Literature searches were conducted at 3 points: 2003, 2004, and 2007. Databases searched included PubMed, the National Library of Medicine, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ovid, and EBSCO Information Services, and other search strategies also were used. Each article was assessed for quality by 3 people, and discrepancies were resolved by arbitration using a fourth person, who also read and scored each article. Additional assessments of safety using a scale and determination of reported efficacy/effectiveness of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) were made.
The mean duration of amphotericin B-induced PAFE was lowest for C. albicans (5.91 ± 0.31 h) and greatest for C. parapsilosis (12.72 ± 0.11 h), while C. guilliermondii (8.32 ± 0.33 h), C. glabrata (8.43 ± 0.21 h), C. krusei (9.68 ± 0.23 h) and C. tropicalis (10.98 ± 0.18 h) elicited intermediate values.
Three new species of the ant-eating spider genus Hermippus Simon, 1893, H. globosus sp. nov., H. inflexus sp. nov. and H. gavi sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Western Ghats in the Kerala region of southern India. The genus is redefined and two species groups are recognized: the cruciatus-group with all the five described Oriental species including H. cruciatus Simon, 1905, H. arjuna Gravely, 1921, H. inflexus sp. nov., H. globosus sp. nov. and H. gavi sp. nov. and the loricatus-group representing all the seven described Afrotropical species including H. loricatus Simon, 1893, H. affinis Strand, 1906, H. schoutedeni Lessert, 1938, H. septemguttatus Lawrence, 1942, H. minutus Jocqué, 1986, H. tenebrosus Jocqué, 1986 and H. arcus Jocqué, 1989. The biogeographic distribution and possible migratory route of Hermippus spp. from Africa to the Oriental region are given.
Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn. (Combretaceae) is a tree having an extensive medicinal potential in cardiovascular disorders. T. arjuna bark extract has been reported to play a significant role as a cardiac stimulant for its beneficial effects in angina. Herb - drug interactions (HDI) are one of the most important clinical concerns in the concomitant consumption of herbs and prescription drugs. Our study was to investigate the in vitro CYP2D inhibition potential of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna) extracts in rat liver microsomes and to study the influence of aqueous bark extract of T. arjuna on the oral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol succinate in rats.
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Kidney stone formation during hyperoxaluric condition is inherently dependent on the interaction between renal epithelial cells and calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. Although modern medicine has progressed in terms of removal of these stones, recurrence and persistent side effects restricts their use. Strategies involving plant based agents which could be used as adjunct therapy is an area which needs to be explored. Plant proteins having antilithiatic activity is a hitherto unexplored area and therefore, we conducted a detailed identification and characterization of antilithiatic proteins from Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). Proteins were isolated from the dried bark of T. arjuna and those having molecular weights > 3 kDa were subjected to anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration chromatography. Four proteins were identified exhibiting inhibitory activity against CaOx crystallization and crystal growth kinetics The cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic efficacy of these purified proteins was further investigated on oxalate injured renal epithelial cells (MDCK and NRK-52E) wherein, injury due to oxalate was significantly attenuated and led to a dose dependent increase in viability of these cells. These proteins also prevented the interaction of the CaOx crystals to the cell surface and reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Identification of these 4 anionic proteins from the bark of T. arjuna was carried out by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This was followed by database search with the MASCOT server and sequence similarity was found with Nuclear pore anchor, DEAD Box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 45, Lon protease homolog 1 and Heat shock protein 90-3. These novel proteins isolated from T. arjuna have the potential to inhibit CaOx crystallization and promote cell survival and therefore, offer novel avenues which need to be explored further for the medical management of urolithiasis.
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Many studies received high quality scores and noted safety information and reported effectiveness or efficacy in a clear manner. This finding was not consistent with other systematic reviews that have found the highest reported efficacy/ effectiveness in studies of poorer quality. Ayurvedic herbs reviewed here should be considered by physicians when trying to manage hyperlipidemia in their patients.
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Rats were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia simulated to an altitude of 27,000 ft. in a decompression chamber for 12h. T. arjuna bark extract was administered at a single dose of 150 mg/kg (p.o.) to male Sprague Dawley rats (200 ± 20 g) 30 min prior to exposure. Total urine volume was measured during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The animals were then investigated for cerebral vascular leakage and serum concentration of sodium, potassium, renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP).
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For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination.
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In vitro studies demonstrate the ability of Salacia to inhibit intestinal alpha glucosidase. In mouse mesenteric fat it enhances the mRNA expression for hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adiponectin; thus increasing lipolysis and reducing insulin resistance respectively. In 3 T3-L-1 adipocytes lipogenesis factors are down regulated and lipolysis factors are up regulated with Salacia reticulata treatment. Animal studies and clinical trials are consistent in demonstrating improvement of glucose concentrations in the fasted and sucrose and maltose loaded states. Clinically significant reductions of HbA1C and plasma Insulin are reported with treatment of 6 weeks to 3 months. One clinical trial reported significant reduction of weight and BMI when Salacia is used in combination with vitamin D. Salacia reticulata effectively improves insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and reduces obesity. A larger evidence base is required from well-planned studies to confirm its efficacy and safety.
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T. arjuna bark extract appears as an innovative active ingredient that exerts versatile antiaging properties in vitro and in vivo.
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Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (HP-LPS) is a potent virulence factor in the causation of gastric ulcer and gastritis. H. pylori-induced gastric pathology is prevalent throughout the world. Herbal medicines are attracting attention because of their traditional values, popularity and belief, as well as for their advantages such as less toxicity, affordability and medicinal value. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-ulcer effect of a methanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against HP-LPS-induced gastric damage in rats. Ulcers were induced with HP-LPS (50 mug per animal) administered orally daily for 3 days. The efficacy of TA on gastric secretory parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, pepsin concentration, and the cytoprotective parameters such as protein-bound carbohydrate complexes in gastric juice and gastric mucosa was assessed. The protective effect of TA was also confirmed by histopathological examination of gastric mucosa. HP-LPS-induced alterations in gastric secretory parameters were altered favourably in rats treated with TA, suggesting that TA has an anti-secretory role. Furthermore, HP-LPS-induced impairments in gastric defence factors were also prevented by treatment with TA. These results suggest that the severe cellular damage and pathological changes caused by HP-LPS are mitigated by TA; these effects are comparable with those of sucralfate. The anti-ulcer effect of TA may reflect its ability to combat factors that damage the gastric mucosa, and to protect the mucosal defensive factors.
No study has assessed the effect of TA extract on cardiac conditioning by improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in young exercising individuals.
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Pre-treatment with AA effectively prevented the cerebral I/R induced oxidative damage by virtue of its antioxidant potential. These results indicate that supplementation of AA may be beneficial in stroke prone population.
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Various parts of three Terminalia species, namely, Terminalia arjuna (stem bark), Terminalia bellirica (fruit), and Terminalia chebula (fruit) are widely known for their therapeutic principles and other commercial values. However, stem bark of T. bellirica and T. chebula along with Terminalia tomentosa are reported as adulterants of T. arjuna. Correct botanical identification is very critical for safe and effective herbal drugs. DNA-based identification approaches are advancing the conventional methods and sometime proved more beneficial.
Emblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as the Indian gooseberry or "Amla", has been used as health food for centuries in India and other Asian countries. The biological effects of amla have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of the low-molecular weight hydrolysable tannins present in the fruit. Amlamax™ is a purified, standardized, dried extract of amla containing about 35% galloellagi tannins along with other hydrolysable tannins. Our earlier studies on rabbits showed significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides as well as increase in HDL. The present study extends these results to human volunteers. Two doses of the extract were evaluated - 500 mg and 1000 mg per day for 6 months. Blood samples were collected at the 3rd and 6th months showed reduction in total and LDL cholesterols and enhancement of beneficial HDL cholesterol. In addition, blood CRP levels, a marker for inflammation, were also significantly reduced. Since dyslipidemia and inflammation are the two major components of cardiovascular diseases, the present results must be considered encouraging and indicate the potential of Amlamax™ in the management of heart diseases.
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Nearly 50% of diabetic patients worldwide use complementary medicines to treat or supplement their conventional diabetes treatment. Salacia reticulata (Kothala himbutu) is a woody climber used widely in the Ayurvedic system to treat diabetes and obesity.
Forty C. albicans oral isolates (10 isolates each from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, and healthy individuals) were exposed to 3 subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate (0.00125, 0.0025, and 0.005%) for 30 min. Thereafter, the antiseptic was removed and the cell surface hydrophobicity was measured by a biphasic aqueous-hydrocarbon assay.
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Taxol is the most important member of the clinically useful natural anticancer drug. An endophytic fungus Chaetomella raphigera (strain TAC-15) was isolated from a medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna and screened for its potential in Taxol production. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of the fungal culture and the characteristics of the spores. This fungus was grown in MID liquid medium and analyzed by chromatographically and spectrometrically for the presence of Taxol. The amount of Taxol produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified by HPLC which showed that it produced 79.6 microg/L, and further confirmative analyses were done by using UV, IR, FAB mass spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Thus, the fungus can serve as a potential material for fungus engineering to improve the production of Taxol.
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After approval of the institutional animal ethics committee, 22 day old female rats (n = 54) were randomly allocated to 9 groups - Group 1 and Group 2: Vehicle controls, Group 3: Ethinyl estradiol, Group 4: Si (270 mg/kg), Group 5: Sr (270 mg/kg), Group 6: Cr (540 mg/kg), Group 7: Ta (270 mg/kg), Group 8: Ashokarishta (4 ml/kg), Group 9: Si + Sr (135 mg/kg). Variables studied were: Body weight, uterine weight, relative uterine weight, presence of vaginal opening, histomorphology of the uterus and total uterine glycogen content. Parametric data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test.
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The leaves, twigs, stem and bark of T. arjuna were analysed for their protein, phenol, tannin, nitrate, oxalate in addition to vitamin C, anthocyanin and chlorophyll in the leaves. The variation of some of these parameters in the leaves with season and leaf position was also studied. The time course changes in amino acids and protein during seed germination in T. arjuna, showed initial decrease in protein followed by increase at subsequent stages. The seeds contain high level of serine (21.7%) and glutamic acid (22.6%) the later decreased as the germination progressed. After 30 days seeds showed higher amounts of serine (26.0%), valine (2.8%), proline (10.6%), methionine (3.4%), histidine (5.6%) and lysine (7.4%) while threonine, glutamic acid, tyrosine and arginine were in lower amounts than that of initial stage at 0 day.
Aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna prevented MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension which may be attributed to its antioxidant as well as its effects on pulmonary arteriolar wall thickening.
One hundred and five successive patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) presenting to our centre were recruited and using a Latin-square design divided into 3 groups of 35 each. The groups were matched for age, lifestyle and dietary variables, clinical diagnosis and drug treatment status. None of the patients was on lipid-lowering drugs. Supplemental vitamins were stopped for one month before study began and American Heart Association Step II dietary advice was given to all. At baseline, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol and lipid peroxide estimated as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined. Group I received placebo capsules; Group II vitamin E capsules 400 units/day; and Group III received finely pulverized T. arjuna tree bark-powder (500 mg) in capsules daily. Lipids and lipid peroxide levels were determined at 30 days follow-up.
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The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna bark extract in improving cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Wistar Albino rats. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). T. arjuna bark extract, Rosuvastatin and Insulin were tested/administered therapeutically in rat model of uncontrolled diabetes. After 8 weeks of STZ administration, the reflex bradycardia and tachycardia response to hypertension and hypotension, respectively, were impaired in the diabetic group. The reflex bradycardia improved significantly after 1 month treatment of T. arjuna while the reflex tachycardia could not improve. The decreased body weight, heart rate, blood pressure and raised blood sugar in diabetic rats were not improved by T. arjuna therapy. Rosuvastatin treatment exerted similar effects while Insulin improved all the parameters. Further T. arjuna, Rosuvastatin and Insulin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine levels in diabetic rats. Results suggest that T. arjuna bark extract improves the altered baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing cytokine levels.
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Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.
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The present study compares the protective properties of aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants, Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula (black and yellow), Terminalia arjuna, Balsamodendron Mukul and Alium sativum against lipid per-oxidation in mice brain.
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Further clinical research regarding their potency and efficacy vis-à-vis oral hypoglycemics needs to done.
Terminalia arjuna is an important cardiotonic plant described in the Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical science. It is also believed to have the ability to cure hepatic, urogenital, venereal and viral diseases. An attempt is made here to analyse the available drug recipes using this plant from Sanskrit literature in the light of modern scientific knowledge. The chemistry and pharmacology of T. arjuna are also discussed, and areas of future investigations are identified.
Based on our in vitro and in vivo findings and until further clinical drug interaction experiments are conducted, the co-administration of drugs, especially those primarily cleared via CYP2D catalyzed metabolism, with T. arjuna extracts should be done with caution.
Even a limited exposure to sublethal concentrations of amphotericin B suppressed growth of Candida species of oral origin. The significant variation in amphotericin B-induced PAFE amongst different Candida species may have clinical implications in terms of amphotericin B regimens used in the management of oral candidiasis.