on all orders above $300.00

FREE Pills!

via4gra pills

for free with every order



Less than in your
local pharmacy

Search by letter:

Anafranil (Clomipramine)

Rating of sales:          


Generic Anafranil is a tricyclic antidepressant. Generic Anafranil is used to treat symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (recurrent thoughts or feelings and repetitive actions). Generic Anafranil works by affecting chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Anafranil SR, Clopran, Doxepin, Cymbalta, Elavil


Also known as:  Clomipramine.


Generic Anafranil is used to treat symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (recurrent thoughts or feelings and repetitive actions).

Generic Anafranil is a tricyclic antidepressant.

Anafranil is also known as Clomipramine, Clonil, Clofranil, Clopram, Clopran, Clopress, Equinorm, Hydiphen.

Generic Anafranil works by affecting chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced.

Generic name of Generic Anafranil is Clomipramine.

Brand name of Generic Anafranil is Anafranil.


Take Generic Anafranil orally.

Do not take Generic Anafranil in large amounts.

Take Generic Anafranil with food.

Take Generic Anafranil up to 4 weeks.

The dosage of tablets depends on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Anafranil suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Anafranil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Anafranil overdosage: uneven heart rate, extreme drowsiness, confusion, agitation, vomiting, blurred vision, sweating, muscle stiffness, increased or decreased urination, swelling, shortness of breath, blue lips or fingernails, feeling light-headed, fainting, seizure.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Anafranil are:

  • anafranil with alcohol
  • anafranil overdose
  • anafranil 60 mg
  • anafranil generic equivalent
  • anafranil cost
  • anafranil dose range
  • 35 mg anafranil
  • anafranil 100 mg
  • anafranil user reviews
  • anafranil 25mg tab
  • anafranil 20 mg
  • anafranil ocd review
  • anafranil 40 mg
  • anafranil drug
  • anafranil drug class
  • anafranil 25mg prices
  • anafranil dosage range
  • anafranil and alcohol
  • anafranil tablet
  • anafranil dosage information
  • anafranil brand names
  • anafranil buy online
  • anafranil ocd dose
  • anafranil prices
  • anafranil 30 mg
  • anafranil drug reviews
  • anafranil 150 mg
  • anafranil therapeutic dose
  • anafranil 75 mg
  • anafranil buy
  • anafranil 400 mg
  • anafranil drug insert
  • anafranil tablets
  • anafranil 600 mg
  • anafranil medication
  • anafranil 35 mg
  • anafranil user review
  • anafranil 10 mg
  • anafranil 50 mg
  • anafranil dosing
  • anafranil 10mg dosage
  • anafranil ocd medication
  • anafranil generic name
  • anafranil online order
  • anafranil max dose
  • anafranil ocd dosage
  • anafranil medicine
  • anafranil 125 mg
  • anafranil 250 mg
  • anafranil reviews
  • anafranil 225 mg
  • anafranil ocd reviews
  • anafranil pills
  • anafranil 25 mg
  • anafranil drug interactions
  • anafranil 45 mg
  • anafranil sr reviews
  • anafranil missed dose
  • anafranil 5 mg
  • anafranil pill
  • anafranil dosage
  • anafranil patient reviews
  • anafranil 25mg tablets
  • anafranil generic
  • anafranil drug classification
  • anafranil online
  • anafranil capsules

Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Anafranil if you are allergic to Generic Anafranil components.

Do not take Generic Anafranil if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Anafranil if you had recent heart attack.

Do not take Generic Anafranil if you use MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam) or tranylcypromine (Parnate) within the past 14 days.

Be careful with Generic Anafranil if you have heart disease or a history of heart attack, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or other mental illness, kidney or liver disease, overactive thyroid or adrenal gland tumor, glaucoma, problems with urination.

Avoid using other medicines that make you sleepy while using Generic Anafranil.

Avoid drinking grapefruit juice and eating grapefruit while using Generic Anafranil.

Avoid exposure to sunlight or artificial UV rays while using Generic Anafranil.

Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be awake and alert while using Generic Anafranil.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Anafranil suddenly.

anafranil drug class

We observed that false-positive results involved: a metabolite of zolpidem that might have been mistaken for lysergic acid diethylamide, benzoylecgonine mistaken for atropine, and clomipramine and 3 phenothiazines that share several common ion transitions.

anafranil therapeutic dose

The nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the nondopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) receive a dense synaptic input from the serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei. To assess whether serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] spontaneously released at the substantia nigra could modulate motor activity, the 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), duloxetine (6-12 nmol) and clomipramine (12 nmol), were unilaterally microinjected either into the SNc or the SNr of freely moving rats, and the circling behavior was counted with an automated rotometer. In the SNc, the main effect of the SRIs was a contraversive circling behavior that was not observed when applied at distances > or = 0.2 mm above the SNc. The circling induced by clomipramine was blocked by microinjection of haloperidol (53 nmol) into the ipsilateral neostriatum, suggesting that the circling elicited by microinjection of the SRIs into the SNc depends on an intact striatal dopaminergic transmission. Microinjection of 5-HT (21 nmol) only produced a significant contraversive circling response when it was coinjected with the SRIs. Pretreatment with methysergide (1 mg/kg ip), a nonselective 5-HT(2) antagonist, did not block the circling elicited by microinjection of clomipramine into the SNc, either alone or in combination with 5-HT. However, microinjection of the 5-HT(2) antagonist mianserin (2 nmol) into the SNc partially inhibited the circling induced by duloxetine (6 nmol), alone or coinjected with 5-HT. Since current theories of circling behavior hypothesize that the animal turns away from the cerebral hemisphere where dopamine neurotransmission predominates, these results suggest that the contraversive circling induced by the unilateral microinjection of SRIs into the SNc could be mediated by a 5-HT-induced increase of firing frequency of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. When applied into the SNr, clomipramine and duloxetine also elicited a contraversive circling behavior and enhanced the circling induced by 5-HT. Systemic methysergide (1 mg/kg i.p.), but not intranigral mianserin (2 nmol), blocked the circling elicited by microinjection of clomipramine into the SNr, either alone or in combination with 5-HT. These results suggest that 5-HT(2)-like receptors are involved in the contraversive circling induced by enhancement of serotonergic transmission in the SNr.

anafranil 225 mg

1. The cardiovascular responses of mianserin hydrochloride and tricyclic antidepressant drugs were investigated using non-invasive methods of cardiac investigation. A study of the interaction of mianserin and antihypertensive drug therapy is reported. 2. In six normal volunteers, mianserin hydrochloride 20 mg was shown to prolong the corrected Q-T interval at 150 min (P less than 0.001). It did not affect heart rate, systolic time intervals or the peak normalized derivative of the apexcardiogram. Amitriptyline 50 mg increased the corrected pre-ejection period interval (PEPI) and the PEP/left ventricular ejection time (LVET) ratio of the systolic time intervals at 150 min (P less than 0.001). Q-T interval was shortened at 90 minutes. 3. In a double-blind patient study, clomipramine increased heart rate, P-R interval, QRS and corrected Q-T interval in one patient at 2 weeks. Mianserin prolonged corrected Q-T interval at 1 week but this returned to the pretreatment time by 2 weeks in two patients. 4. In an open study, mianserin 20 mg three times daily did not antagonize the hypotensive action of propranolol or propranolol and hydrallazine in three patients. 5. In a double-blind study in three patients with desmethylimipramine 25 mg three times daily, mianserin 20 mg three times daily did not antagonize the hypotensive action of either guanethidine or bethanidine.

anafranil 50 mg

We have previously found that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) induce apoptosis in quiescent human lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if TCAs induce apoptosis in proliferating human lymphocytes and in established blastoid lymphocytes also. The development of conA-induced lymphoblast populations was followed by measuring the CD25 membrane expression. Three TCA compounds were run with the following concentrations: imipramine (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 microM), clomipramine (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 microM) and citalopram (40, 60, 80, 100, 180 microM). They all induced a dose-dependent apoptosis both in continuously transformed, as well as in established lymphoblasts. Preincubation of the TCA up to 48 h did not significantly increase induction of apoptosis. The three drugs tested were found to be potent inducers of apoptosis in proliferating lymphocytes. Furthermore, we found that the apoptotic populations in proliferating and in established blastoid lymphocytes were of fairly the same magnitude than in the corresponding population in TCA-incubated resting lymphocytes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TCAs induce apoptosis in proliferating lymphocytes, as they do in quiescent lymphocytes. Furthermore, the extent of apoptosis was even more pronounced in TCA-incubated lymphoblasts compared to TCA-treated resting lymphocytes.

anafranil generic

The onset of disease of case one was started with epilepsy with myoclonic seizure. After half a year, catalepsy induced by emotion especially laughing and excessive daytime sleepiness appeared. MSLT was positive and hypocretin 1 level decreased. Narcolepsy-cataplexy was definitely diagnosed in this case. Valproate was given and seizure was controlled completely, but the excessive daytime sleepiness was aggravated. Combination of valproate, methylphenidate and clomipramine treatment improved the symptoms of narcolepsy and the patient was still free of epileptic seizures. The onset symptoms of case 2 were catalepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness. MSLT was positive. The treatment was ineffective because of bad compliance. After 2 years, episodes of impairment of consciousness with automatism occurred. VEEG showed slow waves and spikes in right temporal area. Complex partial seizure was determined. Oxcarbazepine was used and then the patients became seizures free, but the symptoms of narcolepsy were still obvious.

anafranil ocd review

Clinical and preclinical research suggests a major role of mesocortical dopamine (DA) in psychopathology through regulation of subcortical, especially mesoaccumbens, DA functioning. In these experiments we demonstrate that the high vulnerability to stress-induced 'despair' and mesoaccumbens DA inhibition, exhibited by mice of the inbred strain C57BL/6 (C57) in a common animal model of depression, depends on their being highly susceptible to stress-induced mesocortical DA activation. Thus, C57 mice but not mice of the DBA/2 strain showed an extremely high level of immobility on their first experience with the forced swimming test (FST) as well as immediate and strong activation of mesocortical DA metabolism and inhibition of mesoaccumbens DA metabolism and release. In addition, the behavioral and the mesoaccumbens DA responses to FST in C57 mice were reduced and reversed, respectively, by bilateral mesocortical DA depletion. Finally, chronic treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine reduced immobility and eliminated both mesocortical DA activation and mesoaccumbens DA inhibition in response to FST. These results suggest that a genetically determined susceptibility to stress by the mesocortical DA system may favor the development of pathological behavioral responses through inhibition of subcortical DA transmission.

anafranil 45 mg

The authors sought to determine the efficacy of antidepressants in dysthymic disorder and to compare antidepressant and placebo response rates between major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymic disorder.

anafranil generic equivalent

Debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotype was determined in 22 psychiatric patients who had previously developed exceptionally high serum antidepressant (AD) concentrations, and in 22 sex-, age-, and dose-matched counterparts who had low to normal serum AD levels. The patients were recruited from 641 subjects in whom serum AD levels were monitored. In each AD level group, 16 patients had been treated with tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine, imipramine, clomipramine) and 6 with mianserin. Eight poor metabolizer (PM) phenotypes (debrisoquine/hydroxydebrisoquine ratio in 6-hour urine greater than or equal to 41.5) were identified in the high AD level group, but only two in the group with low to normal AD level (p = 0.03, Fisher's test). Comedications in the two study groups did not differ markedly from ach other and could not, therefore, explain the greater frequency of PMs among the patients with high serum AD levels. Three of 6 mianserin patients, who had developed high serum AD levels, were PMs. This high proportion of PMs raises the question of a possible involvement of the same metabolic pathway (cytochrome P-450IID6 isoenzyme) also in mianserin hydroxylation. The results suggest further that during AD therapy with standard dosage, PM phenotypes are at special risk for high serum AD concentrations and, consequently, for clinical symptoms of toxicity.

anafranil 60 mg

Although data extraction from reviews was optimised when more than one review reported data for the same RCT, the reliability of the data extraction within these reviews cannot be guaranteed by this assessment report.

anafranil pill

In a series of 74 experiments in a double blind study, 25 healthy test persons were medicated with a single dose of Clomipramin, Desipramin, Imipramin, Diazepam, Carbamazepin, Haloperidol, and a placebo. At the end of one hour, and again at the end of three hours, an EEG was made whose frequency analysis revealed significant changes in about half the test persons. The antidepressives induced an increase in the theta waves, the slow alpha waves, and the slow beta waves, and a decrease in the fast alpha waves. The factors influencing the EEG are discussed.

anafranil 75 mg

Dose equivalence of antidepressants is critically important for clinical practice and for research. There are several methods to define and calculate dose equivalence but for antidepressants, only daily defined dose and consensus methods have been applied to date. The purpose of the present study is to examine dose equivalence of antidepressants by a less arbitrary and more systematic method.

anafranil user review

Studying 12 women and 13 pregnancies, we found no changes in mean clomipramine concentrations, a statistically significant decrease in mean desmethylclomipramine concentrations (p = 0.014) and a significant decrease in the ratio of desmethylclomipramine/clomipramine mean concentrations during pregnancy (p = 0.014) compared to the post-partum period. Sub-therapeutic concentrations of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine were found in three patients during whole pregnancy.

anafranil dosage

Two forms of drug administration, i.e., systemic subcutaneous administration and microinjection into the medial amygdala were employed to examine the effect of chronic administration of psychotropic drugs on muricide in olfactory bulbectomized rats. Muricide inhibition induced by the systemic doses of chlorpromazine (CPZ) 10 mg/kg and diazepam 10 mg/kg was reduced with chronic administration, while that by desipramine (DMI) 10 mg/kg and amitriptyline 30 mg/kg was augmented with chronic administration. Muricide inhibition induced by microinjection of CPZ was also reduced, while that by DMI was augmented. These results indicate that muricide by olfactory bulbectomized rats is a useful animal model for evaluating antidepressants and that a potential site of action of antidepressants is located in the medial amygdala.

anafranil 5 mg

To assess the efficacy of clomipramine for treatment of canine compulsive disorder (CCD).

anafranil dosage information

Mianserin (60 mg daily) was compared with chlorimipramine (150 mg daily) in the treatment of 145 depressed in- and outpatients in four centres. The trial was double-blind and fully randomized. Both drugs were effective antidepressants. No significant differences in efficacy could be demonstrated by means of the Hamilton rating scale for depression, the Beck self-rating scale or the clinical global impression, for both in- and outpatients. Hypotension, dry mouth and tremor increased significantly more in inpatients with chlorimipramine than with mianserin. At the end of treatment weight gain was increased significantly more in outpatients after treatment with mianserin. No differences could be demonstrated between the drugs for other side-effects.

anafranil dosing

9 male and 9 female Beagles.

anafranil 25 mg

Possible involvement of prostaglandins (PG) in the antimyoclonic action of clonazepam was examined in the p,p'-DDT-animal model of myoclonus. PG synthesis inhibitors and the PG antagonist polyphloretin phosphate (PPP) counteracted the antimyoclonic action of clonazepam in mice. PGE2 reduced DDT-induced myoclonus; this effect was blocked by PPP. Another antimyoclonic drug combination, L-5-hydroxytryptophan plus chlorimipramine, was not blocked by PPP or indomethacin. The antimyoclonic action of clonazepam may be mediated by enhancement of PG synthesis.

anafranil sr reviews

Two pharmacotherapy and three psychotherapy trials were eligible for inclusion in the review, with data from four short-term RCTs (169 participants) available for analysis. Response data from a single placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine suggested overall superiority of medication relative to placebo (relative risk (RR) 3.07, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.72, n = 67). Symptom severity was also significantly reduced in the RCTs of fluoxetine and clomipramine (relative to desipramine), as well as in the two CBT trials (WMD -44.96, 95% CI -54.43 to -35.49, n = 73). A low relapse rate (4/22) was demonstrated in one trial of CBT.

anafranil reviews

Intrahepatic flow disturbance may have important pharmacological and toxicological significance. However, apart from pathological conditions, flow disturbance by drugs has received little attention. In the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL), we found that infusion of tricyclic antidepressants increased portal perfusion pressure (PP) with a coincidental decrease in oxygen uptake at concentrations of 3-30 microM; the order of potency was clomipramine > amitriptyline > imipramine approximately nortriptyline > desipramine. The characteristics of clomipramine action were as follows: (1) The extrahepatic portal vein was much less sensitive to clomipramine than the IPRL. (2) Changes in PP and oxygen uptake required Ca(2+) in the perfusate and were inhibited by papaverine, staurosporine, sodium nitroprusside and indomethacin. (3) Compared with endothelin-1, clomipramine produced a greater decrease in the ratio of oxygen uptake/PP together with a greater overflow of loaded indocyanine green for an increase in PP by about 2 cm H(2)O. (4) Vital staining with trypan blue and rhodamine 6G and histological examinations revealed that 3-10 microM clomipramine produced marked flow redistribution due to the constriction of portal vein branches. Portal flow was short-circuited to the hepatic vein at a deeper and hilar portion of the liver, with minimal perfusion of the periphery. These results demonstrate an example of drug-induced intrahepatic flow disturbance in vitro. Its contribution to the development of toxicity in vivo remains to be studied.

anafranil ocd dose

Triage Plus was found to be an accurate device for the detection of tricyclic antidepressants in urine at the stated cut-off value of 1000 ng/mL tricyclic antidepressant. With the exception of cyclobenzaprine, significant cross-reactivity was not observed with other drugs commonly encountered in emergency department admissions.

anafranil online order

Caffeine undergoes 3-N-demethylation via CYP1A2, as well as 1-N-demethylation, 7-N-demethylation and 8-hydroxylation, which may involve other CYP isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of clomipramine, desipramine, sertraline, nefazodone and mirtazapine on cytochrome P-450 activity measured by caffeine oxidation in rat liver microsomes. The obtained results showed that all the investigated antidepressants, with an exception of mirtazapine, added in vitro to liver microsomes had an inhibitory effect on caffeine metabolism (via competitive or mixed mechanism), though their potency towards particular metabolic pathways was different. Dixon analysis of caffeine metabolism carried out in the control liver microsomes, in the absence and presence of the antidepressant drugs showed that desipramine and clomipramine exerted the most potent inhibitory effect on caffeine metabolism. Desipramine decreased the rates of 1-N-, 3-N- and 7-N-demethylations, and 8-hydroxylation of caffeine (Ki = 23.3, 36.6, 23.3 and 63.3 microM, respectively), the effect on 1-N- and 7-N-demethylation being the most pronounced. Clomipramine showed distinct inibition of 1-N- and 3-N-demethylation and 8-hydroxylation of caffeine, the effects on N-demethylations being the most pronounced (Ki = 38.6, 34.8, 45.6 microM, respectively). Its effect on 7-N-demethylation was rather weak (Ki = 97.8 microM). Sertraline decreased significantly the rate of 1-N- and 3-N-demethylation and 8-hydroxylation (Ki = 37.3, 69.3 and 64 microM, respectively), while its effect on 7-N-demethylation of caffeine was less pronounced (Ki = 92.1 microM). Nefazodone displayed clear effect on 3-N- and 7-N-demethylation (Ki = 68.8 and 66.4 microM, respectively), but was weak in inhibiting 1-N-demethylation and 8-hydroxylation of caffeine (Ki = 110 and 186 microM, respectively). In contrast to the above-tested antidepressants, mirtazapine did not decrease significantly the oxidation rates of 3-N-demethylation or 8-hydroxylation (Ki = 264 and 455 microM, respectively) and had no effect on other oxidation pathways of caffeine. In summary, we have observed intra- and inter-drug differences in the inhibitory effects of the antidepressants on the four oxidation pathways of caffeine in rat liver microsomes. The tested antidepressants (with an exception of mirtazapine) may lead to drug-drug metabolic interactions at a level of a few CYP isoforms. The obtained results provide further indirect evidence that apart from CYP1A2, other CYP isoforms are also important for the metabolism of caffeine.

anafranil 25mg tablets

The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT uptake inhibitors on the dissociation of [3H]paroxetine from rat brain membrane binding sites have been investigated. The dissociation induced by 5-HT (100 microM), paroxetine (0.15 microM), clomipramine (1 microM), citalopram (1 microM), imipramine (1 microM), or norzimeldine (1 microM) was consistent with first-order dissociation kinetics with half-life values of dissociation (t1/2) between 130 and 140 min. The dissociation induced by the combination of 5-HT (100 microM) with either citalopram (1 microM) or imipramine (1 microM) was not different from that initiated by either agent alone. These dissociation data, which are at variance with previous data on the 5-HT transporter labeled with [3H]imipramine, support a single-site model of the antidepressant binding/5-HT uptake site.

anafranil ocd dosage

A total of 97 patients, who participated in two studies on the relationship between the clinical effect and plasma levels of imipramine and clomipramine, were examined for improvement curves by use of weekly ratings on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HDS). Although we confirmed that our six-item HDS subscale, in contrast to the total 17-item HDS, was a one-dimensional measure of depression, the Rasch analysis showed that the weekly improvement in subscale scores only applied to the individual patient, i.e. an average improvement curve for a group of depressed patients is an abstraction to which the individual curves cannot be transferred. Our results indicate, however, that when the subscale scores are transformed into three clinical categories of depression: no, mild (minor), moderate/-severe (major) they could be described by a common improvement curve for all patients. This is illustrated by the percentage of patients who, week to week, changed from major to minor or no depression, or from minor to no depression. We found no specific improvement pattern for imipramine or clomipramine which could be used diagnostically. There is reason to assume that patients completing a controlled trial necessarily will follow a monotonic improvement curve, and the improvement pattern of all patients fulfilling the entry criteria should, therefore, always be reported. The present study thus indicates that calculation of average improvement curves is neither clinically nor statistically meaningful, and should be replaced by measures of changes in number of patients in different main severity categories, or by the final rating score. No difference in outcome between imipramine and clomipramine was shown neither on the subscale nor on the 17-item HDS.

anafranil tablet

Tianeptine, an antidepressant drug enhancing 5-HT uptake, was given to pregnant rats in the last 15 days of gestation and different neurotransmitter receptors as well as 5-HT2 receptor-linked inositol phosphate formation were measured in the brains of the offspring. Prenatal exposure to tianeptine significantly decreased the density of 3H-imipramine binding sites in the cerebral cortex of the pups without affecting beta-adrenoceptors, serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT1B receptors or inositol phosphate formation after a 5-HT challenge. Striatal dopamine D2 receptors labelled with 3H-spiroperidol were not changed but an apparent increase in the affinity of dopamine was noticed in the pups prenatally exposed to the drug. The results show that the neurochemical profile of tianeptine markedly differs from that of most antidepressants.

anafranil 30 mg

Chronic treatment of young rodents with drugs altering monoamine metabolism has been reported to produce lasting effects on behavior that resemble human affective disorders. To test the generality of this finding, scopolamine, imipramine, or clomipramine was injected daily between the ages of 8 and 21 days in golden hamsters. Wheel-running rhythms were monitored continuously from the age of 4 to 20 weeks of age to test the hypothesis that neonatal treatments would lower the amplitude of biological activity rhythms in adults. Of these three neonatal treatments only scopolamine altered running rhythms, significantly increasing the amplitude of running rhythms in adult hamsters under both entrained and free-running conditions. Hamsters treated neonatally with scopolamine were also more sensitive to the hypothermic effects of the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine, as adults. These data indicate that neonatal exposure to cholinergic receptor blockade may produce long-lasting changes in biological rhythm characteristics related to upregulation of muscarinic receptors.

anafranil user reviews

Consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed, stage 4 SCLC were analyzed in this retrospective study. Patients that were prescribed statins, aspirin, clomipramine (tricyclic antidepressant; TCA), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), doxazosin or prazosin (α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists; ADRA1) were identified.

anafranil drug

Challenge with intravenous clomipramine (CMI) is serotonin selective and has been reported to transiently exacerbate symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and to predict subsequent response to oral CMI therapy.

anafranil 250 mg

Chagas infection is a major endemic disease affecting Latin American countries. The persistence of Trypanosoma cruzi generates a chronic inflammatory reactivity that induces an immune response directed to the host's tissues. The effectiveness of the treatment in the chronic phase is still unsatisfactory due, amongst other reasons, to the collateral effects of the drugs used. We investigated the effect of clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant that, when used as a treatment of T. cruzi-chronically infected mice, inhibits trypanothione reductase, an exclusive and vital enzyme of T. cruzi. Clomipramine improved survival (P<0.05) by diminishing the parasite intensity as demonstrated by PCR studies in the heart and skeletal muscle, and significantly prevented the evolution to fibrosis of the inflammatory infiltrates. Clomipramine could be a good candidate for the treatment of chronic Chagas disease.

anafranil 10 mg

In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales.

anafranil 125 mg

In this study, we describe a simple and rapid method for the determination of the antipsychotic drug clozapine and five commonly co-administered antidepressants - bupropion, mirtazapine, sertraline, clomipramine and citalopram - in serum, plasma and whole blood. Sample preparation includes solid phase extraction of analytes and determination of drug concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without any derivatization steps. The method was fully validated according to international criteria and can be successfully applied for routine analyses. Correlation coefficients of calibration curves for the tested drugs in the three specimens were in the range 0.9977-0.9999. Intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 0.81-7.85% and 3.60-12.91% respectively for the studied analytes and matrices. Recoveries were satisfactory for different concentrations of each drug in each specimen allowing accurate determinations in the range from sub-therapeutic to toxic levels. The presented method shows acceptable sensitivity, linearity in wide concentration ranges (sub-therapeutic, therapeutic, supra-therapeutic/toxic levels), it is simple and rapid and it is applicable for qualitative and quantitative routine toxicological analyses of clinical and postmortem cases.

Target Point Shipping Method Tracking Delivery Time Price
Worldwide shipping

Worldwide shipping

Registered Mail  Not trackable 14-21 business days USD 20.00 per order
EMS  Trackable, where available 5-9 business days USD 30.00 per order

Delivery time is:

Registered Mail - 14-21 business days, prices - USD 20.00, no signature is required on delivery.
EMS - 5-9 business days, prices - USD 30.00, signature is required on delivery.
Your order will be packed safe and secure and dispatched within 24 hours.

front back side

This is exactly how your parcel will look like (pictures of a real shipping item). It has a look of a regular private letter and does not disclose its contents. Size - 9.4x4.3x0.3 inches (24x11x0.7cm).

 Show Hide 
anafranil tablets 2017-12-08

Clomipramine was superior to desipramine and placebo, as indicated by standardized ratings of autism and anger as well as ratings of repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Clomipramine and desipramine were equally superior to placebo for ratings of hyperactivity. Parents of all seven subjects elected to have their children continue to take buy anafranil clomipramine after the study.

anafranil ocd dose 2016-01-31

To determine whether clomipramine differs from fluoxetine in reducing feline buy anafranil urine marking; whether reduction of marking continues in cats treated >8 weeks; whether recurrence of marking, after abrupt drug withdrawal, is less in cats treated >8 weeks; and whether cats that are successfully treated but resume marking after drug withdrawal can be successfully treated again with the same drug regimen.

anafranil drug interactions 2017-06-25

Experimental design of behavioral studies in animals generally includes placebo-treated controls. However, when placebo is administered by injection in experimental models of psychiatric diseases such as depression, where stress may affect the execution of the behavioral test, it is possible that injection per se may influence the behavioral response. Rats injected with clomipramine hydrochloride (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg), as compared to animals injected with physiological saline as placebo, showed a dose-dependent decrease of the immobility time in the despair test and of the number of floor units explored in the open field in the reserpine test. However, when animals injected with placebo or clomipramine 50 mg/kg were compared with untreated intact controls, it was found that the immobility time in the despair test was higher in the placebo-treated animals than in untreated intact controls. A difference was found between clomipramine-injected animals and untreated intact controls. In contrast, rats tested buy anafranil in the reserpine test, which is based on repeated drug injections, no difference was found between placebo-treated animals and untreated intact controls. These results indicate that stressful procedure of the experimental design may change the response of animals in behavioral tests. Studies with experimental models of depression, where stressful procedures are used, should include a control group of untreated intact animals.

anafranil generic equivalent 2017-11-25

The relative abilities of 1--3 mg/kg of desipramine (DES), imipramine (IMIP), amitriptyline (AMI), and chlorimipramine (CI-IMIP) to enhance synaptic transmission mediated by either NE or 5-HT were determined by testing their effects directly on NE or 5-HT transmission to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in unanesthetized, spinal cats. Effects on NE transmission were assessed on intraspinal excitatory pathways which utilize NE as a transmitter. Effects on 5-HT transmission were assessed on 5-HT-mediated depression of spinal sympathetic reflexes produced by 30 mg/kg of 5-HTP. Both DES and IMIP markedly enhanced transmission through the intraspinal excitatory NE pathways whereas AMI and CI-IMIP depressed transmission. However, both AMI and buy anafranil CI-IMIP modestly enhanced transmission in cats depleted of central 5-HT by pretreatment with parachlorophenylalanine. The relative potencies of the four drugs on excitatory NE transmission were DES greater than IMIP greater than AMI greater than CI-IMIP. Each of the four drugs also enhanced the 5-HTP-induced depression of spinal sympathetic reflexes, but their relative potencies on 5-HT transmission were just the opposite to those found on NE transmission. Therefore, all four drugs enhanced transmission by both NE and 5-HT, but their relative selectivities for the two transmitters differed markedly and were complementary. In general, the results support those of previous studies based on less direct methods for assessing inhibition of amine reuptake by tricyclic antidepressants.

anafranil generic name 2017-12-15

Neonatal treatment of rats with clomipramine may produce adult animals which model endogenous depression. We report here that a major factor of depression in humans, the diminished capacity for pleasure, appears present in these rats. At age 7 months, bar-press responding for rewarding hypothalamic stimulation is reduced buy anafranil across a range of intensities. At age 4 or 5 months this effect is not seen, although other behavioral abnormalities are present at the younger age. The delayed onset of diminished intracranial self-stimulation may relate to the gradual insidious onset of endogenous depression in humans.

anafranil 150 mg 2016-06-25

The adsorption characteristics of eight adsorbents, cholestyramine, colestimide, aluminum silicate, sucralfate, aluminum hydroxide, calcium polystyrene sulfonate, carbon sphere and medicinal carbon, on the drugs such as methotrexate, antidepressants, mizoribine and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were investigated in vitro. Medicinal carbon showed an excellent adsorption of all the tested drugs while the carbon spheres showed a high but slow adsorption characteristic. Cholestyramine and colestimide showed a higher adsorption in methotrexate than the other adsorbents. Aluminum silicate and calcium polystyrene sulfonate showed higher adsorption in four antidepressants, clomipramine hydrochloride, imipramine hydrochloride, mianserin hydrochloride and trazodone hydrochloride. In mizoribine, there were no adsorbents that showed higher adsorption except for the medicinal carbon. In ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, aluminum preparations and calcium polystyrene sulfonate showed higher adsorption characteristics. It is suggested that several adsorbents are potentially useful treatments for drug overdoses, but that these adsorbents have the possibility of decreasing the effects of the co-administered buy anafranil medicines.

anafranil dosage information 2016-08-31

We have developed a new technique, tube running activity, to study the effects of drugs on a specific behaviour in mice. The time it takes for a mouse to run 100 cm in a narrow tube is measured. buy anafranil The effects on tube running activity of chlorimipramine, a relatively specific blocker of the amine pump in the 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurons, and protriptyline, a relatively specific blocker of the amine pump in the noradrenergic neurons, were studied. During the first two hours after the administration of chlorimipramine 7.5 mg/kg IP there was a decreased run time as compared with controls. The run time could not be further decreased by increasing the dose of chlorimipramine, but the effect was prolonged. Protriptyline in the dose range of 3.75-30 mg/kg IP had no observable effect on the run time, but protriptyline 60 mg/kg IP decreased the run time in the same way as chlorimipramine 60 mg/kg IP did. The decreased run time after protriptyline 60 mg/kg IP is probably due to a blockade of the amine pump in the 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons at this high dose. Our results suggest that tube running activity more specifically measures functional effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine than functional effects of noradrenaline.

anafranil capsules 2016-11-26

In 1982 our laboratory proposed a new animal model of endogenous depression. The proposal was that in rats, neonatally administered clomipramine (CLI) will produce adult animals that model endogenous depression. We summarize here buy anafranil several tests of the validity of the model. Results were that after neonatal CLI, adult male rats showed behavioral abnormalities of the human disorder: decreased sexual, aggressive, and intracranial self-stimulation activities, as well as motor hyperactivity in a stressful situation. Preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral abnormalities in rats (sexual, aggressive, and motor) briefly treated with antidepressant treatments (imipramine, REM sleep deprivation) begin to normalize. Lastly, after neonatal CLI, the adult rats showed REM sleep abnormalities of endogenous depression, viz, low REM latency, frequent sleep onset REM periods, and abnormal temporal course of REM rebound after REM sleep deprivation. These results supported the hypothesis that in rats neonatal CLI produced adult animals that modelled endogenous depression.

anafranil 30 mg 2016-04-27

A sustained improvement (> 50% decrease in HAM-D score plus buy anafranil decrease in DSM-IV severity level) appeared in 9 patients, and sustained full remission (DSM-IV criteria plus HAM-D score < 5) in 7. Panic-agoraphobic symptoms improved in the 2 patients suffering from them. There were no dropouts, and tolerability was good. No significant changes in blood pressure and heart rate, ECG, or blood tricyclic levels were found.

anafranil 10mg dosage 2016-09-04

Seventeen patients withdrew prematurely, 6 in the fluvoxamine group and 11 in the clomipramine group. In the intent-to-treat population (34 fluvoxamine patients and 30 clomipramine patients), there were no significant differences with respect to the mean reduction in total Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score (last observation carried forward) at any time-point; a mean reduction of 8.6 (33%) was seen in the fluvoxamine group and 7.8 (31%) in the clomipramine group. Similar results were obtained in virtually all secondary variables. The only exception was the obsession-free interval for the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, which was significantly longer in the fluvoxamine group, especially in a population of patients with disease of > 12 months' duration (F = 5.298, df = 1, p = .026). Adverse events were mostly tolerable; 9 patients (5 receiving fluvoxamine, 4 receiving clomipramine) withdrew due to adverse events related to treatment buy anafranil .

anafranil online order 2015-08-31

Freezing behavior buy anafranil is thought to be a sign of fear in animals. We examined whether the freezing behavior during the elevated open-platform stress, which is a psychological stressor without painful stimulus, is modulated by serotonergic neurotransmission and would be a useful marker for screening anxiolytic and/or antidepressant. Male ICR mice (6 - 8-week-old) were individually placed on an elevated open-platform and the duration of freezing behavior of mouse was measured for 10 min. Fluoxetine and citalopram, selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors, markedly decreased the duration of freezing. Fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, and 8-OH-DPAT, a potent 5-HT1A-receptor agonist, also significantly decreased the duration of freezing. In contrast, the 5-HT-synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine significantly increased the duration of freezing. Diazepam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, had no effect on the duration of freezing at doses having no effect on locomotor activity. Imipramine and clomipramine, tricyclic antidepressants, also did not affect the duration of freezing. Reboxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, significantly increased the duration of freezing. These results indicate that the activation of serotonergic neurotransmission attenuates the fear-related behavior in the elevated open-platform test, while the activation of noradrenergic neurotransmission increases the fear-related behavior. In addition, this test is convenient for assaying anxiolytic drugs that affect serotonergic neurotransmission.

anafranil 20 mg 2016-05-06

Growing evidence indicates that glia pathology contributes to the pathophysiology and possibly the etiology of depression. The study investigates changes in behaviors and glial fibrillary associated protein (GFAP) in the rat hippocampus after chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a rat model of depression. Furthermore, we studied the effects of clomipramine, one of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), known to modulate serotonin and norepinephrine uptake, on CUS-induced depressive-like behaviors and GFAP levels. Rats exposed to CUS showed buy anafranil behavioral deficits in physical state, open field test and forced swimming test and exhibited a significant decrease in GFAP expression in the hippocampus. Interestingly, the behavioral and GFAP expression changes induced by CUS were reversed by chronic treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine. The beneficial effects of clomipramine treatment on CUS-induced depressive-like behavior and GFAP expression provide further validation of our hypothesis that glial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of depression and that glial elements may represent viable targets for new antidepressant drug development.

anafranil buy 2015-07-17

The direct serotonergic agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), displays high efficacy at 5-HT(2C) receptors. Systemic administration of m-CPP increased dramatically the percentage of weight-supported steps made on a treadmill by rats with complete midthoracic spinal transections. The improvement in motor function occurred in rats with grafts of fetal spinal cord into the site of transection (transplant rats) and in spinal rats without grafts (spinal rats). m-CPP produced a therapeutic action with its buy anafranil first administration and after 14 single daily injections. In contrast, the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, chlorimipramine (CMI), failed to enhance weight support during 21 days of treatment. The results imply that stimulating directly 5-HT(2C) receptors restores postural support after spinal injury. Thus, 5-HT(2C) agonists are candidates for treating spinal patients chronically without the development of tolerance.

anafranil drug 2016-08-27

The effect of chronic administration of the clinically effective antidepressants, imipramine, clomipramine and desipramine, on corticosterone (CS) release in male rats was investigated. Chronic administration of imipramine, clomipramine and desipramine at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day, but Risperdal Reviews not at a dose of 2 mg/kg b.w./day, suppressed blood CS concentration at 2000h and abolished its circadian rhythm. The normal circadian rhythm of CS release resumed seven days after the termination of imipramine injection. The acute administration of imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w./day) at 0800h but not at 2000h elevated CS concentrations. Chronic administration of imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w./day) tended to increase the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on CS release. Adrenocortical sensitivity to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone tended to be decreased by chronic administration of imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w./day). These results indicate that antidepressants have effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis which may confound psychoneuroendocrinological tests, such as the dexamethasone suppression test, for the diagnosis of affective disorders.

anafranil patient reviews 2016-08-03

To systematically review the efficacy and tolerability of non-antiepileptic Botox Cost Forehead drugs for trigeminal neuralgia.

anafranil user reviews 2017-01-09

Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. I investigated the antidepressant effect of simvastatin (SMV) on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control (CTR) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ) groups and were orally administered 0, 5, or 10 mg/kg of SMV daily for 14 days, then exposed to the forced swimming test (FST). Our results showed that diabetic rats had higher immobility duration than the CTR rats, and SMV decreased this depressive-like behavior in the diabetic rats. However, clomipramine lowered the immobility time in the CTR and STZ rats. STZ decreased serotonin concentration in the hippocampus, which was reversed by SMV and clomipramine. The dopamine concentration in the hippocampus decreased in the STZ groups compared with the CTR groups. However, SMV and clomipramine had no significant effect on the dopamine levels in either the CTR or STZ groups. Corticosterone levels were increased in the untreated STZ group; SMV and clomipramine significantly decreased corticosterone levels in the STZ groups, but had no effect Feldene Generic on the CTR groups. In conclusion, SMV exerts an antidepressant-like effect on diabetic rats that are submitted to the FST. The antidepressant-like effect of SMV in the FST appears to be mediated, at least in part, by the biochemical changes to the blood levels of corticosterone and of serotonin concentration in the hippocampus.

anafranil 75 mg 2016-12-30

The diagnosis and pharmacologic management of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are reviewed. PMS refers to physical or affective symptoms that appear during the latter half of the menstrual cycle, remit during menses, and affect the woman's relationships or ability to function. Pharmacologic treatments proposed for PMS include (1) hormonal treatments that alter the menstrual cycle, (2 Geodon Max Dose ) hormonal treatments based on specific proposed etiologies, (3) drugs that affect fluid balance, (4) inhibitors or precursors of prostaglandins, (5) nutritional supplements, (6) psychotropic medications, and (7) nonprescription preparations. The menstrual cycle can be manipulated with transdermal estrogen and cyclic oral progesterone, oral contraceptives, danazol, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists with steroid hormone replacement. Psychological symptoms may be treated with fluoxetine, clomipramine, or alprazolam. Patients may be given a diuretic for fluid retention; bromocriptine, tamoxifen, or danazol for mastodynia; and nonprescription analgesics for headaches. PMS can be managed through (1) a symptom-oriented management approach or (2) modification of the menstrual cycle. Pharmacotherapy should be initiated only after simpler measures have failed, and the medication must be chosen carefully, with the severity of the impairment weighed against adverse effects of the treatment.

anafranil dosage 2016-09-02

Blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiograms were recorded in conscious rats during intravenous injections of consecutively increasing doses of zimelidine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, desipramine and imipramine. The tricyclic antidepressants (TCA's) increased blood pressure from low doses and induced shortlasting decreases in blood pressure at higher doses. Heart rate was initially increased by amitriptyline while the other TCA's tended to decrease heart rate dose-dependently. The TCA's prolonged the QRS and QT intervals dose-dependently from low doses and the PR interval from intermediate Amoxil 500mg Capsule doses. Zimelidine did not affect blood pressure or heart rate until high doses were given. The PR interval was not affected by zimelidine. Moderate to high doses of zimelidine prolonged the QT length and high doses widened the QRS complex. The results indicate a good cardiovascular tolerance for zimelidine.

anafranil 35 mg 2016-04-19

Tachycardia is a frequent sign of intoxication, which can be expressed by a linear function depending on ETD. The MSE is more frequently noted with amitriptyline. The clinical aspect of type-I Brugada syndrome is as frequent as the MSE but does not seem prognostic. It is Cozaar Name Brand unclear whether it is related to an isolated electrical aspect or it hides a genetic mutation.

anafranil 10 mg 2017-10-19

Trichotillomania is characterized by an inability to resist urges to pull out hair. It is estimated to occur in at least 1 out of 200 persons by college age. The disorder usually begins in childhood or adolescence with a chronic course more likely in patients with a later onset. Some investigators hypothesize Prevacid Dosage Neonates a relationship between trichotillomania and obsessive compulsive disorder, but this proposal has not yet been substantiated. Little rigorous treatment research has been done, but the current treatments of choice are clomipramine and behavior therapy (habit reversal training).

anafranil pill 2016-02-05

Fluvoxamine 25-200 mg daily and clomipramine 25-200 mg daily were given for separate three week periods to 18 subjects with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Both drugs improved cataplexy but not narcolepsy. Fluvoxamine was Zyloprim Dosage Gout less active than clomipramine, but both drugs abolished cataplexy in individual subjects. Gastrointestinal side effects prevented treatment with fluvoxamine in five subjects. All patients completed the clomipramine phase of the trial, but two men complained of delayed ejaculation. Fluvoxamine is a more potent inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake in some systems, but not in others. It is therefore uncertain whether the greater anticataplectic effect of clomipramine is due to a greater inhibition of 5-HT reuptake or to other mechanisms.

anafranil missed dose 2016-09-13

To determine whether treatment with various antidepressants or mood stabilizers leads to region-specific changes, we investigated the effects of their subchronic (14 days of intraperitoneal injection) administration on the tissue concentration of monoamines, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, and the protein expression of acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the mouse striatum (ST), nucleus accumbens (Acb), hippocampus (Hip), cingulate cortex (Cg), and amygdala (Amy). Subchronic administration with the antidepressants (S)-citalopram oxalate (ECM), duloxetine hydrochloride (DLX), and mirtazapine (MIR) commonly induced significant increases in dopamine and serotonin levels in the ST and Cg. By contrast 80 Mg Viagra , no common profiles for dopamine, serotonin, or norepinephrine were identified in the Acb, Hip, or Amy. Treatment with sodium valproate (VPA), lithium chloride (Li), lamotrigine (LTG), levetiracetam (LTM), olanzapine (OLZ), clozapine (CLZ), clomipramine (CLM), ECM, and DLX induced significant increases in AcH3 expression in the Acb, while treatment with CLM, ECM, DLX, MIR, carbamazepine (CBZ), LTG, LTM, OLZ, or CLZ induced significant increases in HDAC2 and HDAC3 in the ST. CLM, MIR, VPA, CBZ, LTG, LTM, OLZ, or CLZ induced significant increases in HDAC3 in the Cg, and ECM, DLX, MIR, VPA, CBZ, LTG, LTM, or OLZ resulted in significant increases in HDAC5 in the Amy. Collectively, the changes of monoamine content were restricted for mood stabilizer effects, but increased expression of HDAC2, HDAC3, or HDAC5 in the ST, Cg, or Amy was often found, supporting the possibility that antidepressant-like effects involve epigenetic modifications associated with changes in HDAC expression.

anafranil drug class 2015-11-04

51 dogs with CCD.

anafranil ocd medication 2015-01-10

A double-blind, multicentre study was conducted in 86 severely depressed inpatients (>or= 25 on the 17-item Hamilton depression rating scale [HAMD] total score) to compare the efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine with that of clomipramine. Following placebo run-in, 86 patients were randomised to receive fluvoxamine or clomipramine (100-250 mg/day) for 8 weeks.

anafranil 50 mg 2017-08-17

Paroxetine increases serotonergic neurotransmission by inhibiting presynaptic reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and thereby increasing the level of the neurotransmitter at the synaptic cleft. In vitro, it is a more potent inhibitor of serotonin uptake than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Citalopram, fluvoxamine and fluoxetine. Paroxetine was more potent than sertraline in one study that compared mean inhibition constants for serotonin uptake, but not in another study that compared the concentrations required to inhibit serotonin uptake by 50%. In contrast to the tricyclic antidepressants, paroxetine has little effect on the uptake of dopamine or noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vitro. It has negligible affinity for αr(1-), αr(2-) and βr-adrenoceptors, dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors, hi starnine H(1) receptors and serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. However, paroxetine does have weak affinity for muscarinic cholinergic receptors. As shown in rats, paroxetine appears to indirectly activate somatodendritic 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors when initially administered, thereby inhibiting firing of 5-HT neurons and release of serotonin. This may explain why the onset of therapeutic effect of paroxetine is delayed. However, repeated administration of paroxetine causes adaptive changes in synaptic serotonergic receptors, including a decrease in the responsiveness of somatodendritic and terminal serotonin autoreceptors. Central βr-adrenoceptors are not down-regulated by administration of paroxetine to rats. Various studies in healthy volunteers without sleep disorders or volunteers reporting poor sleep have indicated that paroxetine disturbs normal sleep patterns by reducing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time and lengthening REM latency. The effect of paroxetine on sleep in patients with panic disorder has not been determined, but in patients with depression the drug improves subjective quality of sleep. In electroencephalographic studies in healthy volunteers, administration of a single dose of paroxetine 30mg produced changes indicative of a sedative profile, whereas administration of 70mg produced changes indicative of activating properties. No significant impairment of psychomotor function was observed after administration of single or multiple doses of paroxetine 20 or 30mg to healthy volunteers or patients with depression. The sedation and impairment of psychomotor function caused by haloperidol, amobarbital, oxazepam or alcohol (ethanol) were not potentiated by the administration of paroxetine 30mg. In contrast to amitriptyline 150 mg/day or doxepin 150 mg/day, 2 to 6 weeks' treatment with paroxetine 20 or 30 mg/day did not produce clinically significant haemodynamic or electrophysiological effects on cardiac function in healthy volunteers or patients with depression. Fewer adverse cardiac effects were reported by paroxetine than nortriptyline recipients in a study in patients with depression and ischaemic heart disease. The anxiolytic activity of paroxetine has been demonstrated after 7 or 21 days' administration in several rodent models.