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Artane (Trihexyphenidyl)

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Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.

Other names for this medication:

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Sinemet, Levodopa, Carbidopa, Selegiline, Kemadrin, Benadryl, Cogentin, Banophen, Akineton, Allermax


Also known as:  Trihexyphenidyl.


Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.

name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.

Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.

Brand name of Artane is Artane.


Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.

If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.


If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Artane are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.

Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.

Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.

Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.

artane medication classification

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, or NBIA (formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome). PKAN is characterized by progressive dystonia and basal ganglia iron deposition with onset that usually occurs before age ten years. Commonly associated features include dysarthria, rigidity, and pigmentary retinopathy. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have an 'atypical' presentation with later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.

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The discriminative stimulus properties of scopolamine, a potent antagonist at muscarinic receptors, were used for testing the discriminative effects of drugs known to act on cholinergic transmission. Rats were trained in a standard two-bar operant conditioning procedure with food as the reinforcer, according to a FR10 schedule. The training dose of scopolamine was progressively reduced from 0.25 mg/kg SC to the low dose of 0.062 mg/kg SC. Scopolamine yielded an accurate discrimination in all the six rats tested. The generalization gradient resulted in an ED50 of 0.027 mg/kg. The scopolamine cue lasted for 1 h and was of central origin, since it was not mimicked by scopolamine methylbromide. The scopolamine stimulus generalized to atropine and trihexyphenidyl (respective ED50 values 2.20 and 0.21 mg/kg SC). Atropine depressed rate of responding, while trihexyphenidyl did not. Antagonism experiments with both direct agonists at the muscarinic receptor (arecoline and oxotremorine) and indirect agonists, i.e., inhibitors of the acetylcholine esterase [physostigmine and tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA)], led to inconsistent results. Increasing the doses of the agonists in order to block the scopolamine cue may be limited by their rate suppressant effect on responding. Based upon previously published results, it is suggested that the muscarinic agonist cue is more useful than the antagonist cue for investigating muscarinic transmission.

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1. [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]QNB) binding in rat cerebral and cerebellar synaptosomes had different Bmax values, but similar Kd values. 2. These bindings could be displaced by classic muscarinic agents: pilocarpine (partial agonist), and atropine (antagonist), which both had similar binding affinities in rat cerebral and cerebellar synaptosomes. 3. The new muscarinic M1 selective agents: McN-A-343 (agonist), pirenzepine and trihexyphenidyl (antagonists) and higher affinities for receptor sites in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum. 4. The muscarinic M2 selective agents: carbachol, oxotremorine (agonists), and AF-DX-116 (antagonist) had higher affinities for receptor sites in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. 5. GPP(NH)p (40 microM) decreased the binding affinities of carbachol and oxotremorine in the cerebellum, but not in the cerebrum. However, it did not decrease the binding affinities of all the antagonists studied in both brain regions. 6. These results reveal that more muscarinic M1 sites are present in the cerebrum than in the cerebellum, while the opposite is true for M2 sites. Furthermore, the regulatory role of G-protein on these muscarinic receptor subtypes in the brain is different.

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1. Benzhexol and three of its metabolites excreted in urine in man have been investigated by g.l.c.--mass spectrometry. 2. Three isomeric hydroxylated metabolites were identified as the 1-(hydroxycyclohexyl)-1-phenyl-3-piperidinopropan-1-ols. 3. The amounts of benzhexol and its identified metabolites have been semiquantitatively determined after a single oral dose in two healthy adults. Approx. 56% of the dose was excreted as the hydroxylated metabolites. The levels of benzhexol excreted were too low to be measured by the techniques used.

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We describe a 46-year-old woman who presented with lingual dystonia induced only by speaking, which responded well to anticholinergic treatment.

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92 PD outpatients were enrolled in, including 48 males and 44 females, from 43 to 86 years old (mean 65.6 +/- 17.1) with duration of the disease from 0.2 to 27.8 years (mean 4.4 +/- 9.4). The preference of the drug use from the patients were: 40 (43.5%) preferred taking levodopa, 25 (27.2%) with amantadine and/or trihexyphenidyl, 14 (15.2%) with levodopa and others, 4 (4.4%) with dopamine agonist and others, 2 (2.2%) with other drugs, 7 (7.6%) with no treatment. There were 69 (75.0%) patients onset with resting tremor, 15 (16.3%) with bradykinesia, 6 (6.5%) with rigidity, and 2 (2.2%) with unknown symptoms. There was no startically significant difference in anti-PD drugs among the patients onset with different symptoms (P > 0.05). 45 patients appeared the onset of disease before 65 years old and with no dementia, 47 onset after 65 with or without dementia. There was no significant difference of anti-PD drugs between the two groups (P > 0.05). Most patients initiated anti-PD treatment with levodopa but few of them chose dopamine agonist. According to the classification of Hoehn & Yahr, 25(27.2%)belonged to Grade I, 53 (57.6%) to Grade II, 8 (8.7%) to Grade III, 3 (3.3%) to Grade IV and 3 (3.3%) to Grade V. There was no significant differences of anti-PD drugs between different grades of the disease (P > 0.05). 55.3% of the patients changed their anti-PD drugs randomly during the therapy, but with no relation to their gender, age, educational level, dementia, the number of family members, course of diseases, or the degree of Hoehn & Yahr, frequency and categories of medicine.

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The goal of medical therapy for primary dystonia is conservative. While botulinum toxin (BTX) therapy is a first choice for blepharospasm and cervical dystonia, medical therapy is selected as such for other types of dystonia. As oral medications, trihexyphenidyl and benzodiazepines are most frequently used. Muscle relaxants are also commonly used, but dopamine antagonists are not recommended because of the risk of inducing tardive dyskinesia. For childhood-onset generalized dystonia, levodopa should be considered to rule out levodopa-responsive dystonia. Mexiletine is reported to be effective not only for bleharospasm and cervical dystonia but for focal limb dystonia. To improve the therapeutic performance of BTX therapy for blepharospasm, it is recommended that corrugator supercilii and procerus muscles, as well as orbicularis oculi muscle, be added as target muscles. To improve the therapeutic performance of BTX therapy for cervical dystonia, it is recommended that this therapy be started as early as possible, especially within one year of illness, and that levator scapulae muscle be added as target if necessary. To improve usefulness of medical therapy for dystonia, its strategy must be standardized, and more useful therapies must be positively adopted. Algorithm for treatment of dystonia must also be established and generalized.

artane pediatric dosing

To determine the most adequate strategies for the prevention and treatment of the acute adverse effects of the use of antipsychotics.

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The effects of the "atypical" antipsychotic olanzapine and several other antipsychotics were examined using a conflict schedule. Rats were trained to respond for food on a three-component schedule, comprising variable-interval 30s (food, VI30) and fixed-ratio 10s (food + shock, FR10) components separated by time-out (TO). Olanzapine (0.3125-1.25mg/kg), clozapine (1.25-5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (2.5-5mg/kg) decreased or had no effect on VI30 responding, whereas responding in the FR10 component increased. Chlordiazepoxide (5mg/kg) also increased TO responding. The antipsychotic agents haloperidol (0.125 and 0.25mg/kg), trifluoperazine (0.0625-0.25mg/kg), remoxipride (1.25-5mg/kg) and risperidone (0.0625-0.5mg/kg) decreased V130 responding and either had no effect, or decreased TO and FR10 rates. The anticholinergic agent scopolamine (0.03125-0.25mg/kg) decreased VI30 responding. The 5-HT(2) antagonist ritanserin (2.5 and 5mg/kg) and the anticholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl (2.5 and 5mg/kg) had no effect on responding. Flumezanil (10mg/kg) reduced the anticonflict effect of chlordiazepoxide but not olanzapine. These results further emphasize the unusual profile of olanzapine.

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The biochemical linking event between the activation of muscarinic receptors and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase was studied with rat heart ventrical membranes. The muscarinic M2 selective antagonists were more potent than the M1 selective antagonists in the displacement of non-selective labeled 3H-QNB binding to the membranes. This was also true for the M2 selective agonists, with respect to the M1 selective agonists, in the reaction medium without Gpp(NH)p. With the same preparation, the muscarinic M2 selective agents were also more potent than the M1 selective agents in the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The order of potencies of these agents in the displacement of 3H-QNB binding correlated well with their order of potencies in inhibiting adenylate cyclase activity. Gpp(NH)p reduced the binding affinities of M2 selective agonists (i.e. carbachol and oxotremorine), while it did not affect the binding affinities of non-selective agonist pilocarpine, M1 selective agonist McN-A-343 and antagonists (i.e. pirenzepine, trihexyphenidyl, AF-DX-116 and methoctramine). These results suggest that in the rat heart, the inhibition of adenylate cyclase by muscarinic agonists is through activation of the M2 subtype receptor and G-protein is likely to be involved in the coupling.

artane drug information

There is a great body of evidence, that excitatory amino acid antagonists, apart from their anticonvulsive properties per se, potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. It is worth stressing, that combinations of valproate with either CGP 37849 (a competitive NMDA antagonist) or dizocilpine (MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist), providing a 50% protection against maximal electroshock, resulted in no adverse effects, as measured in the chimney test (motor coordination) or passive avoidance task (long-term memory). On the other hand, valproate administered alone at its ED50, to protect against maximal electroshock, produced profound adverse effects. However, some NMDA antagonists (D-CPP-ene, memantine, procyclidine or trihexyphenidyl) did enhance the protection offered by common antiepileptics but these combined treatments were associated with considerable side-effects on motor coordination and long-term memory. Interestingly, ifenprodil (an antagonist of the polyamine site within the NMDA receptor complex) possessed some anticonvulsive activity against electroconvulsions but failed to enhance the antielectroshock efficacy of conventional antiepileptics. AMPA/KA receptor antagonists (NBQX and GYKI 52466), similarly to NMDA antagonists, potentiated the protective action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock and these combinations were generally devoid of unwanted effects.

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The behavioral effects of a variety of advanced candidate anticonvulsants for organophosphate-induced seizures were evaluated under two rodent 'counting' models. Rats pressed the left of two levers a number of times (a 'run') before pressing the right lever. The targeted performance was a run of 12. The training contingency was a targeted percentile schedule, which provided food if the current run was closer to 12 than two-thirds of the most recent runs. Baseline performance was well controlled by the target, with mean run lengths slightly less than 12. Once this performance was acquired, half the subjects were switched to a procedure providing food following runs of different lengths with a probability yoked to previous percentile schedule performance. The two procedures generate comparable baseline performances, but behavioral disruptions generate reinforcement loss only under the yoked procedure. Atropine, scopolamine, azaprophen, aprophen, trihexyphenidyl, procyclidine, benactyzine, biperiden and diazepam were tested. All produced dose-related decreases in overall run length and response rate. Responding was disrupted more readily under the yoked procedure than under the percentile procedure. Only atropine affected responding at doses below those effective against soman-induced seizures. Of the present candidates, trihexyphenidyl, procyclidine, benactyzine and biperiden appear most promising for further development.

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The absolute configuration of the more active (-)-enantiomer of the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride has been established as (R) by syntheses of (S)-(+)-procyclidine hydrochloride, whose absolute configuration has been established previously, and (S)-(+)-trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride from the same chiral building block, viz. (S)-(-)-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid. Both enantiomers of this chiral synthon were prepared by optical resolution of the corresponding racemate, employing (R)- and (S)-1-phenylethylamine, respectively, as resolving agents.

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In France, the observation and evaluation of drug abuse and dependence associated with pychoactive medications are the responsibility of the National Commission for Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs. In order to assist this commission, several centres for evaluation and information on pharmacodependence (CEIP) were created throughout in France. Recently, in order to complete their epidemiological tools, several centres have developed another pharmacoepidemiological approach using data for refunded prescriptions obtained from the local and regional French Health Insurance database. This article underlines the potential contribution of the Health Insurance database to improving knowledge of drug use in the real-life conditions based on studies performed by the CEIP. Several examples are given showing the extent of the possibilities (population-based studies, cohort studies, development of misuse indicators). In spite of their limitations (e.g. the difference between consumption and delivery), these examples confirm that these database may be a novel tool for CEIP to assess a potential abuse of a medication.

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The limitations of antiparkinsonian treatment strategy when using anticholinergic drugs are determined by their side effects induced through excessive inhibition of parasympathetic functions. In the present study we have investigated the peripheral effects of antiparkinsonian agents on blood levels of concomitantly administered neuroleptic drugs. We have compared the anticholinergic and a dopamine mimetic antiparkinsonian agent in their effects on serum neuroleptic activity (SNA) and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA). Sixteen schizophrenic patients on chronic neuroleptic therapy with steady state neuroleptic levels were receiving either amantadine, 200 mg/day, or anticholinergic drugs (trihexyphenidyl, 10 mg/day, or benztropine, 6 mg/day) for the first 2 weeks, after which the amantadine group was crossed over to anticholinergic and the anticholinergic group to amantadine for the following 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained once a week along with clinical testing. The results indicate that SAA was fivefold higher with benztropine than with trihexyphenidyl and that amantadine had no effect on SAA. Moreover, SNA was not altered either by anticholinergics or amantadine coadministration, indicating that the therapeutic blood neuroleptic levels are not compromised by antiparkinsonian administration.

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A group of 22 patients selected as a result of follow-up examinations of 104 patients with juvenile psychopathlike heboid schizophrenia is described. A specific feature of the disease course in the patients observed consisted in appearance of atypical protracted psychoses after a long-time period of psychopathlike heboid disorders. Peculiarities differentiating this form from the slow-progressive variant of psychopathlike heboid schizophrenia and from paroxysmal schizophrenia with heboid initial stage are presented. The group described occupies an intermediate place between these forms of schizophrenia. A question on the role of aggravation of the disease course with various exogenous adverse factors (noted in all the cases described) is discussed.

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This preliminary study done by abstracting relevant data from different testing material and using multiple rating scales, describes the sociodemographic variables, psychopathological correlates, and features of trihexyphenidyl (artane) abuse in a sample of 14 Saudi psychiatric patients and, as a result of this research, various relevant issues have been discussed.

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The selectivity profiles of the muscarinic receptor antagonists dicyclomine and trihexyphenidyl have been examined in binding and functional studies and compared with those of pirenzepine and atropine. Dicyclomine, trihexyphenidyl and pirenzepine demonstrated the highest affinity for the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype as revealed in competition experiments against [3H]-pirenzepine labelling of cortical membranes. Their affinity values lay in a narrow range (3.7-14 nM) approaching that of atropine (1.6 nM). Competition experiments against [3H]-N-methylscopolamine in cardiac and glandular (salivary) membranes revealed differences between the drugs examined. Dicyclomine, trihexyphenidyl and pirenzepine displayed low affinity for the cardiac and intermediate affinity for the glandular receptors. Thus, the drugs appeared to discriminate between the M1 (cortical) and the peripheral muscarinic subtypes (cardiac and glandular). However, atropine displayed similar affinities for either subtype with IC50s varying only slightly (1.6-4.6 nM). The rank order of selectivity was: pirenzepine greater than dicyclomine greater than trihexyphenidyl greater than atropine. Mirroring the binding data, pirenzepine, dicyclomine and trihexyphenidyl showed a tenfold greater ability at inhibiting M1-receptor mediated ganglionic responses (McN A-343 pressor effect in pithed rats and nictitating membrane contraction in cats) than at inhibiting peripheral muscarinic responses in the heart and cardiovascular smooth muscle (vagal bradycardia in rats and cats and vagally-induced vasodilatation in cats). The muscarinic antagonists so far examined can be categorized into two groups. Trihexyphenidyl, dicyclomine and pirenzepine, included in one group, are characterized by a higher affinity for the neuronal (M1) muscarinic receptor, hence they antagonize functional responses mediated by the M1 subtype. Atropine, a member of the other group, shows essentially no selectivity. 6 Differentiation of M1 and peripheral muscarinic receptor subtypes appears to be a property not confined to tricyclics such as pirenzepine but shared by diverse chemical structures. Both trihexyphenidyl and dicyclomine appear to be useful pharmacological tools in the classification of muscarinic receptor subtypes.

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Dopa-responsive dystonias are rare. We report a 14-year-old male who was diagnosed as a case of limb girdle dystrophy and had features suggestive of dopa-responsive dystonia.

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The effect of three different M1 muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, biperiden, and trihexyphenidyl on memory consolidation was investigated. Rats were trained in a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task and injected intraperitoneally immediately afterwards, either with pirenzepine, biperiden, or trihexyphenidyl (dose range from 0 to 16 mg/kg). The non-selective antimuscarinic compound scopolamine, was also administered for comparison. One day later, rats were tested for retention. Results show that biperiden, trihexyphenidyl and scopolamine produced a dose-dependent impairment of inhibitory avoidance consolidation, while pirenzepine had no effect. The amnestic state produced by biperiden and trihexyphenidyl was comparable to that observed after the administration of scopolamine. These results indicate that the selective blockade of the central M1 muscarinic receptors interfere with memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance and suggest that this receptor subtype is critically involved in mnemonic functions.

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The combination of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl is a dosage form to be used as antidyskinetic agent. Literature revealed that there is no single method for the simultaneous estimation of these drugs in tablet dosage form, which prompted us to develop a simple, rapid, accurate, economical and sensitive spectrophotometric method. The simultaneous estimation method is based on the principle of additivity of absorbance, for the determination of haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in tablet formulation. The absorption maxima of the drugs were found to be at 245.0 nm and 206.0 nm respectively for haloperidol and trihexyphenidyl in methanol and 0.1N HCl (90:10). The obeyance of Beer Lambert's law was observed in the concentration range of 2.5-12.5 µg/ml for haloperidol and 1.0-5.0 µg/ml for trihexyphenidyl. The accuracy and reproducibility of the proposed method was statistically validated by recovery studies.

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Physical examination had a low predictive value in the detection of involved muscles. There was a significant correlation between changes in EMG total scores and changes in clinical measurements. We observed increased EMG activity in 20% of noninjected muscles after BTA treatment and in 27% of noninjected muscles after trihexyphenidyl treatment. A switch from one most active muscle to another was seen equally in both groups and had no influence on clinical response.

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We conducted a prospective study of 20 consecutive patients treated with the anti-cholinergic agent trihexyphenidyl after bilateral STN-DBS and assessed the effect of anti-cholinergic therapy on parkinsonism 1 month after its initiation using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).

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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading cause of intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the FMR1 gene, and mice in which Fmr1 has been inactivated have been used extensively as a preclinical model for FXS. We investigated the behavioral pharmacology of drugs acting through dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems in fragile X (Fmr1 (-/Y)) mice with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and locomotor activity measurements. We also measured brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Fmr1 (-/Y) mice were more sensitive than wild type mice to the rewarding effects of cocaine, but less sensitive to its locomotor stimulating effects. Anhedonic but not motor depressant effects of the atypical neuroleptic, aripiprazole, were reduced in Fmr1 (-/Y) mice. The mGluR5-selective antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), was more rewarding and the preferential M1 antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, was less rewarding in Fmr1 (-/Y) than wild type mice. Motor stimulation by MPEP was unchanged, but stimulation by trihexyphenidyl was markedly increased, in Fmr1 (-/Y) mice. Numbers of midbrain TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area were unchanged, but were lower in the substantia nigra of Fmr1 (-/Y) mice, although no changes in TH levels were found in their forebrain targets. The data are discussed in the context of known changes in the synaptic physiology and pharmacology of limbic motor systems in the Fmr1 (-/Y) mouse model. Preclinical findings suggest that drugs acting through multiple neurotransmitter systems may be necessary to fully address abnormal behaviors in individuals with FXS.

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1. The influence of two anticholinergic drugs (atropine, trihexyphenidyle) on the effectiveness of antidotal treatment to eliminate soman-induced lethal effects and convulsions was studied in rats. 2. The oxime HI-6 when combined with centrally acting anticholinergic drug trihexyphenidyle seems to be more efficacious in the elimination of acute toxic effects of soman than its combination with atropine. 3. The findings support the hypothesis that the choice of the anticholinergic drug is important for the effectiveness of antidotal mixture in the case of antidotal treatment of soman-induced acute poisoning.

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The interactions of various unlabelled antimuscarinic drugs with the muscarinic receptors in the cerebral cortex, heart and urinary bladder were studied by a receptor binding technique, using (-)[3H]QNB as radioligand. In contrast to the other drugs examined, dicyclomine, benzhexol, oxybutynine and pirenzepine were bound with a significantly higher affinity in the cortex than in the heart and bladder. Furthermore, not only pirenzepine, but also dicyclomine and benzhexol were capable of distinguishing between two populations of muscarinic binding sites in the cortex. The low affinity sites for these drugs in the cortex were characterised by dissociation constants which were similar to those determined in the heart and the bladder, respectively. It was concluded that dicyclomine and benzhexol, like pirenzepine, are selective antagonists at the putative M1-receptor. Oxybutynine exhibited the same affinity profile but the tissue selectivity of this drug was less pronounced.

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We inspected the results of the search to identify relevant studies. We were to extract data onto standard, simple forms. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. The risk of bias was to be assessed using the Cochrane risk assessment tool. For binary outcomes, we were to calculate a standard estimation of the risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous outcomes, we were to estimate the mean difference between groups.

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A patient with Meige syndrome associated with spasmodic torticollis was treated with benztropine mesylate (Cogentin) at doses of 12-16 mg daily. Marked suppression of both oromandibular dystonia and the torticollis was obtained. Mild impairment of recent memory was the major side effect. Peripheral anticholinergic side effects were controlled by the concomitant administration of ambenonium chloride (Mytelase) 15 mg daily.

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There are few reports in the literature and scarce research on the topic and the treatment of antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence or nocturnal enuresis (NE) despite the significant frequency of these adverse effects.Treatment for antipsychotic medication-induced urinary incontinence has been reported in relation to clozapine with response to numerous pharmacological strategies such as ephedrine, oxybutynin, intranasal desmopressin, trihexyphenidyl, and amitriptyline.We report a case of NE induced by risperidone which has been successfully treated with reboxetine.To the best of our knowledge, this article is the first report of an atypical antipsychotic medication-induced NE treated with reboxetine.Reboxetine may be an effective treatment for risperidone-induced NE. Further research is required to confirm our finding and apply this treatment for NE caused by other neuroleptics.

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The subcellular distribution of biperiden (BP), trihexyphenidyl (TP) and (-)-quinuclidinyl benzylate (QNB) in brain, heart and lung following high dose (3.2 mg/kg) i.v. administration was investigated in rats. The subcellular distribution of BP or TP used clinically conformed with that of QNB, a typical potent central muscarinic antagonist. The concentration-time courses of the brain subcellular fractions for these drugs were of two types which decreased slowly and in parallel to the plasma concentration. The subcellular distribution in the brain and heart was dependent on the protein amount of each fraction. The percent post-nuclear fraction (P2) of the total concentration in the lung was characteristically about 3-5 times larger than that in the heart. It was elucidated that the distribution in the lung differs from that in the brain and heart, with high affinity which is not dependent on the protein amount in the P2 fraction containing lysosomes. On the other hand, at a low dose (650 ng/kg) of 3H-QNB, each fraction as a percentage of the total concentration in the brain increased in synaptic membrane and synaptic vesicles and decreased in nuclei and cytosol as compared with the high dose. These results show that although the tissue concentration-time courses of anticholinergic drugs appear to decrease simply in parallel to plasma concentration, the subcellular distribution exhibits a variety of patterns among various tissues.

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artane user reviews 2015-08-11

92 PD outpatients were enrolled in, including 48 males and 44 females, from 43 to 86 years old (mean 65.6 +/- 17.1) with duration of the disease from 0.2 to 27.8 years (mean 4.4 +/- 9.4). The preference of the drug use from the patients were: 40 (43.5%) preferred taking levodopa, 25 (27.2%) with amantadine and/or trihexyphenidyl, 14 (15.2%) with levodopa and others, 4 (4.4%) with dopamine agonist and others, 2 (2.2%) with other drugs, 7 (7.6%) with no treatment. There were 69 (75.0%) patients onset with resting tremor, 15 (16.3%) with bradykinesia, 6 (6.5%) with rigidity, and 2 (2.2%) with unknown symptoms. There was no startically significant difference buy artane in anti-PD drugs among the patients onset with different symptoms (P > 0.05). 45 patients appeared the onset of disease before 65 years old and with no dementia, 47 onset after 65 with or without dementia. There was no significant difference of anti-PD drugs between the two groups (P > 0.05). Most patients initiated anti-PD treatment with levodopa but few of them chose dopamine agonist. According to the classification of Hoehn & Yahr, 25(27.2%)belonged to Grade I, 53 (57.6%) to Grade II, 8 (8.7%) to Grade III, 3 (3.3%) to Grade IV and 3 (3.3%) to Grade V. There was no significant differences of anti-PD drugs between different grades of the disease (P > 0.05). 55.3% of the patients changed their anti-PD drugs randomly during the therapy, but with no relation to their gender, age, educational level, dementia, the number of family members, course of diseases, or the degree of Hoehn & Yahr, frequency and categories of medicine.

artane overdose symptoms 2017-01-18

Retrospective study was conducted in patients with SJS and TEN treated from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 in Dr buy artane . Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia.

artane overdose 2017-07-27

Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is replacing trihexyphenidyl as the treatment of choice for idiopathic cervical dystonia (ICD), but buy artane there has never been a direct comparative study.

artane drug action 2015-12-28

Routine clinical pharmacokinetic data gathered from patients receiving haloperidol were analysed to estimate buy artane population pharmacokinetic parameters with the nonlinear mixed effects model (NONMEM) computer program.

artane windows reviews 2016-06-14

We studied the effect of anti-cholinergic therapy on buy artane axial symptoms that show a tendency to worsen over time after deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).

artane dosage 2017-03-18

There is increasing evidence that the P 100 peak of the pattern-reversal visual-evoked potential (VEP-PR) is delayed by drug-induced buy artane dopamine antagonism and in Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have reported that components of the flash-VEP (VEP-F) are delayed by an anticholinergic which does not affect the VEP-PR. The present study found that a single dose of chlorpromazine increased the latencies of the VEP-PR and of the VEP-F and increased the VEP-F P2 amplitude. Trihexyphenidyl increased the VEP-PR amplitude but had only minor effects on the VEP-F. There was a tendency for imipramine to increase VEP-F latencies, especially the N3 peak, but had no effect on the VEP-PR. Both VEPs were unaffected by diazepam. These VEP findings add further support to the role of dopamine in the human visual system. Possible reasons are advanced for the failure of trihexyphenidyl to cause previously reported VEP changes associated with hyoscine hydrobromide. Several important issues need to be addressed by future research.

artane drug wikipedia 2016-07-05

A group of antiparkinson drugs (benactyzine, biperiden, caramiphen, procyclidine, and trihexyphenidyl) has been shown to possess both anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic properties, making these agents very well suited as anticonvulsants against nerve agents. The first purpose of this study was to make a comparative assessment of the anticonvulsant potencies of buy artane the antiparkinson agents when microinfused (1 microl) into the seizure controlling area tempestas (AT) of rats 20 min before subcutaneous injection of soman (100 microg/kg). The second purpose was to determine whether cholinergic and/or glutamatergic antagonism was the effective property. The results showed that only procyclidine (6 microg) and caramiphen (10 microg) antagonized soman-induced seizures. Cholinergic, and not glutamatergic, antagonism was likely the active property, since atropine (100 microg), and scopolamine (1 microg) caused anticonvulsant effects, whereas MK-801 (1 microg), and ketamine (50 microg) did not. Soman (11 nmol) injected into AT resulted more frequently in clonic convulsions than full tonic-clonic convulsions. AT may serve as both a trigger site for soman-evoked seizures and a site for screening anticonvulsant potencies of future countermeasures.

artane max dose 2016-04-27

Myoclonic dystonia is a rare disorder that occurs in an hereditary and a sporadic form. The autosomal-dominantly inherited form is responsive to alcohol but not to other drugs. The sporadic form has been relatively resistant to drug treatment. We report a young man with myoclonic dystonia who displayed only little response to alcohol but improved significantly with a combination of sodium valproate for myoclonus and trihexiphenidyl hydrochloride for dystonia. His rehabilitation, however, was confounded buy artane by public authorities who thought the patient's appearance was indicative of drug use.

artane pill sizes 2017-01-12

Treatment of schizophrenia depends heavily on neuroleptic drugs. Hypersalivation is a common side effect when people buy artane with schizophrenia are treated with neuroleptic drugs. Hypersalivation can be an embarrassing and stigmatising problem, can affect quality of life and can result in discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment. It can also be difficult to treat.

artane medication dystonia 2017-02-20

An 18-year-old schizophrenic female was recently treated after overdosing on trihexyphenidyl, thioridazine and an unknown antidepressant. On presentation to a local hospital, she was cyanotic with dilatated pupils and in acute respiratory failure. She was intubated prior to transfer. While in our Emergency Department, she exhibited occasional premature ventricular contractions which later became intermittent torsade de pointes. As this was an anticholinergic overdose we infused sodium bicarbonate in an attempt to increase protein binding, hoping to decrease the concentration of toxic metabolites. We also tried to suppress the dysrhythmia by infusing magnesium. The potassium level was borderline low so a supplemental infusion was initiated. Defibrillation was attempted. To try to shorten the action potential duration by activating the K+ channel, an isuprel infusion was also attempted. All methods failed. The patient fluctuated between an irregular sinus rhythm with prolonged QT interval and pulseless torsade de pointes for almost 24 hours. At all times, she responded appropriately to pain. Finally we attempted blockade of the calcium channel using verapamil with dramatic results. Each single bolus (0.1 mg/kg) successfully converted the patient back to sinus rhythm for some buy artane 15-20 minutes before the torsade recurred. After the initiation of a continuous verapamil infusion (0.005 mg/kg/hr), the patient remained in stable sinus rhythm. Verapamil proved highly effective in this patient with an anticholinergic overdose induced dysrhythmia.

artane maximum dose 2016-03-15

The aim of this study was to assess trihexyphenidyl in reducing overall dystonia, improving upper limb function, and achieving goals in children with dystonic cerebral palsy. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted with 16 participants at a tertiary children's hospital. Assessments were performed at baseline, week 12, and week 28. The primary outcome measure was the Barry-Albright Dystonia scale for global assessment of dystonia. Secondary measures included the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, and Goal Attainment Scale. A total of 14 children (88%) completed the study. Mean baseline Barry-Albright Dystonia score was 18.4 (95% confidence interval, 15.5-21.2). There were no significant treatment effects as measured by change in outcome scores. There were significant order effects for both the Goal Attainment Scale and performance aspect of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Side buy artane effects were common. Larger experimental trials with more narrowly defined functional levels are indicated.

artane drug information 2017-08-10

A retrospective study of 13 patients (4 males/9 females) with acquired hemidystonia in childhood is reported. The mean age of onset of hemidystonia was 6.4 years (range 1-13.4 years); the mean duration of dystonia at the time of last follow-up was 11.4 years (range 3.6-23 years). Hemidystonia was caused by ischemic infarction in 9 patients and was attributed to perinatal trauma in 1; in 4 of the 9 patients with stroke and in the remaining 3 patients laboratory investigations were suggestive of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Eleven of the 13 patients had delayed onset of dystonia: between 1 month and 8.9 years (mean 3.4 years). Ten patients had neuroradiological evidence of contralateral basal ganglia damage. A history of hemiparesis and evidence of striatal damage on CT or MRI were important risk factors for the development of dystonia. Response to medical treatment (trihexyphenidyl dose as high as 40 mg daily) in 5 patients was disappointing; 4 of the 5 patients who underwent functional stereotaxic operations were improved, but dystonia was still present at the end of the follow-up. Our study provides additional evidence that lesions of the striatum may buy artane induce dystonia, supporting the theory of striatopallido-thalamic disconnection. Furthermore, our results indicate that the occurrence of delayed dystonia must be considered in the diagnostic approach to childhood-onset dystonia.

artane medication 2017-11-02

Continuous spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) in a Y-maze is used for evaluating working memory in rodents. Here, the design of an automated Y-maze equipped with three infrared optocouplers per arm, and commanded by a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is described. The software was devised for recording only true entries and exits to the arms. Experimental settings are programmed via a keyboard with three buttons and a display. The sequence of arm entries and the time spent in each arm and the neutral zone (NZ) are saved as a text file in a non-volatile memory for later transfer to a USB flash memory. Data files are analyzed with a program developed under Priligy Cheap LabVIEW® environment, and the results are exported to an Excel® spreadsheet file. Variables measured are: latency to exit the starting arm, sequence and number of arm entries, number of alternations, alternation percentage, and cumulative times spent in each arm and NZ. The automated Y-maze accurately detected the SAB decrease produced in rats by the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl, and its reversal by caffeine, having 100 % concordance with the alternation percentages calculated by two trained observers who independently watched videos of the same experiments. Although the values of time spent in the arms and NZ measured by the automated system had small discrepancies with those calculated by the observers, Bland-Altman analysis showed 95 % concordance in three pairs of comparisons, while in one it was 90 %, indicating that this system is a reliable and inexpensive alternative for the study of continuous SAB in rodents.

artane drug class 2015-10-28

We report a case of a 67-year-old woman who had dopa-responsive dystonia of late onset with diurnal fluctuations. She was well until the age of 65 years, when she noted the insidious onset of involuntary movements mainly involving the neck and trunk. She had no family history of movement disorders and had never received neuroleptics. Two years after her symptoms began, she visited our clinic. Neurological examination revealed slow repetitive extension and flexion movements of the neck and trunk, and irregular slow movements involving the mouth, tongue and limbs. The cranial nerves, cerebellar function, muscle strength, deep reflexes and sensory function were intact. Clinically and electromyographically, dystonia was characteristic of her involuntary movements. No parkinsonian features were present. The involuntary movements showed diurnal fluctuations that improved after sleep and the administration of L-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl. Dopamine receptor blocking agents aggravated her condition. Routine blood chemistry including copper metabolism, cerebrospinal fluid findings, and brain CT scan were all normal. Dopa-responsive dystonia is characterized by onset in childhood or adolescence and is Buy Cheap Accutane frequently associated with parkinsonian features. Our patient had non-hereditary neck and trunk dystonia of late onset that responded to L-DOPA. Her disorder may constitute a specific form of dopa-responsive dystonia.

artane drug interactions 2017-10-26

Studies on the circadian rhythm of urine excretion in healthy men have demonstrated that the maximal urine flow occurs in the early afternoon and the minimal around midnight. In this study, an abnormality in the variation of urine volume was found in parkinsonian patients. Urine samples were collected during daytime (9:00-21:00) and nighttime (21:00-9:00). Fifteen healthy control subjects were examined and found to excrete 60% during the daytime and 40% during the nighttime of the total urine volume. Sixteen parkinsonian patients excreted 43% during the daytime and 57% during the nighttime. In contrast to the control Evista 10 Mg subjects, the parkinsonian patients excreted a smaller volume of their urine during the daytime than during the nighttime. This finding might be related to the degeneration of dopaminergic and/or nondopaminergic neurons in the brain which control urinary excretion.

artane pediatric dosing 2015-07-22

Twenty-five percent of 80 consecutive patients who met research criteria for persistent tardive dyskinesia (TD) were found to have an energy peak in the parkinsonian tremor band (3-6 Hz) of the frequency spectrum of their machine-measured resting hand movements in addition to the abnormalities consistent with TD (increased energy in the 0.5-3 Hz frequency spectrum). Twelve of these patients were studied again in double-blind fashion 2 hours after receiving a placebo and again 2 Desyrel 5 Mg hours after a single 4 mg dose of trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride (HCl). Compared with the placebo condition, the trihexyphenidyl HCl markedly diminished the measured energy in the 4 Hz band and had no effect or slightly decreased the energy at all other points on the frequency spectrum. Simultaneous Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale ratings revealed no change in the dyskinetic movements between the conditions; there was a significant subjective improvement reported by the patients following the trihexyphenidyl HCl administration. These observations indicate that electromechanical devices identify a subpopulation of TD patients who may acutely benefit from anticholinergic treatment.

artane 2mg tab 2015-01-29

Vertical pendular nystagmus developed 4 months after massive brainstem hemorrhage due to eclampsia. The symptom markedly improved with chronic trihexyphenidyl treatment Antabuse Half Dose .

artane reviews 2017-09-18

Our findings suggest that immune response and neuroinflammation represent a Trileptal 600 Mg pivotal mechanism in THP-induced AD-like neuropathology processes with long-term exposure to AC drugs.

artane tab 2016-06-21

The authors used tremography to record the bilateral digital tremor of a patient showing extrapyramidal system effects in response to withdrawal from phenothiazines. They found that changes in the amplitude of Singulair 5mg Dosage tremor correlated with clinical ratings of extrapyramidal disturbance. Changes in the amplitude and in the spectrum of tremor were similar to the bipolar paradoxical changes seen during intoxication with an anticholinergic psychotogen.

artane drug abuse 2016-01-28

We present a case of long-term trihexyphenidyl (THP) abuse in which memory and cognitive impairments were observed 23 years after the commencement of medication. This case showed a dramatic improvement after withdrawal of THP. Clinical course during admission was followed with psychometric testing and laboratory examinations. The fact that the patient showed no evidence Nexium 20 Mg of lowered alertness during the clinical course raises the possibility that THP can primarily induce impairment of memory and cognitive functions. This is supported by the findings on the resting EEG of the patient. This case emphasizes the need to exercise caution in prescribing high doses of anticholinergic agents for long periods, particularly in elderly patients with underlying brain pathology.

artane tablets 2016-12-17

This trial compares the effectiveness of BTA with that of trihexyphenidyl in a prospective, randomized, double-blind design. Sixty-six consecutive patients with ICD were randomized to treatment with trihexyphenidyl tablets plus placebo injection or placebo tablets plus BTA injections. Tablets were administered daily according to a fixed schedule. Dysport or saline was injected under EMG guidance at study entry and again after 8 weeks. Patients were assessed for Celexa 80 Mg efficacy at baseline and after 12 weeks by different clinical rating scales.

artane medication uses 2017-06-01

Currently there is not a fully effective therapeutic option for drooling. We recommend starting treatment with trihexyphenidyl. A second option could be the scopolamine Hyzaar 50 Mg patch and botulinum toxin as a third option. Botulinum toxin infiltration in salivary glands is shown as an effective and safe alternative in our study.

artane medication trihexyphenidyl 2015-11-28

Trihexyphenidyl (THP) is a drug commonly used to reduce parkinsonian symptoms. An important side effect of Vantin Antibiotic Dosage this agent is memory impairment. Since caffeine enhances the potency of THP to inhibit haloperidol-induced catalepsy, caffeine may be used as an adjuvant of lower doses of THP, in order to improve its antiparkinsonian effects without causing memory disruption. To further assess the synergism between caffeine and THP, both drugs were tested in reserpinized rats, another preclinical model of Parkinson's disease. Four groups of rats (n = 7) were treated with reserpine (5 mg/kg, i.p.). A control group (n = 7) was treated only with the vehicle for reserpine (dimethylsulphoxide). The spontaneous locomotor behavior was tested 24 h later in a box with infrared sensors, 30 min after receiving one of the following treatments: distilled water (1 ml/kg), caffeine (1 mg/kg), THP (0.1 mg/kg) or caffeine plus THP. The levels of horizontal locomotion (14 +/- 5%) and vertical exploration (15 +/- 10%) were significantly lower in reserpinized rats treated with distilled water, compared with the mean activity values (100%) recorded in animals pretreated only with the vehicle for reserpine. The reserpine-induced hypokinesia was neither reversed by caffeine alone nor by THP alone. However, the combination of caffeine plus THP restored locomotion (141 +/- 19%) and vertical exploration (82 +/- 17%) to levels not significantly different to those of non-reserpinized rats. Moreover, the time-course of locomotion and exploration displayed the characteristic habituation over time, in which short-term memory processes are involved. Also, the thigmotaxis index indicated that the combined treatment did not induce anxiety-like behavior. Hence, these results support the proposal that low, subthreshold doses of caffeine plus THP have the potential to alleviate the motor disabilities in parkinsonian patients, with a low risk of causing anxiety or memory impairment.

artane brand name 2017-05-16

Experiments were carried out in mice to investigate the influence of diazepam (DZP) on dexamphetamine, parachloro-N-methylamphetamine (pCMA), cocaine, morphine, trihexyphenidyl or (in MAOIs pretreated) reserpine induced motor hyperactivity. The interaction of DZP with these hyperactivities in which probably different biochemical central mechanisms are involved allows to construct a profile of action of DZP and to approach its mechanism of action. The locomotor hyperactivities induced by dexamphetamine, pCMA, morphine, cocaine were not reduced by DZP even by doses which decrease spontaneous locomotor activity; low doses of DZP enhance the hyperactivity induced by these compounds. Those induced by trihexyphenidyle or by reserpine (after MAOI) were reduced by DZP at doses which produce no decrease in spontaneous motor activity. Inasmuch as DZP at low doses potentiates the effects of 4 different substances, the results can hardly be satisfactorily explained neither by an interference of the benzodiazepine on the metabolism of the drugs or by a depression of the anxiogenic action of dexamphetamine. Even though Co Diovan Tablets it may be difficult to relate the antagonism of DZP on trihexyphenidyl- or on reserpine- (after MAOI) induced motor hyperactivity to the suggested anticholinergic and dopaminergic actions of DZP, these effects may partly be involved in the increase in locomotor hyperactivity induced by dexamphetamine, morphine, or cocaine. The observed effect of DZP on pCMA induced locomotor hyperactivity does not support a possible antiserotonine action often suggested to explain the effects of benzodiazepines in conflict situations.

artane cost 2015-09-06

The antiemetic effects of droperidol, diphenidol, and placebo were compared in 210 patients subjected to minor gynecologic or urologic procedures. Atropine (0.6 mg), meperidine (1 mg/kg) body mass, and either droperidol (5 mg), diphenidol (40 mg), or 2 ml of 0.9% saline were administered IM, 1 hour before general anesthesia. Trial drugs were presented in coded ampules so that the study was conducted double-blind. Droperidol appeared superior to both diphenidol (p less than 0.01) and placebo (p less than 0.001) in the prevention of vomiting, and reduced the incidence of nausea when compared to saline (p less than 0.05). Forty-four patients experienced side effects, which occurred with similar frequency in the 3 groups studied.

artane 2 mg 2016-07-02

Runner's dystonia has previously been described in small series or case reports as a lower limb, task-specific dystonia. We have occasionally encountered this disorder and recognized the same phenomenon in non-runners regularly engaging in lower limb exercise. We wished to characterize the syndrome further, including outcomes, treatment, and the diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiology.

artane medication class 2015-08-14

This 12-year-old boy presented with the complaint of difficulty in standing up and walking for 2 months. Neurological examination revealed generalized rigidity, bradykinesia, impaired postural reflexes, and a mask-like facies. The initial diagnosis of Juvenile Parkinson Disease was made. He had no improvement with levodopa, trihexyphenidyl, tetrabenazine and clonazepam. The EEG showed irregular background activity with generalized slow waves which were not suppressed with diazepam injection. SSPE was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid.

artane 1 mg 2015-11-23

A variety of muscarinic antagonists are currently used as tools to pharmacologically subclassify muscarinic receptors into M1, M2 and M3 subtypes. In the present study, we have determined the affinity profiles of several of these antagonists at five cloned human muscarinic receptors (m1-m5) stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). At all five receptors, the (R)-enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl and hexbutinol displayed considerably higher affinities (up to 525-fold) than their corresponding (S)-isomers. The stereoselectivity ratios [inhibition constant(S)/inhibition constant(R)] for both pairs of enantiomers were lowest at m2 receptors, suggesting that less stringent configurational demands are made by this receptor subtype. The "M1-selective" antagonist (R)-trihexyphenidyl displayed high affinities for m1 and m4 receptors. The "M2-selective" antagonists himbacine, (+-)-5,11-dihydro-11- ([(2-[(dipropylamino)methyl]-1- piperidinyl)ethyl)amino]carbonyl)-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6- one (AF-DX 384), 11-[4-[4-(diethylamino)butyl]-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11- dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b) (1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one (AQ-RA 741) and (+)-(11-[2-[(diethylamino) methyl]-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-di-hydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4) benzodiazepine-6-one [AF-DX 250; the (+)-enantiomer of AF-DX 116] exhibited high affinities for m2 and m4, intermediate affinities for m1 and m3 and low affinities for m5 receptors. This selectivity profile was most prominent for AQ-RA 741, which displayed 195- and 129-fold higher affinities for m2 and m4 receptors than for m5 receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

artane and alcohol 2015-09-29

We report observations on the treatment of 66 patients with presumed dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD). Forty-seven of these patients had hereditary disease; 19 had disease of sporadic occurrence. Initial diagnostic confusion with "cerebral palsy" or "spastic diplegia" existed in 16 patients. Several patients benefited from anticholinergic medications and a few from carbamazepine. Levodopa was the most effective treatment in all cases. In the majority, there was an excellent response, with continued long-term clinical stability on levodopa therapy for as long as 10 to 22 years. Four men with sporadic disease and 1 woman with a sister affected with adolescent-onset parkinsonism had similar initial treatment response, but developed "wearing-off" and a less satisfactory response to levodopa within the first few years of treatment. This indicates that some patients with clinical syndromes suggestive of DRD may not have an excellent prognosis on long-term levodopa treatment and may represent misclassified cases of childhood-onset parkinsonism.

artane medication dosage 2017-03-24

In this paper, a novel chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of benzhexol has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between sulfite and acidic cerium(IV). A mechanism for the CL reaction has been proposed on the basis of CL spectra. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method allows the measurement of benzhexol hydrochloride over the range 0.1-10 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992 (n = 8), a detection limit of 0.02 microg/mL (3sigma), and a relative standard deviation for 2.0 microg/mL benzhexol (n = 11) of 1.65%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining benzhexol hydrochloride in tablets.