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Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors improve or stabilize cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the regional metabolic and perfusion correlates of treatment with ChE inhibitors are not fully known. Twenty-four patients with mild to moderate AD were evaluated with Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) single-photon-emission CT scanning (SPECT), before and after 4.3 +/- 1.1 months of treatment with ChE inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine). Clinical evaluations included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as well as the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Inclusion criterion was a clear favorable response to therapy with ChE inhibitors (MMSE improvement of at least 2 points; total NPI improvement of at least 4 points). SPECT data were analyzed by Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 99, Wellcome, Department of Cognitive Neurology, London, UK). SPM analysis showed a significant increase (P < 0.01) of regional cerebral perfusion (rCBF) after short-term ChE inhibitor therapy with respect to baseline in the right anterior cingulate, the dorsolateral prefrontal, and the temporoparietal areas bilaterally. These data suggest that cognitive or behavioral benefits after ChE inhibitor therapy are related to a clear increase of rCBF in crucial areas specifically involved in the attentional and limbic networks.
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Selective 5HT6 antagonist AVN-211 (CD-008-0173) added antipsychotic and some procognitive (attention) effects to antipsychotic medication.
To develop a more rapid screening paradigm for novel cognitive enhancers, the authors sought to determine the utility of a well-known pharmacologic model of induced dementia (scopolamine challenge), paired with a sensitive neuropsychological test, for assessing the ability of a single oral dose of a current treatment for Alzheimer's disease (donepezil) to improve cognitive performance in healthy elderly subjects.
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Alzheime's disease (AD) is an overwhelming neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by synaptic dysfunction, memory loss, neuro-inflammation and neural cell death. Very few treatments are in hand for the management of AD and they are only concentrating on peculiar aspects. Hence, an immense thrust is required to find utmost therapeutic targets to conquer this condition. This study investigates a potential role of vanillin, a selective agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) in the experimental models of AD viz. intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose induced AD in mice. The i.c.v. administration of STZ and intraperitoneally administration of AlCl3+d-galactose have significantly impaired learning-memory (Morris water maze and attentional set-shifting test), brain structure (hematoxylin, eosin and Congo red staining), enhanced brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance - TBARS and glutathione - GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), inflammation (MPO), and calcium levels (Ca(++)). Treatment with vanillin in different doses and donepezil have significantly ameliorated i.c.v. STZ and AlCl3+d-galactose induced reduction in executive function, impaired reversal learning, cognition, memory and brain damage. Treatment with these drugs has also reduced the brain oxidative stress (TBARS and GSH), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), and AChE, MPO, and Ca(++) levels. These results indicate that vanillin, a selective agonist of TRPV1 and donepezil, a potent acetylcholine esterase inhibitor have attenuated i.c.v. STZ and AlCl3+d-galactose induced experimental AD. Hence, pharmacological positive modulation of TRPV1 channels may be a potential research target for mitigation of AD.
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At 12 weeks, the changes in the MMSE-KC score, CERAD-K(N) WSS, and CERAD-K(N) TS from baseline were not significant between ChAT A allele carriers and non-carriers; however, at 26 weeks, these changes were significantly larger in ChAT A allele carriers than in non-carriers (p=0.02 for MMSE-KC and p=0.03 for CERAD-K(N) WSS respectively).
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To compare the differences in the clinical efficacy on Alzheimer's disease between acupuncture and medicine.
The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolism and elimination of donepezil HCl in humans, following the administration of a single 5 mg (liquid) oral dose containing a mixture of unlabelled and 14C-labelled donepezil.
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Early studies showed that the latency of P300 (P3) event related potential increases or diminishes when anticholinergic or cholinergic drugs are administered. We tested the hypothesis that new cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil (DPZ) may have an effect on the often abnormal P300 of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and therefore, that P300 recordings might simplify the evaluation of responses to cholinesterase inhibitor in patients with mild and moderate-severe AD. We evaluated 60 patients with AD: 30 patients with "mild" (Mini Mental State Examination 26-19) and 30 patients with "moderate-severe" (Mini Mental State Examination 18-10), according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria in comparison with 40 age-matched controls. All subjects underwent P300 recordings and neuropsychologic examinations (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) during the 6-month follow-up. Patients were divided into four groups of 15 patients each: Group I DPZ (10 mg/day) and Group I Vitamin E (2000 IU/day) with "mild" AD; Group II DPZ and Group II Vitamin E with "moderate-severe" AD and same drug dosages. In patients treated with Vitamin E, we observed P3 latency increments (delta) by 11.8 +/- 1.8 ms in Group I and by 12.8 +/- 2.8 ms in Group II at 6 months; neuropsychologic test scores significantly worsened at 6 months (p < 0.001) in Group II patients. Donepezil induced significant P3 latency reductions (11.2 +/- 2.4 ms) in nine patients of Group I and all patients of Group II (16.1 +/- 4.0 ms), reaching a maximum at 3 months (23.2 +/- 2.7 ms). Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores improved during the same period, and the difference between Vitamin E and DPZ treated patients was highly significant for P3 (analysis of variance) and for P3-Alzheimer's Diseases Assessment Scale-Cognition (analysis of covariance) with p < 0.001 for pooled groups of patients with AD and Group II (DPZ) versus Group II (Vitamin E). Combined P3 event related potentials measurements, neuropsychologic test comparison evidences significant effects of DPZ in mild and in moderate-severe AD.
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The goal of this study was to determine if memory would be improved by donepezil as compared to placebo in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (RCT).
Falls are a leading cause of death in the elderly and, in a majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the leading levodopa-insensitive cause of hospitalization and long-term care. Falling in PD has been attributed to degeneration of forebrain cholinergic neurons that, in interaction with striatal dopamine losses, impairs the cognitive control of balance, gait, and movement. We previously established an animal model of these dual cholinergic-dopaminergic losses ("DL rats") and a behavioral test system (Michigan Complex Motor Control Task, MCMCT) to measure falls associated with traversing dynamic surfaces and distractors. Because the combined treatment of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) was reported to exhibit synergistic pro-cholinergic activity in rats and improved cognition in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease, here we assessed the effects of this treatment on MCMCT performance and attention in DL rats. Compared with the vehicle-treated group, the combined treatment greatly reduced (Cohen's d = 0.96) falls in DL rats when traversing dynamic surfaces and when exposed to a passive distractor. However, falls associated with a dual task distractor and sustained attentional performance did not benefit from this treatment. Analyses of the behavior in fall-prone moments suggested that this treatment improved the efficacy and speed of re-instating forward movement after relatively short stoppages. This treatment may reduce fall propensity in PD patients via maintaining planned movement sequences in working memory and improving the vigor of executing such movements following brief periods of freezing of gait.
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There remains an urgent need for therapeutic agents that provide improved symptomatic treatment and attenuate disease progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). 5-HT(4) receptors are widely expressed in those CNS areas which receive substantial cholinergic input and are involved in cognition. The ability of 5-HT(4) receptor agonists to increase acetylcholine (ACh) release and reduce cognitive impairment in both animals and humans has been demonstrated. In addition, 5-HT(4) receptor agonist modulation of levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) derived peptides, soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα) and amyloid beta protein (Aβ) in the CNS has been reported. In this study, the preclinical properties of three structurally-distinct 5-HT(4) receptor selective agonists, PRX-03140, velusetrag and TD-8954, were studied to assess their potential for symptomatic and disease-modifying benefit in the treatment of AD. All three compounds exhibited high affinity for the rat 5-HT(4) receptor but could be discriminated on the basis of their agonist activity. In cAMP accumulation and sAPPα secretion assays using recombinant HEK293f-5-HT(4(d))-APP(695) cells, velusetrag and TD-8954 were potent, full agonists, relative to 5-HT, whereas PRX-03140 was a partial agonist (intrinsic activity 18%, relative to 5-HT). In a guinea pig colon isolated tissue preparation, TD-8954 exhibited lower intrinsic activity than velusetrag, and PRX-03140 had negligible agonist activity. In the rat Morris water maze (MWM) cognition test, velusetrag and TD-8954 (0.1 mg/kg), but not PRX-03140 (0.03-1 mg/kg), significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced spatial learning deficit via activation of 5-HT(4) receptors. Coadministration of subefficacious doses of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEi), donepezil (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.), and either velusetrag or TD-8954 (0.01 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reversal of the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit. Pharmacokinetic data indicated that the CNS penetration for all three 5-HT(4) receptor agonists was relatively low. However, the pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationships in the MWM model for velusetrag and TD-8954 were consistent with their respective receptor pharmacology (binding affinity and intrinsic efficacy) and CNS penetration properties. Collectively, these findings support a potential role for potent and efficacious 5-HT(4) receptor agonists in the treatment of AD.
Cultured ARPE-19 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µmol/L and protein levels were measured using Western blot. Intraperitoneal injections of tacrine and donepezil (0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL) were respectively given to AChE(+/-) mice aged 2mo and 4mo and wild-type S129 mice for 7d; phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered to the control group. The mice were sacrificed after 30d by in vitro cardiac perfusion and retinal samples were taken. AChE-deficient mice were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using specific genotyping protocols obtained from the Jackson Laboratory website. H&E staining, immunofluorescence and Western blot were performed to observe AChE protein expression changes in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer.
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A total of 38 patients for donepezil and 17 patients for donepezil and memantine therapy, aged ≥ 55 years, were recruited meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used for estimation of drug levels of donepezil and memantine.
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are stated as important risk factors of vascular dementia (VaD) and other cognitive disorders. In the central nervous system, melatonin (MT1/MT2) as well as serotonin subtype 2C (5-HT2C) receptors is pharmacologically associated with various neurological disorders. Brain mitochondrial potassium channels have been reported for their role in neuroprotection. This study has been structured to investigate the role of agomelatine, a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist and nicorandil, a selective ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener in renal artery ligation (two-kidney-one-clip: 2K1C) hypertension induced endothelial dysfunction, brain damage and VaD. 2K1C-renovascular hypertension has increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), impaired memory (elevated plus maze and Morris water maze), endothelial function, reduced serum nitrite/nitrate and increased brain damage (TTC staining of brain sections). Furthermore, 2K1C animals have shown high levels of oxidative stress in serum (increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS with decreased levels of glutathione-GSH, superoxide dismutase-SOD and catalase-CAT), in the aorta (increased aortic superoxide anion) and in the brain (increased TBARS with decreased GSH, SOD and CAT). 2K1C has also induced a significant increase in brain inflammation (myeloperoxidase-MPO levels), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and calcium levels. Impairment in mitochondrial complexes like NADH dehydrogenase (complex-I), succinate dehydrogenase (complex-II) and cytochrome oxidase (complex-IV) was also noted in 2K1C animals. Administration of agomelatine, nicorandil and donepezil significantly attenuated 2K1C-hypertension induced impairments in memory, endothelial function, nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and brain damage. Therefore, modulators of MT1/MT2 receptors and KATP channels may be considered as potential agents for the management of renovascular hypertension induced VaD.
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The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor plus antipsychotic showed benefit over antipsychotic and placebo in the following outcomes.1. Mental state - PANSS negative symptoms average end point score (2 RCTs, n = 31, MD -1.69 95% CI -2.80 to -0.57), PANSS General Psychopathology average end point score (2 RCTs, n = 31, MD -3.86 95% CI -5.40 to -2.32), and improvement in depressive symptoms showed at least by one short-term study as measured by CDSS scale (data skewed).2. Cognitive domains - attention, (1 RCT, n = 73, MD 1.20 95% CI 0.14 to 2.26), visual memory (2 RCTs, n = 48 , MD 1.90 95% CI 0.52 to 3.28), verbal memory and language (3 RCTs, n = 42, MD 3.46 95% CI 0.67 to 6.26) and executive functioning (1 RCT, n = 24, MD 17.10 95% CI 0.70 to 33.50).3. Tolerability - EPSE: AIMS, (1 RCT, n = 35, MD 1.50 95% CI 1.04 to 1.96).No difference was noted between the two arms in other outcomes. The overall rate of participants leaving studies early was low (13.6 %) and showed no clear difference between the two groups.
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Prevalence of treatment by ChIs among subjects with dementia remains weak and varies greatly across Europe. Differences in reimbursement rates and health policies could partly explain these variations, as ChIs could have failed to convince health authorities because the outcomes considered for trials are not used by clinicians in their everyday practice. If donepezil was highly predominant across countries, variations in rivastigmine and galantamine importance could reflect local market specificities.
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The single nucleotide polymorphism rs1080985 in the CYP2D6 gene may influence the clinical efficacy of donepezil in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). The analysis of CYP2D6 genotypes may be useful in identifying subgroups of patients with AD who have different clinical responses to donepezil.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered to be the most common cause of dementia and is an incurable, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Current treatment of the disease, essentially symptomatic, is based on three cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, affecting the glutamatergic system. Since 2003, no new drugs have been approved for treatment of AD. This article presents current directions in the search for novel, potentially effective agents for the treatment of AD, as well as selected promising treatment strategies. These include agents acting upon the beta-amyloid, such as vaccines, antibodies and inhibitors or modulators of γ- and β-secretase; agents directed against the tau protein as well as compounds acting as antagonists of neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic 5-HT6 and histaminergic H3). Ongoing clinical trials with Aβ antibodies (solanezumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab) seem to be promising, while vaccines against the tau protein (AADvac1 and ACI-35) are now in early-stage trials. Interesting results have also been achieved in trials involving small molecules such as inhibitors of β-secretase (MK-8931, E2609), a combination of 5-HT6 antagonist (idalopirdine) with donepezil, inhibition of advanced glycation end product receptors by azeliragon or modulation of the acetylcholine response of α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by encenicline. Development of new effective drugs acting upon the central nervous system is usually a difficult and time-consuming process, and in the case of AD to-date clinical trials have had a very high failure rate. Most phase II clinical trials ending with a positive outcome do not succeed in phase III, often due to serious adverse effects or lack of therapeutic efficacy.
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A solid phase extraction procedure with a mixed-mode sorbent was used to isolate the drugs from 0.5 mL human plasma. Reverse phase chromatographic separation of the compounds was obtained with a gradient elution of an ammonium acetate buffer at pH 9.3 and acetonitrile and the analytes were detected by mass spectrometry in the single ion monitoring mode.
A total of 101 individuals with MS who were enrolled in a clinical trial on cognition underwent a brief neuropsychological battery and completed questionnaires related to vocation, mood, fatigue, and personality. Neurological impairment was measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS).
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With no differences at baseline, there was a significant difference between the groups in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive subscale score (p = 0.058) in favor of patients in the treatment group at the endpoint. The PANSS positive subscore (p = 0.0068) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) (p = 0.048) score significantly changed only in the treatment group. Only in the placebo group were significant changes in Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) total score registered. The indices of attention tests at endpoint did not show differences between the groups, with the exception of the scope of change in the results of the subtest VIII of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), which showed difference between the groups (p = 0.02) and was significantly larger in the treatment group. Only inside the study drug group, significant changes in selectivity and continuous attention were observed regarding total correct responses (p = 0.0038) and reaction time (p = 0.058) in the Continuous Attention Task (CAT) test.
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The rate of cognitive deterioration observed in mild to moderate AD patients receiving open-label donepezil treatment was less than expected if this cohort had not been treated. The cognitive beneficial effects observed during one year treatment with donepezil were mainly focused on memory and verbal expression.
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A total of 516 aMCI participants aged 55-90 years who received placebo or vitamin E from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study's MCI treatment trial were evaluated. During the 36-month study period, neurocognitive and functional measures were collected. These measures were assessed over time for change and association with APOE varepsilon4 status. Generalized Estimating Equations were performed to model each outcome measure over the study period.
To investigate the tolerability and efficacy of the rivastigmine transdermal patch in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease receiving concomitant memantine.
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To explore whether ginsenosides Rg5 and Rh3, the main constituents of heat-processed ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng), could protect memory deficit.