It has previously been shown that β-blocker therapy reduces QT dynamics in heart failure patients. The aim of this study was to demonstrate this improvement with the third-generation β-blocker, nebivolol.
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Evidence on the use of various anti-hypertensive drugs in people with PAD is poor so that it is unknown whether significant benefits or risks accrue. However, lack of data specifically examining outcomes in PAD patients should not detract from the overwhelming evidence on the benefit of treating hypertension and lowering blood pressure.
Compared with baseline values LV end-systolic volume decreased and LV ejection fraction increased in both the carvedilol (from 79 +/- 38mL to 73 +/- 43mL and from 33% +/- 6% to 37% +/- 11%) and the nebivolol group (from 72 +/- 35mL to 66 +/- 32mL and from 34% +/- 7% to 38% +/- 10%), although the between-group differences were not statistically significant. ECG data showed a decrease in resting HR in both groups (from 83 +/- 20 bpm to 66 +/- 11 bpm for carvedilol and from 81 +/- 15 bpm to 65 +/- 11 bpm for nebivolol; p < 0.001 vs baseline for both groups) but no difference in the PQ, QRS, and QT intervals. Hematologic (in particular, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), Holter monitoring (with the exception of HR), and respiratory functional data did not show any significant variation in either group after 6 months' therapy. SBP and DBP decreased in both groups. A small reduction in mean NYHA functional class from baseline was seen in both groups (from 2.5 +/- 0.5 to 2.2 +/- 0.5 for carvedilol [p < 0.05] and from 2.3 +/- 0.4 to 2.2 +/- 0.5 for nebivolol [not significant]). The 6-minute walk test showed a trend toward an increase in the walking distance in both groups. During 6 months of treatment no significant differences in adverse events were observed between the groups.
The study aimed at investigating the effects of multiple-dose bupropion (potent inhibitor of CYP2D6) on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of single-dose nebivolol (CYP2D6 substrate) and to evaluate the clinical relevance of this potential drug interaction.
In hypertensive smokers, nebivolol resulted in a significant decrease of plasma PAI-1, fibrinogen and homocystine. Celiprolol also significantly affected these parameters but to a lesser degree, whereas carvedilol had no significant favorable action. In nonsmokers, homocystine was reduced significantly by nebivolol. We conclude that smoking status should be a determinant of antihypertensive treatment choice.
Large randomized trials have shown that beta-blockers reduce mortality and hospital admissions in patients with heart failure. The effects of beta-blockers in elderly patients with a broad range of left ventricular ejection fraction are uncertain. The SENIORS study was performed to assess effects of the beta-blocker, nebivolol, in patients >/=70 years, regardless of ejection fraction.
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Nebivolol induces oestrogen-dependent gene transcription, and protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress even at low and physiological concentrations (10(-8) M). Moreover, nebivolol modulates processing of APP in mouse neuronal N2Aswe cells by increasing alpha-secretase activity, ultimately leading to enhanced release of soluble non-amyloidogenic sAPPalpha.
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After MI pathological LV remodeling is one of the major causes of death. We previously showed the NO mediated beneficial effects of nebivolol in rat MI model, in this study we aimed to evaluate the NOS related mechanisms in this phenomenon.
Inflammation reduces pharmacological response to β1-blockers by down-regulating the target receptor protein. This may contribute to the sub-optimal response to pharmacotherapy with β-blockers. Nebivolol is a third generation β-adrenoceptor (AR) blocker with high selectivity for blocking β1 and β3-agonistic properties. We studied whether response to nebivolol is also reduced by inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (Inflamed; Mycobacterium butyricum induced) and Control (healthy) were orally administered single doses of 2 mg/kg nebivolol (n=5) or 25 mg/kg propranolol (positive control, n=7-8); ECG recorded for PR and RR interval measurements; serial blood samples were collected for pharmacokinetic assessment. Subsequently, the myocardial β1, β2 and β3-AR levels were measured in homogenized hearts. For propranolol, inflammation resulted in increased concentration but reduced response and down-regulation of β1- AR. The action and disposition of nebivolol were, however, unaffected by inflammation despite the reduced β1-AR levels. The levels of β2 and β3-AR were unaffected by inflammation. The consistency of response to nebivolol despite inflammation may be due to the predominance of contribution of β2 and β3-AR. The lack of an inhibitory effect of inflammation on the clearance of nebivolol is suggestive of mechanisms other than an efficient hepatic metabolism for its low bioavailability. If extrapolated to human, nebivolol may be a more effective cardiovascular drug when inflammatory conditions are present.
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The results clearly demonstrate protective effects of Carv and Nebi against renal damage involved in RM-induced ARF and suggest a role of their antioxidant and NO-releasing properties.
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Nebivolol hydrochloride is a third generation β-blocker with highly selective β1-receptor antagonist with antihypertensive properties having plasma half life of 10 h and 12% oral bioavailability. The aim of the present investigation was to form matrix type transdermal patches containing Nebivolol hydrochloride to avoid its extensive hepatic first pass metabolism, lesser side effect and increase bioavailability of drug.
Analysis of literature revealed five epidemiological trials evaluating the effect of different cardiovascular drugs on erectile function. There were eight trials evaluating the effect of beta-blockers, five trials evaluating the effect of ace-inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor-blockers and one trial evaluating the effect of diuretics on erectile function. Results of these trials demonstrate that only thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers except nebivolol may adversely influence erectile function. ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor-blockers and calcium-channel-blockers are reported to have no relevant or even a positive effect on erectile function.
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Vascular smooth muscle cells play a pivotal role in all stages of atherogenesis. Targeting their inflammatory and proliferative qualities might therefore inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to characterize and compare the effects of the beta-receptor antagonists nebivolol and metoprolol on gene expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hcaSMC).
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In this study, two enantiomers of the drug, L-nebivolol and racemic nebivolol, were used to measure and compare their ability to prevent endothelial dysfunction, disturbed ileal contractility, and ileal injury induced by I/R. The superior mesenteric artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded for 45 min to induce ischemia, and then the clamp was removed for 60-min reperfusion. Drugs or saline were administered prior to the surgical procedure in the I/R and sham-operated groups. Vasodilation in the third branch of the mesenteric artery was evaluated with a myograph system. Isometric contractions of the ileal segments in response to acetylcholine or electrical field stimulation (EFS) (120 V, 2-ms pulse duration for 5 s, 1-20 Hz) were recorded on a polygraph. Additionally, the ileal segments were examined histopathologically. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the mesenteric artery, precontracted by submaximal phenylephrine, markedly decreased after I/R. L-nebivolol pretreatment reversed this relaxation, but racemic nebivolol did not. Contractions induced by both acetylcholine and EFS were significantly reduced after I/R. L-nebivolol, but not racemic nebivolol, prevented this reduction in the acetylcholine-induced contractions. I/R-induced reduction was prevented by L-nebivolol only in response to EFS of 20 Hz. Intestinal I/R caused severe ischemic injury in the rat ileum, which was prevented by L-nebivolol, but not racemic nebivolol. Control responses were not affected by L-nebivolol or racemic nebivolol. These results suggest that L-nebivolol had a protective effect against both endothelial dysfunction of the mesenteric artery and ileal injury induced by intestinal I/R; however, similar effects were not observed for racemic nebivolol.
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While Pmin increased (50,6 +/- 11,2 ms to 54,7 +/- 9,1 ms, p=0,05), Pmax decreased (111,9 +/- 9,1 ms to 104,0 +/- 12,4 ms, p=0,003) and P-wave dispersion decreased (62,5 +/- 10,6 ms to 51,3 +/- 8,9 ms, p < 0,001) with nebivolol, Pmin increased (44,4 +/- 9,8 ms to 58,0 +/- 15,5 ms, p=0,02), Pmax didn t change (106,1 +/- 13,8 ms to 107,0 +/- 11,6 ms, p=NS) and P-wave dispersion decreased (61,7 +/- 15,0 ms to 49,0 +/- 13,7 ms, p < 0.001) with atenolol. However, there was no statistical difference between pre- and post-treatment values of two groups.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pravastatin and nebivolol in the atherosclerotic process including inflammation and oxidative stress in rat aorta.
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Twenty-six patients were recruited. All of them underwent biochemical and hemodynamic evaluation (BP, heart rate (HR), central BP and augmentation index) before and after 3 months of using nebivolol.
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88.5% of the patients were male; their mean age was 49.7 ± 9.3 years and most of them were overweight (29.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) with large abdominal waist (102.1 ± 7.2 cm). There were significant decreases in peripheral systolic BP (P = 0.0020), diastolic BP (P = 0.0049), HR (P < 0.0001) and central BP (129.9 ± 12.3 versus 122.3 ± 10.3 mmHg; P = 0.0083) after treatment, in comparison with the baseline values. There was no statistical difference in the augmentation index or in the biochemical parameters, from before to after the treatment.
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In conclusion, Nebivolol showed no benefit after 6 weeks in rapidly progressing, ANG II-dependent 5/6 A/I model of chronic kidney disease. This contrasts to the protection seen with 6 month treatment of Nebivolol in the slowly progressing 5/6 ablation model.
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Whereas product labels of beta blockers list peripheral arterial disease (PAD) as a contraindication, current PAD guidelines state otherwise. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the ß(1) selective blocker nebivolol in hypertensive patients with PAD.
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Fourteen newly diagnosed, never-treated, World Health Organization grade I-II hypertensive patients (male/female, 10/4; mean age, 47 years), free of coronary heart disease, underwent standard Doppler echocardiography and determination of CFR in the distal left anterior descending artery by low-dose dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg intravenously in 4 min) at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with 5 mg nebivolol once daily.
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This open-label study examined the effect of 14 daily doses of 5 mg nebivolol on forearm blood flow in 21 healthy, young, male, light smokers (< or =5 cigarettes/day), measured by plethysmography on Days 1, 7, and 14. The primary endpoint was the difference in forearm blood flow after smoking one standard cigarette from baseline (Day 1) until treatment end on Day 14. Secondary outcomes included the difference in forearm blood flow between Day 1 and Day 7 compared with Day 14 before and after smoking, the effect of nebivolol on blood coagulation parameters, high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and the safety and tolerability of nebivolol.
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Blood pressure was 105/55 mmHg, the ECG showed sinus bradycardia of 55 beats/min. Biochemical tests revealed hypoglycaemia (2.1 mmol/l), hypokalaemia (3.4 mmol/l) and respiratory failure (pO2 6.16 kPa, O2 saturation 82%, pCO2 6.55 kPA). Heart and lung were unremarkable on physical examination as were chest radiogram and echocardiogram. Plasma level of nebivolol was 480 ng/ml on admission (therapeutic range 88-195 ng/ml).
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Nine obese (157 +/- 24% of ideal body weight (IBW) mean +/- s.d.) and nine non-obese healthy volunteers (98 +/- 10% IBW), aged 32 +/- 9 years, were included in the study. Subjects were randomly given a single i.v. infusion of one of the following racemic beta-adrenoceptor blockers, whose doses (expressed as base per kg of IBW) were: propranolol (0.108 mg), labetalol (0.99 mg) and nebivolol (0.073 mg). The plasma concentrations of unchanged drugs were measured by h.p.l.c. The ionisation constants and lipophilicity parameters of beta-adrenoceptor blockers were assessed.
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In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, we used nevibolol, a lipophilic high-selective beta 1-blocker. It has been found out that the drug, while augmenting the synthesis of nitrogen oxide, improves antioxidant properties. Therefore, it can be recommended for use in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus concurrent with arterial hypertension to achieve normalization of arterial pressure and accomplish a correction of endothelial dysfunction.