in restoring defensive antioxidant enzymes. Sitagliptin and rosuvastatin were able to reverse endothelial dysfunction in type-2 diabetes, but better ameliorating potential was found when used in combination.
Introducción: La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es una enfermedad multifactorial que puede ser abordada tanto con antidiabéticos orales como con insulina. Los antidiabéticos orales glimepirida y sitagliptina poseen mecanismos de acción diferentes que no se han comparado directamente en pacientes con DM2 de reciente diagnóstico en Latinoamérica. El objetivo primario de este estudio multicéntrico de 24 semanas, de dos brazos, randomizado (1:1) y abierto, en pacientes adultos con DM2 y niveles de hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c) > 8.5 % < 11 %, fue comparar la eficacia de glimepirida con sitagliptina en pacientes adultos vírgenes de tratamiento. Como objetivos secundarios se compararon los efectos sobre la glucosa plasmática de ayuno y postprandial, hipoglucemia, cambio de peso, porcentaje de pacientes que se retiraron del protocolo, la seguridad de ambos tratamientos, signos vitales y resultados de laboratorio. Resultados: No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la eficacia de ambos medicamentos en el control de glucosa, ni en ningún otro parámetro, con la excepción de la incidencia de hipoglucemia, que se reportó con una frecuencia significativamente mayor en los pacientes del grupo de glimepirida. No existieron fatalidades en ningún grupo. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la monoterapia de glimepirida y sitagliptina reducen niveles de HbA1c con eficacia similar.
amaryl 30 mg
KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 risk haplotype were significantly less sensitive to inhibition by tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, and glimepiride (IC50 values for K23/A1369 vs. E23/S1369=1.15 vs. 0.71 μmol/l; 4.19 vs. 3.04 μmol/l; 4.38 vs. 2.41 nmol/l, respectively). In contrast, KATP channels containing the K23/A1369 haplotype were significantly more sensitive to inhibition by mitiglinide (IC50=9.73 vs. 28.19 nmol/l for K23/A1369 vs. E23/S1369) and gliclazide. Nateglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide showed similar inhibitory profiles in KATP channels containing either haplotype.
Daily doses of insulin and glimepiride with BOT were 14 ± 9 units and 1.5 ± 0.9 mg, respectively. After the change to liraglutide therapy, 37% of the patients appeared to be responders to the therapy, whereas 12% had their glycemic control rather deteriorated. Efficacy of liraglutide therapy was significantly associated with baseline insulin dosage and post-breakfast glycemia with BOT. The C-statistic of the model was calculated to be 0.90.