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Diazoxide has similar effects in CD34+ cells as described for muscle or nerve cells. In accordance to the single channel conductance of mitoK(ATP) and BK channels, NS1619 is a more potent inducer of mitochondrial depolarization than diazoxide. NS1619 releases Ca2+ from an intracellular pool that is insensitive to caffeine but depends strongly on deltaPsim.
In this in vitro study, the distribution of the enantiomers of verapamil (VER) and its active metabolite, norverapamil (NOR), into the red blood cells (RBCs) of humans and rats was investigated using a chiral liquid chromatographic assay. When plasma was replaced with buffer, the distribution of VER and NOR enantiomers into both human and rat RBCs was substantial (RBC:blood concentration ratios, 1.39-1.79), non-stereoselective, concentration (125-1000 ng mL-1) linear, and species independent. However, in the presence of plasma, the RBC distribution of VER and NOR was stereoselective, with opposite stereoselectivity for human (S > R) and rat (R > S) blood. Additionally, the presence of plasma caused a reduction in the extent of RBC distribution for both VER and NOR enantiomers and in some cases resulted in nonlinearity in the RBC distribution of the enantiomers. Plasma protein binding studies revealed opposite stereoselectivity in the free fractions in human (S > R) and rat (R > S) plasma for both VER and NOR. These data suggest that the stereoselective protein binding is responsible for the apparent stereoselectivity in the RBC distribution of VER and NOR. The data are also in agreement with the opposite stereoselectivity in the plasma concentrations of VER observed in vivo in rats and humans.
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardias (VTs) are generally divided into those arising from the right ventricle and those arising from the left ventricle. There has been few reports of two morphologically distinct VT occurring in patients with no apparent structural heart disease. We report a patient with verapamil-sensitive left VT with a right bundle branch block pattern that spontaneously changed to VT with a left bundle branch block pattern. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by the application of programmed stimulation. Although it is unclear if our patient with pleomorphic VT has ventricular vulnerability, it is necessary to investigate further and follow him carefully.
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In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake into cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Choline uptake into astrocytes showed little dependence on extracellular Na+. Na+-independent choline uptake was saturable and mediated by a single transport system, with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 35.7 +/- 4.1 microm and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 49.1 +/- 2.0 pmol/mg protein/min. Choline uptake was significantly decreased by acidification of the extracellular medium and by membrane depolarization. Na+-independent choline uptake was inhibited by unlabeled choline, acetylcholine and the choline analogue hemicholinium-3. The prototypical organic cation tetrahexylammonium (TEA), and other n-tetraalkylammonium compounds such as tetrabutylammonium (TBA) and tetrahexylammonium (THA), inhibited Na+-independent choline uptake, and their inhibitory potencies were in the order THA > TBA > TEA. Various organic cations, such as 1-methyl-4-tetrahydropyridinium (MPP+), clonidine, quinine, quinidine, guanidine, N-methylnicotinamide, cimetidine, desipramine, diphenhydramine and verapamil, also interacted with the Na+-independent choline transport system. Corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol, known inhibitors of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), did not cause any significant inhibition. However, decynium22, which inhibits OCTs, markedly inhibited Na+-independent choline uptake. RT-PCR demonstrated that astrocytes expressed low levels of OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3 mRNA, but the functional characteristics of choline uptake are very different from the known properties of these OCTs. The high-affinity Na+-dependent choline transporter, CHT1, is not expressed in astrocytes as evidenced by RT-PCR. Furthermore, mRNA for choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1), and its splice variants CTL1a and CTL1b, was expressed in rat astrocytes, and the inhibition of CTL1 expression by RNA interference completely inhibited Na+-independent choline uptake. We conclude that rat astrocytes express an intermediate-affinity Na+-independent choline transport system. This system seems to occur through a CTL1 and is responsible for the uptake of choline and organic cations in these cells.
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Valspodar inhibited hyaluronan export from human chondrocytes in cell culture selectively without reducing aggrecan secretion. Valspodar and other MDR inhibitors prevented loss of aggrecan from osteoarthritic cartilage explants in culture. Verapamil prevented loss of aggrecan from cartilage in osteoarthritic rat knees.
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In this 'proof-of-concept' study, the ability of the efflux transport inhibitor verapamil to modulate the intracellular accumulation of radiolabelled nelfinavir (NFV) and the antiviral effect of NFV was assessed in MT4 cells. Wild-type virus was then serially passaged with increasing concentrations of NFV with and without verapamil and resistance mutations monitored by sequencing of the viral protease gene.
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To examine the prevailing hypothesis that females fare worse than males after acute myocardial infarction, we compared short-term (15 days) and long-term (ten year) prognosis after acute myocardial infarction for the two sexes. Three thousand and seventy-three consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction were followed for 10 years after a first registration in the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial database in 1979-81. Early mortality increased significantly with age (p < 0.0001), but was not significantly related to sex, with a 15 days mortality of 17% in females and 16% in males. Ten year mortality in patients alive day 15 was 58.8%. Hazard ratio for females versus males after adjustment for age was 0.90 (0.80-1.01). Ten year reinfarction rate was 48.8% with age adjusted hazard ratio for females versus males of 0.90 (0.78-1.04) and ten year mortality after reinfarction was 82.3%, with age adjusted hazard ratio in females versus males of 0.98 (0.82-1.16). No difference in cause of death was found between the two sexes. We conclude that sex by itself is not a risk indicator after acute myocardial infarction.
Atrial tachycardia-induced remodeling promotes the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF) and decreases L-type Ca(2+) current. There is also a clinical suggestion that acute L-type Ca(2) channel blockade can promote AF, consistent with an AF promoting effect of Ca(2+) channel inhibition.
We have treated ten patients twice a week during six consecutive weeks using iontophoresis with a Miniphysionizer dispositive. This device generates a 2mA electric current during 20 min which triggers the transdermal penetration of medication. In every session dexamethasone 8 mg and verapamil 5mg were administered inside a small self-adhesive receptacle on the penile skin overlying the fibrosis plaque. To evaluate the efficacy, penile curvature was measured by Kelami's test, while the plaque size was assessed by penile ultrasound. Other parameters like pain, erectile function and ability for vaginal intercourse were recorded using questionnaires. Safety parameters were also assessed during treatment.
In slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome, point mutations of the endplate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) prolong channel openings, leading to excessive Ca(2+) entry with ensuing endplate degeneration and myasthenic symptoms. The Ca(2+) permeability of the human endplate AChR-channel is quite high, and is further increased by two slow-channel mutations in its ɛ subunit, worsening the pathological cascade. To gain further support to the hypothesis that the ɛ subunit plays a crucial role in controlling Ca(2+) permeability of endplate AChR-channel, in this work we measured the fractional Ca(2+) current (P(f), i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca(2+) ions) of a panel of AChR carrying slow-channel mutations in the α, β and ɛ subunits detected in patients (α(N217K), α(S226Y), α(C418W), β(V266A), β(V266M), ɛ(I257F), ɛ(V265A) and ɛ(L269F)). We confirm that only mutations in the ɛ subunit altered Ca(2+) permeability of AChR-channels, with ɛ(L269F) increasing P(f) (10% vs. 7% of wild type AChR) and ɛ(I257F) decreasing it (to 4.6%). We also found that, for ɛ(L269F)-AChR, the Ca(2+) permeability and ACh-induced cell death can be normalized by clinically relevant concentrations of salbutamol or verapamil, providing the first evidence that the Ca(2+) permeability of AChR-channels can be modulated and this treatment may provide protection against excitotoxic insults.
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The effects of voltage-gate K+ channels on human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780 cell) proliferation and cell cycle were observed by means of MTT and flow cytometry. A variety of K+ channel blockers were used in order to differentiate the critical subtype of K+ channels involved. Mechanism of K+ channel in cell proliferation was explored by studying the relationship between the K+ channel and Ca2+ entry. Kv and L-type Ca2+ channel gene expressions were determined by RT-PCR.
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The chromosome aberration assay of metaphase bone marrow cells was used to study the clastogenic effects of acrylamide, cyclophosphamide, dioxidine, and their combinations with Verapamil (a calcium antagonist) in male BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. Verapamil gavage at single (5 mg/kg) and repeated doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg five times at 24-h intervals) significantly enhanced the clastogenic activity of acrylamide (50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in BALB/C mice; in C57BL/6 mice, this effect was only observed when they received Verapamil at doses of 2.5 mg/kg for 5 days. Verapamil administered repeatedly (2.5-10 mg, gavage) significantly increased the clastogenic activity of cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/C mice, this effect of Verapamil was only observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg (gavage). When injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 0.1-0.4 mg/kg, Verapamil significantly enhanced the clastogenic activity of cyclophosphamide in mice of both strains. This calcium antagonist produced identical effects when administered to BALB/C mice intraperitoneally (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) and by gavage (5 mg/kg) and to C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally (5 and 10 mg/kg) and by gavage (2.5 mg/kg). Repeated administration of Verapamil (at all doses tested) promoted the clastogenic effect of dioxidine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) on C57BL/6 mice, having no such influence on BALB/C mice. These results demonstrate the co-clastogenic activity of Verapamil in mice and suggest that its specific manifestations depend on the dose, method, and route of drug administration and the genotype of test animals.
To determine the lipophilicity trend line from the relationship between the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability and the lipophilicity of permeants and compare it with that of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).
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Six women and 1 man, aged 26-76 years (median, 56 years), with magnetic resonance imaging-proven progression of ≥ 25% in cross-sectional area of recurrent meningioma (2 World Health Organization grade I, 5 grade II) within the preceding 6 months received HU 1000 or 1500 mg/day (20 mg/kg/day, twice daily) as well as verapamil sustained-release tablets with dose escalation every 2 weeks (120-240 mg/day). They underwent magnetic resonance imaging every 3 months during therapy. To augment the clinical trial results, we performed mouse orthotopic xenograft experiments using similar dosing to test tumor growth, vascularity, and drug bioavailability.
To ascertain whether circulating adipsin levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between adipsin and metabolic parameters or carotid intima media thickness (CIMT).
The mechanism of NH4+ transport in inner medulla is not known. The purpose of these experiments was to study the process that is involved in ammonium (NH4+) transport in cultured inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD-3) cells. Cells grown on coverslips were exposed to NH4+ and monitored for pHi changes by the use of the pH-sensitive dye BCECF. The rate of cell acidification following the initial cell alkalinization was measured as an index of NH4+ transport. The rate of NH4+ transport was the same in the presence or absence of sodium in the media (0.052 +/- 0.003 vs 0.048 +/- 0.004 pH/min. P > 0.05), indicating that NH4+ entry into the cells was independent of sodium. The presence of ouabain, bumetanide, amiloride, barium, or 4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) did not block the NH4(+)-induced cell acidification, indicating lack of involvement of Na+:K(+)-ATPase, Na+:K+:2Cl- transport, Na+:H+ exchange, K+ channel, or Cl-/base exchange, respectively, in NH4+ transport. The NH4(+)-induced cell acidification was significantly inhibited in the presence of high external [K+] as compared to low external [K+] (0.018 +/- 0.001 vs. 0.049 +/- 0.003 pH/min for 140 mM K+ vs. 1.8 mM K+ in the media, respectively, P < 0.001). Inducing K+ efflux by imposing an outward K+ gradient caused intracellular acidification by approximately 0.3 pH unit in the presence but not the absence of NH4+. This K+ efflux-induced NH4+ entry increased by extracellular NH4+ in a saturable manner with a Km of approximately 5 mM, blocked by increasing extracellular K+ and was not inhibited by barium. The K+ efflux-coupled NH4+ entry was electroneutral as monitored by the use of cell membrane potential probe 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine. These results are consistent with the exchange of internal K+ with external NH4+ in a 1:1 ratio. The K(+)-NH4+ antiporter was inhibited by verapamil and Schering 28080 in a dose-dependent manner, was able to work in reverse mode, and did not show any affinity for H+ as a substrate, indicating that it is distinct from other NH4(+)-carrying transporters. We conclude that a unique transporter, a potassium-ammonium (K+/NH4+) antiport, is responsible for NH4+ transport in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. This antiporter is sensitive to verapamil and Schering 28080, is electroneutral, and is selective for NH4+ and K+ as substrates. The K+/NH4+ antiporter may play a significant role in acid-base regulation by excretion of ammonium and elimination of acid.
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1. Mitochondrial uncouplers are potent stimulants of the carotid body. We have therefore investigated their effects upon isolated type I cells. Both 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was largely inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or Na+, or by the addition of 2 mM Ni2+. Methoxyverapamil (D600) also partially inhibited the [Ca2+]i response. 2. In perforated-patch recordings, the rise in [Ca2+]i coincided with membrane depolarization and was greatly reduced by voltage clamping the cell to -70 mV. Uncouplers also inhibited a background K+ current and induced a small inward current. 3. Uncouplers reduced pHi by 0.1 unit. Alkaline media diminished this acidification but had no effect on the [Ca2+]i response. 4. FCCP and DNP also depolarized type I cell mitochondria. The onset of mitochondrial depolarization preceded changes in cell membrane conductance by 3-4 s. 5. We conclude that uncouplers excite the carotid body by inhibiting a background K+ conductance and inducing a small inward current, both of which lead to membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. These effects are unlikely to be caused by cell acidification. The inhibition of background K+ current may be related to the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.
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The effect of pretreatment of some voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists was studied on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in male Wistar rats. Cataleptogenic effect of haloperidol (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced dose-dependently by nitrendipine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and the highest dose of nimodipine (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Neither verapamil (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) nor diltiazem (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the score of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. These results suggest the involvement of calcium-dependent mechanisms in the generation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The possible involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms and modification by calcium channel antagonists are discussed.
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Cyclosporine A (CsA) and verapamil are two agents used in renal transplantation, both of which are suspected of inducing gingival overgrowth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of verapamil on the severity and prevalence of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth. Fifty-one (51) renal transplant recipients (total group) of whom 22 were using only CsA (Group A) and 29 of whom were prescribed CsA + verapamil (Group B) were evaluated for various periodontal and pharmacological parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in age, sex, plaque index, gingival index, calculus index, probing depth, CsA oral dose, CsA whole blood level, duration of CsA therapy, azathioprine dose, and prednisolone dose. Although the prevalence of the gingival overgrowth was more pronounced in CsA + verapamil group compared to CsA group (51.72% vs. 40.91%), the difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the severity of gingival overgrowth, although more manifest in CsA + verapamil group than CsA patients (34.24% vs. 28.91%), was not significantly different. Gingival overgrowth scores in the main group, CsA, and CsA + verapamil groups were found to be positively correlated to periodontal probing depths (r = 0.60, r = 0.70, r = 0.52, respectively) and the gingival index (r = 0.60, r = 0.70, r = 0.54, respectively). CsA oral dose, whole blood level, and duration of CsA therapy were not found to be correlated with the gingival overgrowth in either group. Likewise, the dose of verapamil and the duration of verapamil therapy were not correlated with the gingival overgrowth in Group B. This study indicates that verapamil, when prescribed as the calcium channel blocker in renal transplant patients, has no augmenting effect on the severity and the prevalence of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth.
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A 9-month-old male infant was transported to the intensive care unit at Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado, for evaluation and treatment of a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systemic hypertension. The child was full-term with no perinatal problems. Specifically, the child never required umbilical arterial catheterization. He was well until 6 months of age when his parents noted poor weight gain. At 9 months of age, he was evaluated at the referral hospital for failure to thrive. On examination he was noted to have a blood pressure of 170/110 mm Hg, but no other abnormalities. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Laboratory studies demonstrated normal electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. However, urinalysis demonstrated 4+ protein without red blood cells. An echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction of 16%. On admission the child was noted to be cachectic. His vital signs, including blood pressure, were normal for age. The physical examination was unremarkable. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were normal. Echocardiographic studies suggested a dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He was started on digoxin and captopril. Subsequently, he demonstrated episodic hypertension ranging from 170/90 to 220/130 mm Hg. A repeat echocardiogram 24 hours after admission demonstrated a purely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Verapamil and nifedipine were added to the treatment regimen in an effort to better control the blood pressure without success. Urine and blood for catecholamines and plasma renin activity, respectively, were sent and treatment with phentolamine instituted because of a possible pheochromocytoma. A spiral abdominal computerized tomographic scan revealed a markedly abnormal right kidney with linear streaky areas of calcification around the hilum and also an area of nonenhancement in the posterior upper pole. The adrenals and the left kidney were normal. Doppler ultrasound revealed a decrease in right renal arterial flow. The urinary catecholamines were normal and surgery was scheduled after the blood pressure was brought under control by medical treatment. At surgery, tumorous tissue and thrombosis of the renal artery were found in the right upper pole. A right nephrectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the kidney showed the presence of a diffuse spindle cell proliferation in the interstitium of the kidney. The angiogenic/angiocentric character of the proliferation was demonstrated in several large renal vessels. The lumen of most vessels was narrowed and some vessels were totally occluded with recanalization and dystrophic calcifications observed. Immunostaining of the tumor demonstrated strong desmin and vimentin positivity and minimal actin positivity in the spindle cells. Mitotic activity was not noted in the spindle cell process. These pathologic changes were consistent with a diagnosis of infantile myofibromatosis (IM). The child's preoperative plasma renin activity was 50 712 ng/dL/h (reference range, 235-3700 ng/dL/h).
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The role of Ca2+ in sturgeon sperm maturation and motility was investigated. Sperm from mature male sterlets (Acipenser ruthenus) were collected from the Wolffian duct and testis 24 h after hormone induction. Testicular spermatozoa (TS) were incubated in Wolffian duct seminal fluid (WDSF) for 5 min at 20°C and were designated 'TS after IVM' (TSM). Sperm motility was activated in media with different ion compositions, with motility parameters analysed from standard video microscopy records. To investigate the role of calcium transport in the IVM process, IVM was performed (5 min at 20°C) in the presence of 2 mM EGTA, 100 µM Verapamil or 100 µM Tetracaine. No motility was observed in the case of TS (10 mM Tris, 25 mM NaCl, 50 mM Sucr with or without the addition of 2 mM EGTA). Both incubation of TS in WDSF and supplementation of the activation medium with Ca2+ led to sperm motility. The minimal Ca2+ concentration required for motility activation of Wolffian duct spermatozoa, TS and TSM was determined (1-2 nM for Wolffian duct spermatozoa and TSM; approximately 0.6 mM for TS). Motility was obtained after the addition of verapamil to the incubation medium during IVM, whereas the addition of EGTA completely suppressed motility, implying Ca2+ involvement in sturgeon sperm maturation. Further studies into the roles of Ca2+ transport in sturgeon sperm maturation and motility are required.
Fluorescence videomicroscopy was used to monitor changes in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the mouse muscle cell line C2Cl2 during in vitro myogenesis. Three different patterns of changes in [Ca2+]i were observed: (i) [Ca2+]i oscillations; (ii) faster Ca2+ events confined to subcellular regions (localized [Ca2+]i spikes) and (iii) [Ca2+]i spikes detectable in the entire myotube (global [Ca2+]i spikes). [Ca2+]i oscillations and localized [Ca2+]i spikes were detectable following the appearance of caffeine-sensitivity in differentiating C2Cl2 cells. Global [Ca2+]i spikes appeared later in the process of myogenesis in cells exhibiting coupling between voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors. In contrast to [Ca2+]i oscillations and localized [Ca2+]i spikes, the global events immediately stopped when cells were perfused either with a Ca2+-free solution, or a solution with TTX, TEA and verapamil. To explore further the mechanism of the global [Ca2+]i spikes, membrane currents and fluorescence signals were measured simultaneously. These experiments revealed that global [Ca2+]i spikes were correlated with an inward current. Moreover, while the depletion of the Ca2+ stores blocked [Ca2+]i oscillations and localized [Ca2+]i spikes, it only reduced the amplitude of global [Ca2+]i spikes. It is suggested that, during the earlier stages of the myogenesis, spontaneous and repetitive [Ca2+]i changes may be based on cytosolic oscillatory mechanisms. The coupling between voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors seems to be the prerequisite for the appearance of global [Ca2+]i spikes triggered by a membrane oscillatory mechanism, which characterizes the later phases of the myogenic process.
Portuguese Man-of-war venom markedly increases calcium (45Ca2+) influx into primary, cultured, embryonic chick heart cells. This action is dose-dependent, but is unaffected by organic calcium blockers (diltiazem, verapamil, nifedipine, nimodipine and mibefradil). On the other hand, certain trivalent (La3+, Gd3+) and divalent (Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Mn2+) metals inhibit venom-induced calcium influx. Sodium (22Na+) influx into chick heart cells is also significantly increased by Man-of-war venom. Flecainide does not block venom-induced sodium influx. The efflux of the potassium analogue, 86Rb+, from heart cells is also significantly increased by the venom. The venom, however, has little or no effect on rubidium (86Rb+) or 2-deoxy-D-[2-3H] glucose influx.
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Prediabetes is the preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with intermediate state of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in a state of oxidative stress, which may contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and long-term complications of diabetes. Novel approaches are required for prevention and treatment of diabetes. New biomarkers that can be used in risk stratification and therapy control as supplementary to current parameters are needed. These biomarkers may facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage products, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) (also known as 8-OH-dG), (5'R)- and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosines (R-cdA and S-cdA), and the lipid peroxidation product 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) as reliable oxidative stress markers in patients with prediabetes or T2DM in comparison with healthy volunteers. Urine samples were collected from these subjects. Absolute quantification of 8-oxo-dG, R-cdA, S-cdA and 8-iso-PGF2α was achieved by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of 8-oxo-dG, S-cdA and 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly greater in prediabetes patients than those in healthy volunteers. T2DM patients also had higher levels of 8-oxo-dG than healthy volunteers. No statistically significant difference was observed for R-cdA levels. 8-Oxo-dG levels positively correlated with R-cdA and S-cdA levels for prediabetes and newly diagnosed T2DM. S-cdA levels and HbA1c were found negatively correlated in prediabetes patients. Also 8-iso-PGF2α levels and HbA1c were found negatively correlated in prediabetes patients. These results indicate that oxidatively induced macromolecular damage appears before the establishment of T2DM. Thus, our data suggest that oxidatively induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation products that were found to be elevated in prediabetic stage may be used as early disease markers in patients at risk for T2DM.
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All of these analytical assays confirmed the ability to reduce the chemoresistance of the cancer cells based on the proposed procedure.
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Primarily randomized, controlled trials of medications.