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Effect of packing material on the stability of four Ayurvedic drugs viz., Hingvatsaka Curna, Brahmi ghrta, Dasamula Kvatha Curna and Ajamodarka have been studied by distributing the drugs in different containers by observing the physical and biological changes. The study revealed that Hingvatsaka Curna keeps well for at least 6 month, Ajamodarka is stable for minimum period of six months when stored in glass bottle exposed to light. Dasamula K vatha Curna showed the presence of insects at the completion of three months. In the second month itself Brahmi ghrta becomes rancid on storing in glass and amber colored bottles.
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Four studies met our inclusion criteria (Level I, poor to II-2, poor). Two studies examined the effect of a specific follow-up visit schedule on intrauterine device (IUD) continuation: one examining frequency of visits and one examining the timing of the first follow-up visit. Women with more frequent follow-up visits did not have a statistically significant difference in proportion of removals for medical reasons compared with women who had fewer follow-up visits; among women who had their IUDs removed for medical reasons, those who had more frequent follow-up visits had a longer mean time of use prior to removal. The other study found more removals and shorter continuation among women with a follow-up visit at 1 week compared to women with a follow-up visit at 1 month after IUD insertion (no statistical tests reported). Two studies examined the effect of follow-up phone calls compared to no follow-up phone calls after an initial family planning visit among adolescents initiating a variety of contraceptive methods. Neither of the two studies found any differences in method continuation or correct use between study groups.
These findings suggest that B. monniera may improve higher order cognitive processes that are critically dependent on the input of information from our environment such as learning and memory.
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The number of individuals using MVEM was highest in the age group of 11-20 years (17.54%), followed by the 21-40 years group (17.12%), supporting the results that the professional group of students (17.29%) and the persons of business or service class (15.29%) are the highest users of these medicines. Evaluation of various constituents in the marketed polyherbal MVEM revealed that Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), Shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Ashwangandha (Withania somnifera), Jatamansi (Nardostychos jatamansi), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were the common ingredients in the polyherbal preparations.
The indazole system in each of the two independent mol-ecules of the title compound, C(10)H(8)ClN(3)O(2), is planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.005 and 0.005 Å). The nitro group is coplanar with the fused-ring system [dihedral angles = 1.3 (3) and 4.8 (3) Å].
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We investigated hydroxyl radical (OH) production by human natural killer (NK) cells, using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and 5.5 dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), a spin trap specific for OH. production. We confirmed that hydroxyl radical scavengers, n-propyl gallate and catechin, inhibited NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NK-CMC) in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated that DMPO also inhibited NK-CMC. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) activated by opsonized zymosan (2.4 mg/ml) and mixed with DMPO (0.14 M) showed an early increase in hydroxyl radical production, leading to a net production of free radical of almost 400 pMol/10(6) cells. We then mixed NK cells with K562, an NK-sensitive tumor cell, at a 1:1 ratio and added DMPO (0.14 M). We pelleted the cells to increase EC to TC binding before taking the sample readings. Activated NK cells showed no increase in OH. production, leading to a net production of free radicals less than 1% that of activated PMNL. These data strongly suggest that hydroxyl radical production does not play a role in the early events of NK cell activation; they indicate a need to reevaluate the mechanism of inhibition of NK-CMC by OH. scavengers.
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We and other workers have recently isolated three novel CC chemokines termed Exodus-1/LARC/Mip-3alpha, Exodus-2/6Ckine/SLC/TCA4, and Exodus-3/Mip-3beta/CKbeta11/ELC. These chemokines share an amino terminal Asp-Cys-Cys-Leu sequence, unique among all chemokines. They also selectively regulate migration of adult T cells. Indeed, there is evidence that Exodus-2 and -3 are critical for adult T-cell adhesion to high endothelial venules in lymph nodes, a rate-limiting step for T-cell trafficking through nodal tissue. Less is known of the factors controlling migration of naïve human fetal T cells. We tested whether these chemokines could regulate chemotaxis in cord blood T-cell populations, and compared that efficacy with normal peripheral blood adult T cells. The findings indicated that naive CD45RA+ cord blood T-cell migration is stimulated by Exodus-2 and -3, and CD4+ cord blood T cells are attracted preferentially by Exodus-2 or -3 as compared with CD8+. Exodus-2 and -3 are likely to be critical in regulating the flux of naive CD4 + fetal T-cell population of secondary lymphoid tissue.
Ayurveda is the oldest system of Medicine in the world, its antiquity going back to the Vedas. It adapts a unique holistic approach to the entire science of life, health and cure. The areas of special consideration in Ayurveda are geriatrics, rejuvenation, nutrition, immunology, genetics and higher consciousness. The Ayurvedic texts describe a set of rejuvenative measures to impart biological sustenance to the bodily tissues. These remedies are called Rasayana which are claimed to act as micronutrients. Some of these Rasayanas are organ and tissue specific. Those specific to brain tissue are called Medhya Rasayana. Such Rasayanas retard brain aging and help in regeneration of neural tissues besides producing antistress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effect. In addition to the long tradition of textual and experience-based evidence for their efficacy, certain recent studies conducted on these traditional remedies on scientific parameters have shown promising results which have been reviewed in this paper for providing lead for further studies. The popular Medhya Rasayanas are Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri Linn), Mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Linn) and Sankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois).
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Patients from all the groups showed significant reduction in clinical parameters evaluated. However, improvement in ESS was observed only in Group II. The treatment outcome was comparable between the three groups.
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Instructions on what to do after pills are missed are critical to reducing unintended pregnancies resulting from patient non-adherence to oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. Missed pill instructions have previously been criticized for being too complex, lacking a definition of what is meant by "missed pills," and for being confusing to women who may not know the estrogen content of their formulation. To help inform the development of missed pill guidance to be included in the forthcoming US Selected Practice Recommendations, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on patient understanding of missed pill instructions.
Acute carbamazepine intoxication is seen with increasing frequency. Severity is related to the degree and duration of the coma, respiratory depression, seizures, cardiovascular disorders, and metabolic abnormalities. Symptomatic and specific treatment with activated carbon are required.
We have generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAb), designated anti-1B11 and anti-4F9, directed to the human lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). Indirect immunofluorescence with both mAb showed a bimodal distribution of antigen on the surface of T, natural killer (NK), and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Neither mAb reacted with the epitopes recognized by TA1 and Mo-1 mAb on the alpha-chain of the heterodimer. Anti-1B11 and anti-4F9 immunoprecipitated polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 177 and 95 kD. Both mAb inhibited cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), NK, and LAK cell-mediated cytotoxicity without affecting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The proliferative responses of T cells to allogeneic cells were inhibited by anti-1B11 and anti-4F9, whereas the responses to phytohemagglutinin P and concanavalin A were not affected. Anti-1B11 and anti-4F9 blocked effector cell (EC)-target cell (TC) conjugate formation by 50%. Only anti-4F9 cross-reacted with LFA-1 on porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes and inhibited porcine NK, LAK, and ADCC activities. Because LFA-1 also functions at the level of signal transduction during T cell activation and we previously showed that CTL rapidly degraded perforin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) mRNA after interaction with sensitive TC, we examined the effects of the mAb on the messages for perforin and TNF alpha. Treatment of CTL with anti-1B11 and anti-4F9 induced TNF alpha message and protein levels of TNF alpha, but did not alter perforin mRNA levels.
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Seventy-two (72) patients with GAD with comorbid social phobia meeting DSM IV TR criteria, and who were between the ages of 20 and 55 of either sex, participated in the study. They were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Group 1 (n=24) and Group II (n=24) received Manasamitra Vataka tablets (100 mg twice daily for 30 days). Group II, in addition to Manasamitra Vataka, underwent Shirodhara (therapy involving dripping of medicated oil [Brahmi tail] over the forehead) treatment for the first 7 days. Group III (n=24) received clonazepam 0.75 mg daily in divided dose for 30 days. The assessment of the study was done using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF, and Clinical Global Impression scales (Improvement and Efficacy).
Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber, commonly known as Dandelion, has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders and some women diseases such as breast and uterus cancers. The main objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of T. officinale leaf extract (TOE) in treating sodium dichromate hazards; it is a major environmental pollutant known for its wide toxic manifestations witch induced liver injury. TOE at a dose of 500 mg/kg b.w was orally administered once per day for 30 days consecutively, followed by 10 mg/kg b.w sodium dichromate was injected (intraperitoneal) for 10 days. Our results using Wistar rats showed that sodium dichromate significantly increased serum biochemical parameters. In the liver, it was found to induce an oxidative stress, evidenced from increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidative activities. In addition, histopathological observation revealed that sodium dichromate causes acute liver damage, necrosis of hepatocytes, as well as DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, animals that were pretreated with TOE, prior to sodium dichromate administration, showed a significant hepatoprotection, revealed by a significant reduction of sodium dichromate-induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. These finding powerfully supports that TOE was effective in the protection against sodium dichromate-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity and, therefore, suggest a potential therapeutic use of this plant as an alternative medicine for patients with acute liver diseases.
Bacopa monnieri has a long history in Ayurvedic medicine for neurological and behavioral defects. To assess its efficacy in improving cognitive function.
A prospective study of patients presenting with lower gastrointestinal symptoms at the Bahrain Specialist Hospital from July 2004 to April 2005 was carried out. Endoscopic colonic biopsy specimens were taken from every patient and subjected to (a) routine haematoxylin and eosin staining examination by light microscopy, (b) immunohistochemistry for examination of RANTES protein expression by light microscopy and (c) in situ hybridisation for examination of RANTES mRNA expression by light microscopy. RANTES expression was assessed and quantified.
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A widely accepted theory of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) proposes that upon effector cell (EC) and target cell (TC) interaction, release of perforin, serine proteases and other lytic moieties contained within cytoplasmic granules results in TC lysis. Complement activation and the activation of the various enzymatic activities associated with cytotoxic granules have strikingly similar modes of action and both lead to pore formation in their respective targets. We report here that by using antisera to early and late complement components we were able to inhibit CTL, NK and ADCC cytotoxicity up to 100%, even though binding of EC to TC was unaffected. Furthermore, we showed that addition of C1q or C1s (two serine proteases) antisera to C9 antisera, at titers too low to inhibit separately, resulted in synergistic inhibition of CMC. Anti-C1s together with anti-C1q (or anti-C8 with anti-C9) did not result in synergy. This finding supports a cascade model of activation for lytic molecules released from EC. In addition, we demonstrated that anti-C1q and anti-C1s bind to proteins in the 30-kD region and anti-C9 binds to proteins in the 70-kD region, coinciding with published molecular weights of granzymes and perforin, respectively. Finally, lytic ability of purified granules was also inhibited by complement antisera, further suggesting that activation occurs outside of TC. Taken as a whole, these data indicate that TC lysis may be the result of a cascade of events involving granzymes and perforin, analogous to that seen with the complement system.
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The extracts were prepared in culture medium and tested from 25 to 400 μg/mL after 24-48 h of treatment. To show the effect of the aqueous ethanol (50%) extracts on apoptosis and authophagy, the presence of cleaved caspase-3, and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was evaluated by Western blotting.
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In traditional system of medicine brahmi has been used to enhance memory. Recently it has been reported to have action in psychiatric disorders. With these backgrounds the work has been undertaken to study antidepressant activity of brahmi in albino mice.
Immunosuppression characterizes many human diseases including leukemia and AIDS. Friend virus (FV)-induced murine leukemia is a useful model for studying both malignancy and immunosuppression. In a previous series of experiments, we have demonstrated that untreated FV-infected mice died within 40 days post-infection, whereas infected mice given 150 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) on days 5 and 12 exhibited long-term survival. In this report, we show that no leukemic cells or type C virus particles are found in the spleens of mice treated with TBI. In addition, both NK activity as well as bone marrow cell's proliferative responses to PHA and Con A were fully restored. This treatment produces long term control of FV-induced murine leukemia, and thus might have relevance for the treatment of a number of immunosuppressive diseases including AIDS.
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Serie de casos.
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The decrement of VGLUT2 density in prefrontal cortex resulted in cognitive deficit in rats receiving PCP. Interestingly, receiving Brahmi after PCP administration can restore this cognitive deficit by increasing VGLUT2 density in prefrontal cortex. This investigation is defined as Brahmi's cognitive enhancement effect. Additionally, receiving Brahmi before PCP administration can also prevent cognitive impairment by elevating VGLUT2 density in prefrontal cortex. This observation indicates neuroprotective effect of Brahmi. Therefore, Brahmi could be a new frontier of restoration and prevention of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia.
Photoactive viologen fragments were covalently embedded within the material framework during the self-assembly and sol-gel polymerisation of phosphonate-terminated dendrimers and soluble titanium-oxo-species. The resulting porous anisotropic phosphonate-bridged-crystalline anatase materials serve as new hosts to disperse and stabilize small gold nanoparticles.
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Brahmi Ghrita, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is recommended in the management of various psychological disorders like Unmada, Apasmara and Graharogas. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Brahmi Ghrita and its physico-chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study containing both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug revealed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Brahmi Ghrita. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed. Acid value was 0.16075, saponification value 184.17, Refractive Index value 1.467 at room temperature, Iodine value 26.715, Specific gravity at room temperature was 0.9133. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 9 spots were distinguished and most of the Rf values were identical in alcoholic extract which shows the presence of certain definite constituents in Brahmi Ghrita.
An HPLC-UV method was developed for the standardization of BV in light of simultaneous quantitative estimation of Bacoside A3 and Piperine, the major constituents of B. monnieri L. and P. longum L. respectively. The developed method was validated on parameters including linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness.