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Azulfidine (Sulfasalazine)

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Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Sulfasalazine.


Generic Azulfidine is used for the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis, as adjunctive therapy (with other medications) in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, for the treatment of Crohn's disease, for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Generic Azulfidine is a sulfonamide that decreases inflammation and help regulate the immune system in various areas of the body.

Azulfidine is also known as Sulfasalazine.

Generic name of Generic Azulfidine is Sulfasalazine.

Brand name of Generic Azulfidine is Azulfidine.


Doses range: from 500 mg to 2000 mg, and dosing intervals range: from every 6 hours to every 12 hours, depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Generic Azulfidine should be taken with a full glass of water after meals or with food to minimize stomach upset.

Patients with kidney diseases may need to use lower doses of Generic Azulfidine.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Azulfidine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Azulfidine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Azulfidine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you are allergic to Generic Azulfidine components or to a salicylate (eg, aspirin) or a sulfonamide (eg, sulfisoxazole).

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Azulfidine if you have the blood disease porphyria or a blockage of the intestine or urinary tract.

Some medical conditions may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you have kidney or liver problems, a blood disorder, a gastrointestinal infection, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, or asthma.

Some medicines may interact with Generic Azulfidine.

Be veru careful with Generic Azulfidine if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or methotrexate because the actions and side effects of these medicines may be increased; anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) or beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because their effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Azulfidine; methenamine because the risk of crystals in the urine is increased.

Do not share this medicine with others for whom it was not prescribed.

Do not use this medicine for other health conditions.

If using this medicine for an extended period of time, obtain refills before your supply runs out.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Azulfidine taking suddenly.

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This study was performed to develop ultrasound composite scores for the assessment of inflammatory and structural lesions in Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA).

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Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. In the adalimumab group/placebo group the 12-month cumulative triamcinolone doses were 5.4/7.0 ml (p=0.08). Triple therapy was applied in 18/27 patients (p=0.17). At 12 months, DAS28CRP<3.2 was reached in 80%/76% (p=0.65) and DAS28CRP was 2.0 (1.7-5.2) (medians (5th/95th percentile ranges)), versus 2.6 (1.7-4.7) (p=0.009). Remission rates were: DAS28CRP<2.6: 74%/49%, Clinical Disease Activity Index≤2.8: 61%/41%, Simplified Disease Activity Index<3.3: 57%/37%, European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology Boolean: 48%/30% (0.0008

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Most drugs used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can have fatal side effects, but there are no good data on the frequency of such complications. Our study was designed to obtain information on deaths attributable to different antirheumatic drugs.

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We report the case of a male patient with Crohn's disease associated with IgA nephropathy. He was treated surgically for the intestinal disorder and then with corticoids and sulfasalazine. Six years after treatment the patient was asymptomatic. As the intestinal situation improved there was concomitant normalization of urinary sediment, maintaining renal function. The fact that the digestive mucosa is one of the body's major sources of secretory IgA may account for the existence of a common for Crohn's disease and certain forms of IgA nephropathy.

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This review deals with potential and possibly primary therapeutics that, through insight into the inflammatory cascade, result in more rational treatment principles replacing the classical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These new therapies might be useful for IBD patients, especially since the 'classical therapy' with agents like glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, mesalazine, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporin and methotrexate is often only moderately effective and may have important side-effects. Controlled trials of the novel agents mentioned in this review have not yet been performed, however.

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To compare statistical models for the analysis of two-state disease processes.

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Included patients were randomized to either: 1. initial DMARD-monotherapy (sulfasalazine (SSZ) or methotrexate (MTX)), 2. Initial MTX / prednisolone-bridging, 3. Initial combination MTX/etanercept. Percentage inactive disease, adjusted (a) ACR Pedi30, 50 and 70 and JADAS after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment (intention to treat analysis) and side effects are reported.

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In comparison with both SSZ and ST, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of CSA in terms of the mean changes in the pain score (p < 0.05), which was considered the primary response variable. A significant decrease in favor of CSA versus ST alone was also observed for swollen joint count (p = 0.05), tender joint count (p = 0.01), joint/pain tenderness score (p = 0.002), patient and physician global assessment by at least one point (p = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively), total Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale score (p = 0.002), and spondylitis functional index (p = 0.002). There was a statistically significant difference in the ACR 50% and ACR 70% response rates between the CSA and ST groups (p = 0.02, 0.05). Comparing the SSZ and ST alone groups, only the spondylitis functional index decreased significantly in the SSZ treated patients (p = 0.03). The Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was significantly lower in the CSA than in the ST and SSZ groups (p = 0.0001 and 0.01, respectively). Decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significant only in the SSZ versus the ST group (p = 0.02), whereas reduction in C-reactive protein was significant in the CSA treated patients compared with the ST group (p = 0.006). The most common adverse event in the CSA group was mild, reversible kidney dysfunction.

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The interaction of pregnancy and the rheumatic diseases varies, ranging from life-threatening conditions such as thromboembolic events and progressive renal disease in some autoimmune disorders, to minor flares of peripheral arthritis in inflammatory rheumatic disease. As a consequence, treatment strategy will vary according to the maternal or fetal compromise expected. All nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including high dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), can cause adverse effects during pregnancy related to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Prolongation of gestation and labour, constriction of the ductus arteriosus, persistent fetal circulation, impairment of renal function and bleeding are risks of third trimester exposure of pregnant women to all inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. Most of these adverse effects can be prevented by discontinuing NSAIDs 8 weeks prior to delivery. Low dose aspirin has not been associated with fetal or neonatal toxicity. Some corticosteroids such as prednisone and prednisolone do not readily cross the placenta and can be safely used during pregnancy as immunosuppressive drugs. Maternal complications related to corticosteroids may occur and close monitoring is therefore mandatory. There is limited information on the safety of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including gold, antimalarials, penicillamine (D-penicillamine), sulfasalazine and cyclosporin. Of these agents, sulfasalazine has the best record for tolerability and can be used by pregnant patients. Gold compounds and penicillamine should be discontinued when pregnancy is recognised. Hydroxychloroquine has not been associated with congenital malformations and seems preferable to chloroquine in patients requiring treatment with antimalarials. Use of cyclosporin may be an alternative to other therapy in pregnant patients with severe rheumatic disease. Indications for treatment with colchicine during pregnancy are few, except for familial Mediterranean fever. Azathioprine can be used when the maternal condition requires a cytotoxic drug during the first trimester. Cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and methotrexate are contraindicated during pregnancy because of their teratogenic potential. Their use may be considered in late pregnancy if the mother has a life-threatening condition.

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Randomized controlled trials of 5-ASA compared with placebo or sulfasalazine of a minimum of 4 weeks duration for active disease and a minimum of 6 months for maintenance of disease remission. Sixteen trials of 5-ASA for active disease, published either in abstract or full manuscript, were available. Eleven trials of 5-ASA for maintenance of remission were also reviewed.

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Anterior atlantoaxial subluxation (aAAS), atlantoaxial impaction (AAI; i.e., vertical subluxation), and subaxial subluxation (SAS) were found in only 6 (3.4%), 2 (1.1%), and 5 (2.8%) of the patients, respectively. Interestingly, none of the patients in the combination-therapy group had aAAS or AAI. The incidences of aAAS and AAI in the single-therapy group were 6.6% and 2.2%, respectively. SAS was present in 2 patients (2.2%) in the single-therapy group and in 3 patients (3.5%) in the combination-therapy group. The difference in the incidence of aAAS between the treatment groups was statistically significant (P = 0.029). None of the patients with cervical spine changes achieved remission of RA during the study.

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Effects of the amount and the composition of meals on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit times of a suspension were investigated in beagle dogs using acetaminophen and salicylazosulfapyridine as markers. Gastric emptying time was affected both by the amount and the composition of a meal; it was prolonged proportionally to the amount of a solid meal and varied among the 3 kinds of test meals of the same energy content in the following rank order: lard greater than skimmed milk greater than mashed potatoes. The inter-individual variation of small intestinal transit time in a fed state was smaller than that in a fasted state, whereas the mean transit times in both states were similar. Small intestinal transit time was not affected by the amount of the solid meal. On the other hand, it varied among the 3 kinds of test meals in the following rank order: lard greater than mashed potatoes greater than skimmed milk. It is noteworthy that small intestinal transit time in the beagle dog is approximately 2 h shorter than that in humans both in fasted and fed states.

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The proposed disease controlling antirheumatic therapy (DC-ART) definition requires that the therapy change the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for at least 1 year, evidenced by (1) sustained improvement in physical function, (2) decreased inflammatory synovitis, and (3) slowing or prevention of structural joint damage. Selected studies are reviewed. All studies were at least 1 year in duration, but most did not include all 3 of the DC-ART requirements. In these studies, patients treated with placebo generally had no improvement in inflammatory synovitis and progressive structural joint damage, judged by serial joint radiographs. A minority of studies significantly favored one or another of the available agents (gold injections, D-penicillamine, auranofin, antimalarials, azathioprine, sulfasalazine, methotrexate), but the evidence for any one agent is not convincing. For future DC-ART clinical trials patients with early RA should be studied. A hybrid study design may be useful, combining an initial double blind randomized controlled clinical trial with continuing longterm observation of all withdrawals using specified clinical, radiographic, and self report assessments at regular intervals, and an intent-to-treat analysis comparing longterm response rates of the original control and experimental therapy groups. Responsive subgroups should be sought, their characteristics identified, and their responsiveness confirmed in additional trials limited to the identified subgroup.

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In the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies, infection and gut inflammation are the most important external triggering factors. Early antimicrobial therapy to treat urethritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is effective in preventing a recurrent reactive arthritis. When the arthritis appear, a short term conventional antimicrobial therapy is unable to modify its course. In acute chlamydia arthritis, patients benefit from a prolonged (3-month) treatment with tetracycline, while such a treatment has not proved to be effective in enteroarthritis or in chronic forms of reactive arthritis. The role of sulfasalazine in the treatment of patients with spondyloarthropathies is controversial. It might modify the disease course during acute and chronic reactive arthritis, and is working for patients with ankylosing spondylitis, especially patients with peripheral arthritis. Data showing an effect of sulfasalazine in the prevention of chronic spondyloarthropathy or in modification of the long-term prognosis of ankylosing spondylitis are, however, lacking.

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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low-like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration-approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC.

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To assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of sulfasalazine (SSZ) in the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA).

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The extent and nature of seminal anomalies in colitic and ileitic patients were investigated using cytological, cytochemical, and electron microscopical methods. In addition to basic seminal variables, the gross and fine structure of spermatozoa were analyzed and the recorded data correlated with actual clinical conditions and therapeutic regimen of patients. Spermiograms revealed that the effect on the testicular function varied among patients, ranging from a subtle embarrassment of late spermiogenesis to a suppression of spermatogenesis as reflected in severe oligozoospermia. In several instances, excurrent ducts and accessory sex glands also were involved. The nuclear syndrome was an invariably observed phenomenon and consisted of increased pleomorphy, excessive vacuolation, postnuclear blebbing, malcondensation, and spontaneous decondensation of chromatin. The nuclear pleomorphy, malcondensation, and decondensation, apparently interrelated, constitute the characteristic condition, referred to as nucleomalacia. Other sperm defects seemed to be mere amplifications of deficiencies common in human semen. The correlation between the extent of intestinal lesions or severity of symptoms and the ratio of nuclear aberrations, demonstrated with acid-fast technique, was striking. No such relationship was found regarding the sulfasalazine treatment.

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This systematic literature search on MTX monotherapy with relatively low-dose use during at least 2 years shows favourable long-term safety.

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The chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor ibuprofen (IB) and of sulfasalazine (SASP), a drug that targets the antioxidant xc- system, were exploited in the experimental model of 3-methylcholantrene (3-MCA)-induced mouse sarcoma. The chemopreventive treatments gave unsatisfactory results because administration of IB one day after the 3-MCA injection only slightly delayed the tumor development, whereas SASP dispensed under the same conditions resulted in accelerated tumorigenesis. Similarly, the therapeutic treatment with either drug, administrated daily from the tumor detection, decreased the proliferation rate of tumor cells and increased the survival of treated mice only at a low extent. Remarkably, the combined chemopreventive treatment with IB and therapeutic treatment with SASP displayed a better efficacy, with strong delay of sarcoma growth, reduced tumor size and increased survival of treated mice. The two drugs target not only tumor cells but also tumor-associated macrophages that were dramatically decreased in the tumor infiltrate of mice subjected to the combined treatment. The synergistic effects of the association between a broad anti-inflammatory compound, such as IB, and a redox-directed drug, such as SASP, shed new light in the role of inflammation and of the redox response in chemical tumorigenesis and point to the combined chemopreventive plus therapeutic treatment with IB and SASP as a promising novel approach for antitumor therapy.

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Ten pieces of colon mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained from 31 cases with UC, 17 of which received sulphasalazine (SASP) or SASP plus glucocorticoid and 14 of which received no medication. Samples of normal mucosa around the lesion taken from 11 patients with colon cancer were used as controls. NF-kappaB DNA binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. NF-kappaB p65 expression was determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining with a NF-kappaB p65 antibody. The type of cells containing activated NF-kappaBp65 was identified by double immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy.

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Analysis of the Swedish Farmacotherapy (Swefot) trial at 12 months showed that the addition of an anti-tumour-necrosis-factor agent gave an improved clinical outcome compared with the addition of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with methotrexate-refractory early rheumatoid arthritis. Here we report the 2 year follow-up assessment.

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To report a case of warfarin resistance associated with the use of sulfasalazine.

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Redox and ROS regulation of MAPK-mediated TNF-alpha biosynthesis is not well characterized. It was hypothesized that the involvement of the MAPK pathway in regulating LPS-mediated TNF-alpha secretion is redox-dependent, NF-kappaB-sensitive and attenuated by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and other antioxidants. In alveolar epithelial cells, LPS induced a time- and dose-dependent phosphorylation of MAPK(p38). This was associated with the activation of MAPK-activated protein kinase, which phosphorylated the small heat-shock protein, Hsp27. MAPK(p38) inhibition (SB-203580) abrogated LPS-induced TNF-alpha production. MAPK(ERK) blockade (PD-98059) attenuated TNF-alpha secretion, an effect synergistically amplified in the presence of SB-203580. Regulation of NF-kappaB by selective inhibitors revealed that this pathway is partially involved in regulating LPS-mediated TNF-alpha secretion. Whereas the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, had no effect on LPS-mediated TNF-alpha production, CAPE, sulfasalazine and SN-50, a cell-permeant NF-kappaB inhibitor, attenuated but did not abrogate TNF-alpha biosynthesis. LPS up-regulated ROS, an effect abrogated by 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-acetophenone and NAC, which reduced TNF-alpha secretion, induced the accumulation of GSH, reduced the concentration of GSSG, and blockaded the phosphorylation/activation of MAPK(p38) pathway. ROS induced MAPK(p38) phosphorylation and selective antioxidants, including the permeant GSH precursor, gamma-GCE, reduced ROS-dependent MAPK(p38) phosphorylation. These results indicate that the MAPK pathway and MAPK-mediated regulation of TNF-alpha production is redox-dependent, GSH-mediated and requires, at least in part, a NF-kappaB/ROS-sensitive mechanism.

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For pharmacological reasons, the effect of the combination of MTX and SSZ may be different in RA patients who are naïve to these drugs compared to patients with an insufficient response to one of them. Therefore, we compared the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the combination of MTX and SSZ in naïve patients and in patients with an insufficient response to SSZ.

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88 published studies were included. Over 12 years of treatment, the termination rate of MTX due to toxicity was less than for sulfasalazine, gold, d-penicillamine and higher than for hydroxychloroquine (level of evidence 2a-2b). Long-term use of MTX does not appear to be a risk factor for serious infections, including herpes zoster (2b-4), and could provide a survival benefit by reducing cardiovascular mortality (2b). The prevalence of raised liver enzymes (more than twice the upper limit of normal) is close to 13% of patients; 3.7% of patients stopped MTX permanently owing to liver toxicity (2b). Data on the risk for liver fibrosis/cirrhosis are conflicting: a meta-analysis showed an incidence of fibrosis of 2.7% after 4 years of MTX (2a). However, two other studies on sequential liver biopsies did not show evidence for developing severe damage (2b). Insufficient data are available to fully assess the risk of lymphoma and malignancies, although there is no strong evidence of increased risk (2b-4).

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The study showed that green tea alone and in combination with sulfasalazine reduced inflammatory changes induced by tri nitro benzene sulfonic acid in rats. This reduction is associated with reduced malondialdehyde, lipid peroxidation, and TNF-α. This correlates well with both gross morphological and histopathological scores.

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This double-blind randomised study investigated the role of sulphydryl-containing agents in the management of recurrent attacks of ulcerative colitis. To this end, DL-cysteine (200 mg 4 times daily) and DL-methionine-methyl sulphonium chloride (MMSC, 500 mg 4 times daily) were administered orally. Patients with recurrent attacks of moderate proctosigmoidal ulcerative colitis, despite prophylaxis by oral sulphasalazine (2 g daily), were given prednisolone by mouth, 10 mg four times a day, sulphasalazine by mouth, 500 mg four times a day, and morning and evening retention enema (Predsol 20 mg) alone or with cysteine or MMSC. After 2 weeks of treatment with sulphasalazine and prednisolone, 51% of patients (n = 45) were symptom free. Addition of cysteine (n = 46) or MMSC (n = 47) to this regimen controlled the symptoms within 2 weeks in 85% of patients (p < 0.01). During 12 months of prophylactic treatment, 5% of patients (n = 42) receiving sulphasalazine (2 g daily) and cysteine and 5% of patients (n = 41) taking sulphasalazine (2 g daily) and MMSC relapsed, relative to 27% of cases with sulphasalazine (2 g daily) alone (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that sulphydryl-containing agents play a key role in the treatment of and protection against ulcerative colitis.

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Groups did not differ for age, gender, tumour site or irradiation procedure. Diarrhea occurred in 55 and 86% of the sulphasalazine and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.001). Gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 80 and 93% of the sulphasalazine and placebo groups according to the maximum LENT-SOMA score (P=0.07). According to the maximum LENT-SOMA score between the two groups, significant differences in favor of sulphasalazine were found for each week.

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azulfidine en generic 2016-11-25

Case reports cannot provide rates of drug-induced complications, sometimes incompletely assess or describe important details, and sometimes emphasize buy azulfidine atypical features and outcomes.

azulfidine generic 2016-05-29

We have investigated the mode of action of the sulphasalazine in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's ileitis. We point out: a) the activity of sulphasalazine and its derivative, 5-aminosalicylic acid in prostaglandin's metabolites buy azulfidine pathway, by inhibition of lipoxygenase; b) a moderate activity on the cell-mediated immunity by weak inhibition of natural killer activity; c) the 5-amino salicylic acid is effective strongly like a radical scavenger.

azulfidine 500 mg 2017-02-22

The inhibitor κB protein kinase/nuclear factor κB (IKK/NF-κB) signaling pathway is critical for synaptic plasticity. However, the role of IKK/NF-κB in drug withdrawal-associated conditioned place aversion (CPA) memory is unknown. Here, we showed that inhibition of IKK/NF-κB by sulphasalazine (SSZ; 10 mM, i.c.v.) selectively blocked the extinction but not acquisition or expression of morphine-induced CPA in rats. The blockade of CPA extinction induced by SSZ was abolished by sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase. Thus, the IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway might buy azulfidine play a critical role in the extinction of morphine-induced CPA in rats and might be a potential pharmacotherapy target for opiate addiction.

azulfidine drug class 2015-08-06

The crucial issue for a better pregnancy outcome in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is appropriate planning, with counseling of the ideal timing and treatment adaptation. Drugs used to treat rheumatic diseases may interfere with fertility or increase the risk of miscarriages and congenital abnormalities. MTX use post-conception is clearly linked to abortions as well as major birth defects, so it should be stopped 3months before conception. Leflunomide causes abnormalities in animals even in low doses. Although in humans, it does not seem to be as harmful as MTX, when pregnancy is detected in a patient on leflunomide, cholestyramine is given for washout. Sulfasalazine can be used safely and is an option for those patients who were on MTX or leflunomide. Azathioprine is buy azulfidine generally the immunosuppressive of choice in many high-risk pregnancy centers because of the safety profile and its steroid-sparing property. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus can also be used as steroid-sparing agents, but experience is smaller. Although prednisone and prednisolone are inactivated in the placenta, we try to limit the dose to the minimal effective one, to prevent side effects. Antimalarials have been broadly studied and are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Among biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic agents (bDMARD), the anti-TNFs that have been used for longer are the ones with greater experience. The large monoclonal antibodies do not cross the placenta in the first trimester, and after conception, the decision to continue medication should be taken individually. The experience is larger in women with inflammatory bowel diseases, where anti-TNF is generally maintained at least until 30weeks to reduce fetal exposure. Live vaccines should not be administrated to the infant in the first 6months of life. Pregnancy data for rituximab, abatacept, anakinra, tocilizumab, ustekinumab, belimumab, and tofacitinib are limited and their use in pregnancy cannot currently be recommended.

azulfidine and alcohol 2016-07-15

NIK expression was evaluated by Western blotting in male Lep(ob) mice and C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% fat). After metformin and sulfasalazine treatment, NIK expression buy azulfidine was investigated during the improvement of insulin resistance.

azulfidine cost 2016-01-03

During the 10-year period since the last review was done by Gardner and Furst, studies have furthered our knowledge of use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in the elderly buy azulfidine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient. This article will briefly review the clinical pharmacology of human as they age, and detail the effects of aging on the specific pharmacokinetics and responses to commonly used DMARDs. There has been some progress in understanding the elderly RA patient, however, there is insufficient data for much confidence in DMARDs effects in the elderly.

azulfidine drug classification 2015-05-19

We characterized the benzothiazinone NS6180 (4-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] buy azulfidine methyl]-2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3(4H)-one) with respect to potency and molecular site of action on K(Ca) 3.1 channels, selectivity towards other targets, effects on T-cell activation as well as pharmacokinetics and inflammation control in colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

azulfidine tabs 2016-09-16

Ten patients with distal UC, refractory to all other available forms of rectal therapy and to oral sulfasalazine or mesalamine (5-ASA), were treated with nightly butyrate enemas in an open-label study. Enemas consisted of 60 ml of 80 mM sodium butyrate titrated to a pH of 7.0. Patients were assessed clinically and endoscopically at baseline and at 3- to 6-wk intervals, and a disease activity score from 0 to 12 was determined. Response buy azulfidine to therapy was determined by changes in the activity score.

azulfidine mg 2017-06-19

The proliferation of synovial cells and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production of synovial cells were significantly inhibited by Buc and SASP in the concentration range of 1 to 100 microM in a dose dependent manner. In contrast D-Pen had no apparent effect at the same concentrations. Subsequently, the inhibitory effects of these compounds on transcriptional regulation of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and c-fos, which are well known to play an important role in synovial cell proliferation, were clarified. Overexpression of c-fos mRNA was inhibited by Buc and SASP. Moreover, the combination of low dose Buc buy azulfidine and SASP inhibited synovial cell growth and transcriptional regulation of these mRNA.

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The therapeutic role of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and azathioprine (AZA) remains controversial due to their perceived relatively slow-acting effect and adverse effects. An updated meta-analysis buy azulfidine was performed to evaluate the efficacy of these agents for the maintenance of remission in quiescent Crohn's disease.

azulfidine 500mg tablet 2015-12-18

Despite reports published during the study period suggesting equivalent efficacy of triple buy azulfidine therapy and biologic DMARDs for RA, the use of triple therapy was infrequent and did not increase over time in this large nationwide study.

azulfidine drug 2015-08-23

Groups did buy azulfidine not differ in age, gender, tumor site, or irradiation procedure. During radiotherapy, grade 2 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 20% (3/15) and 63% (10/16) of the sulfasalazine and placebo groups, respectively. This difference was significant (p = 0.017). No statistically significant differences were found in endoscopic and histopathologic evaluations.

azulfidine medication 2016-09-11

Several ocular manifestations have been found in Crohn's disease patients, most often affecting the anterior segment. This Depakote Max Dose paper presents the case of a young woman with pars plana exudates in whom Crohn's disease was later diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, this is only the second report of Crohn's disease and concomitant pars plana exudates.

azulfidine brand name 2016-03-24

In this study SASP metabolite levels were measured in colonic mucosal specimens and plasma samples from 31 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) under treatment with the drug. Colonic tissue specimens were obtained by endoscopically guided biopsy and plasma was isolated from peripheral blood. Measurements were performed by HPLC according to the procedure of Fischer et al. The levels of 5-ASA and SP in either of colonic tissue or plasma were significantly lower than those of Ac-5-ASA and Ac-SP, respectively. The tissue level of 5-ASA had a significant Aricept Alcohol Dementia correlation to the dosage of 5-ASA. The tissue levels of 5-ASA and Ac-5-ASA were low in an active stage of UC than during a remission period and the difference observed with respect to the latter metabolite was significant. These findings suggest that acetylation of 5-ASA is inhibited in the colonic mucosa in an active stage of the disease.

cost of azulfidine 2015-09-12

The 40,594 RA patients of the study period (September 1998 to December 2000) accumulated 83,143 person-years (PY) of followup. Followup for each of the groups was: DMARD-monotherapy, 46,054 PY (55% of total); combination-DMARD, 25,830 PY (14%); and no-DMARD, 11,259 Retrovir Generic Name PY (14%). The incidence rate of all AE combined was significantly lower for LEF monotherapy (94 events/1000 PY) than MTX (145 events/1000 PY), other DMARD (143 events/1000 PY), or no DMARD (383 events/1000 PY) (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). The "all-AE" rates during combination therapy with LEF + MTX (43/1000 PY) and LEF + other DMARD (59/1000 PY) were lower than the "all-AE" rate for DMARD + MTX (70/1000 PY; p = 0.002). LEF monotherapy had the lowest rate of hepatic events in the DMARD monotherapy groups.

azulfidine sulfasalazine cost 2017-06-05

All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing sulfasalazine against placebo Neurontin Yellow Capsule in patients with RA.

azulfidine suspension 2016-02-28

The standard treatment for the induction and maintenance of remission in patients with mild-to-moderate UC is aminosalicylate products (mesalamine, sulfasalazine, balasalazide, olsalazine). Current mesalamine formulations are not ideal for long-term treatment due to issues with patient adherence secondary to complex dosing regimens and high pill burden. Clinical studies show that MMX mesalamine achieves clinical and endoscopic remission more frequently compared with placebo or mesalamine enema. Patients receiving MMX mesalamine achieved statistically significant clinical and endoscopic remission when compared with those taking placebo (34.1% vs 12.9%; p < 0.001 with 2.4 g/ Amoxil 125 Mg day vs placebo, and 29.2% vs 12.9%; p = 0.009 with 4.8 g/day vs placebo). Similarly, in another study, significantly more patients achieved remission in the MMX mesalamine groups compared with patients in the placebo group (40.5% vs 22.1% with 2.4 g/day vs placebo; p = 0.01, and 41.2% vs 22.1% with 4.8 g/day vs placebo; p = 0.007). MMX mesalamine is well tolerated, with headache, flatulence, and abdominal pain being the most frequently reported adverse events.

azulfidine dose 2016-05-07

A total of 1,507 established RA patients were recruited through 5 enrollment periods between 1983 and 2009. Between 1983 and 2009, the use of any DMARD increased from 71% of all patients to 83% (P for trend < 0.0001). In 2009, 43% received a biologic DMARD, 34% were on both nonbiologic and biologic DMARDs, and 40% were treated with only nonbiologic DMARDs. The 4 most commonly used nonbiologic DMARDs in 2009 were methotrexate (49%), hydroxychloroquine (30%), leflunomide (13%), and sulfasalazine (7%). Etanercept ( Sinemet Dosage Schedule 20%) was the most commonly used biologic DMARD in 2009, followed by infliximab (10%), adalimumab (9%), and abatacept (6%). Use of oral steroids was common (40-50%) and remained similar throughout the study period.

azulfidine tablets 2017-08-23

Computerised referral histories were reviewed for dogs admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital between January 2000 and December 2008 with diarrhoea among the clinical signs. A total of 371 cases presenting to the referring veterinary surgeon were included in the study, and information was compiled regarding signalment, clinical signs and treatment given at the initial consultation. Various breeds, ages and sexes were represented. Antibacterials were used in 263 (71 per cent) cases, steroids in 71 (19 per cent) cases and miscellaneous antidiarrhoeal products (including probiotics, prebiotics, adsorbents and antimotility drugs) in 98 (26 per cent) cases. Other drugs used included antiemetics (48 of 371 [13 per cent] cases), gastric protectants (37 of 371 [10 per cent] cases) and sulfasalazine (26 of 371 [7 per cent] cases). Antibacterial administration was positively associated with hyperthermia (odds ratio [OR]=2.97, P=0.012) and anorexia (OR=2.17, P=0.0075), but negatively associated with both weight Feldene Oral Capsule loss (OR=0.55, P=0.036) and tenesmus (OR=0.43, P=0.035). In contrast, use of antidiarrhoeal products was positively associated with the presence of faecal mucus (OR=1.77, P=0.043), and negatively associated with vomiting (OR=0.57, P=0.025) and weight loss (OR=0.52, P=0.033).

dosage of azulfidine 2015-07-12

Traditionally, sulfasalazine and corticosteroids have been used to treat Crohn's disease. However, therapy has been expanded to include other drugs, and several newer agents show clinical promise. The authors discuss the therapeutic options now available and describe results of several Prevacid Otc Dosage drug trials. Despite the apparent benefits of newer therapies, caution must be used in choosing appropriate treatment.

azulfidine tab 500mg 2016-04-17

The medical records of patients visiting the Rheumatology Clinic were scrutinised retrospectively in order to extract the relevant data, including demographics, clinical Antabuse Overdose and laboratory investigations and drug usage, for analysis.

azulfidine dosing 2015-08-05

A total of 480 rheumatologists were mailed a questionnaire; 204 responded, giving a response rate of 42.5%. Overall 163 (80%) respondents were classified as preferring aggressive treatment Cotrimoxazole Bactrim Tablet with DMARDs. Rheumatologists responding to this survey were more likely to prefer aggressive DMARD treatment for the young RA patient vs the older RA patient (87 vs 71%, P= 0.007).

azulfidine generic name 2015-06-01

Multicenter, double Priligy Review -blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.

azulfidine drug interactions 2017-08-10

The DRESS (drug rash, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome, also known as DIHS (drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome), is a severe idiosyncratic reaction to several drugs, mainly antiepileptics Lopressor Tab and antibiotics, which can occasionally produce acute liver failure. In this article we present two cases of the DRESS syndrome presenting with severe acute hepatitis, including the first case of DRESS associated with levetiracetam. Although both cases finally resolved with good outcomes, DRESS can lead to acute liver failure and has a bad prognosis when liver damage is present. Rapid diagnosis is crucial since withdrawal of the offending drug is the key of treatment, while the potential role of corticosteroids is discussed.

azulfidine dosage 2016-04-25

Constant rate enteral nutrition (CREN) has been used in 17 pediatric patients with Crohn's disease. Exclusive CREN was maintained from 2 to 7 months and progressively reduced to assure fractioned oral intakes from 12 to 22 months. From this preliminary study, CREN appeared to be as effective as steroid therapy in initiating remission of active Crohn's disease and was able to suppress steroid dependence. In some cases with prolonged CREN, reduction or disappearance of stenotic lesions of the bowel was observed. Two other positive points must be emphasized: the favorable psychological impact of the method and the ability to avoid growth suppression secondary to steroids. The long-term effects and longer remissions must be confirmed by a multicenter study in a larger group of patients.

azulfidine sulfasalazine dosage 2017-06-30

In some patterns of cutaneous adverse drug reactions, and depending on the culprit drug, patch testing has been helpful in confirming its cause. Its value in Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has not been established in a large cohort of patients.

azulfidine prices usa 2016-02-15

To prospectively determine the efficacy and safety of etanercept in combination with sulfasalazine (SSZ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), and gold in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).