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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)

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Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.


Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.


Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.


If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

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Diazoxide has similar effects in CD34+ cells as described for muscle or nerve cells. In accordance to the single channel conductance of mitoK(ATP) and BK channels, NS1619 is a more potent inducer of mitochondrial depolarization than diazoxide. NS1619 releases Ca2+ from an intracellular pool that is insensitive to caffeine but depends strongly on deltaPsim.

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In this in vitro study, the distribution of the enantiomers of verapamil (VER) and its active metabolite, norverapamil (NOR), into the red blood cells (RBCs) of humans and rats was investigated using a chiral liquid chromatographic assay. When plasma was replaced with buffer, the distribution of VER and NOR enantiomers into both human and rat RBCs was substantial (RBC:blood concentration ratios, 1.39-1.79), non-stereoselective, concentration (125-1000 ng mL-1) linear, and species independent. However, in the presence of plasma, the RBC distribution of VER and NOR was stereoselective, with opposite stereoselectivity for human (S > R) and rat (R > S) blood. Additionally, the presence of plasma caused a reduction in the extent of RBC distribution for both VER and NOR enantiomers and in some cases resulted in nonlinearity in the RBC distribution of the enantiomers. Plasma protein binding studies revealed opposite stereoselectivity in the free fractions in human (S > R) and rat (R > S) plasma for both VER and NOR. These data suggest that the stereoselective protein binding is responsible for the apparent stereoselectivity in the RBC distribution of VER and NOR. The data are also in agreement with the opposite stereoselectivity in the plasma concentrations of VER observed in vivo in rats and humans.

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Idiopathic ventricular tachycardias (VTs) are generally divided into those arising from the right ventricle and those arising from the left ventricle. There has been few reports of two morphologically distinct VT occurring in patients with no apparent structural heart disease. We report a patient with verapamil-sensitive left VT with a right bundle branch block pattern that spontaneously changed to VT with a left bundle branch block pattern. Ventricular fibrillation was induced by the application of programmed stimulation. Although it is unclear if our patient with pleomorphic VT has ventricular vulnerability, it is necessary to investigate further and follow him carefully.

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In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake into cultured rat cortical astrocytes. Choline uptake into astrocytes showed little dependence on extracellular Na+. Na+-independent choline uptake was saturable and mediated by a single transport system, with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 35.7 +/- 4.1 microm and a maximal velocity (Vmax) of 49.1 +/- 2.0 pmol/mg protein/min. Choline uptake was significantly decreased by acidification of the extracellular medium and by membrane depolarization. Na+-independent choline uptake was inhibited by unlabeled choline, acetylcholine and the choline analogue hemicholinium-3. The prototypical organic cation tetrahexylammonium (TEA), and other n-tetraalkylammonium compounds such as tetrabutylammonium (TBA) and tetrahexylammonium (THA), inhibited Na+-independent choline uptake, and their inhibitory potencies were in the order THA > TBA > TEA. Various organic cations, such as 1-methyl-4-tetrahydropyridinium (MPP+), clonidine, quinine, quinidine, guanidine, N-methylnicotinamide, cimetidine, desipramine, diphenhydramine and verapamil, also interacted with the Na+-independent choline transport system. Corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol, known inhibitors of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), did not cause any significant inhibition. However, decynium22, which inhibits OCTs, markedly inhibited Na+-independent choline uptake. RT-PCR demonstrated that astrocytes expressed low levels of OCT1, OCT2 and OCT3 mRNA, but the functional characteristics of choline uptake are very different from the known properties of these OCTs. The high-affinity Na+-dependent choline transporter, CHT1, is not expressed in astrocytes as evidenced by RT-PCR. Furthermore, mRNA for choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1), and its splice variants CTL1a and CTL1b, was expressed in rat astrocytes, and the inhibition of CTL1 expression by RNA interference completely inhibited Na+-independent choline uptake. We conclude that rat astrocytes express an intermediate-affinity Na+-independent choline transport system. This system seems to occur through a CTL1 and is responsible for the uptake of choline and organic cations in these cells.

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Valspodar inhibited hyaluronan export from human chondrocytes in cell culture selectively without reducing aggrecan secretion. Valspodar and other MDR inhibitors prevented loss of aggrecan from osteoarthritic cartilage explants in culture. Verapamil prevented loss of aggrecan from cartilage in osteoarthritic rat knees.

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In this 'proof-of-concept' study, the ability of the efflux transport inhibitor verapamil to modulate the intracellular accumulation of radiolabelled nelfinavir (NFV) and the antiviral effect of NFV was assessed in MT4 cells. Wild-type virus was then serially passaged with increasing concentrations of NFV with and without verapamil and resistance mutations monitored by sequencing of the viral protease gene.

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To examine the prevailing hypothesis that females fare worse than males after acute myocardial infarction, we compared short-term (15 days) and long-term (ten year) prognosis after acute myocardial infarction for the two sexes. Three thousand and seventy-three consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction were followed for 10 years after a first registration in the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial database in 1979-81. Early mortality increased significantly with age (p < 0.0001), but was not significantly related to sex, with a 15 days mortality of 17% in females and 16% in males. Ten year mortality in patients alive day 15 was 58.8%. Hazard ratio for females versus males after adjustment for age was 0.90 (0.80-1.01). Ten year reinfarction rate was 48.8% with age adjusted hazard ratio for females versus males of 0.90 (0.78-1.04) and ten year mortality after reinfarction was 82.3%, with age adjusted hazard ratio in females versus males of 0.98 (0.82-1.16). No difference in cause of death was found between the two sexes. We conclude that sex by itself is not a risk indicator after acute myocardial infarction.

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Atrial tachycardia-induced remodeling promotes the occurrence and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF) and decreases L-type Ca(2+) current. There is also a clinical suggestion that acute L-type Ca(2) channel blockade can promote AF, consistent with an AF promoting effect of Ca(2+) channel inhibition.

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We have treated ten patients twice a week during six consecutive weeks using iontophoresis with a Miniphysionizer dispositive. This device generates a 2mA electric current during 20 min which triggers the transdermal penetration of medication. In every session dexamethasone 8 mg and verapamil 5mg were administered inside a small self-adhesive receptacle on the penile skin overlying the fibrosis plaque. To evaluate the efficacy, penile curvature was measured by Kelami's test, while the plaque size was assessed by penile ultrasound. Other parameters like pain, erectile function and ability for vaginal intercourse were recorded using questionnaires. Safety parameters were also assessed during treatment.

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In slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome, point mutations of the endplate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) prolong channel openings, leading to excessive Ca(2+) entry with ensuing endplate degeneration and myasthenic symptoms. The Ca(2+) permeability of the human endplate AChR-channel is quite high, and is further increased by two slow-channel mutations in its ɛ subunit, worsening the pathological cascade. To gain further support to the hypothesis that the ɛ subunit plays a crucial role in controlling Ca(2+) permeability of endplate AChR-channel, in this work we measured the fractional Ca(2+) current (P(f), i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca(2+) ions) of a panel of AChR carrying slow-channel mutations in the α, β and ɛ subunits detected in patients (α(N217K), α(S226Y), α(C418W), β(V266A), β(V266M), ɛ(I257F), ɛ(V265A) and ɛ(L269F)). We confirm that only mutations in the ɛ subunit altered Ca(2+) permeability of AChR-channels, with ɛ(L269F) increasing P(f) (10% vs. 7% of wild type AChR) and ɛ(I257F) decreasing it (to 4.6%). We also found that, for ɛ(L269F)-AChR, the Ca(2+) permeability and ACh-induced cell death can be normalized by clinically relevant concentrations of salbutamol or verapamil, providing the first evidence that the Ca(2+) permeability of AChR-channels can be modulated and this treatment may provide protection against excitotoxic insults.

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The effects of voltage-gate K+ channels on human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780 cell) proliferation and cell cycle were observed by means of MTT and flow cytometry. A variety of K+ channel blockers were used in order to differentiate the critical subtype of K+ channels involved. Mechanism of K+ channel in cell proliferation was explored by studying the relationship between the K+ channel and Ca2+ entry. Kv and L-type Ca2+ channel gene expressions were determined by RT-PCR.

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The chromosome aberration assay of metaphase bone marrow cells was used to study the clastogenic effects of acrylamide, cyclophosphamide, dioxidine, and their combinations with Verapamil (a calcium antagonist) in male BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice. Verapamil gavage at single (5 mg/kg) and repeated doses (2.5 and 5 mg/kg five times at 24-h intervals) significantly enhanced the clastogenic activity of acrylamide (50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in BALB/C mice; in C57BL/6 mice, this effect was only observed when they received Verapamil at doses of 2.5 mg/kg for 5 days. Verapamil administered repeatedly (2.5-10 mg, gavage) significantly increased the clastogenic activity of cyclophosphamide (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) in C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/C mice, this effect of Verapamil was only observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg (gavage). When injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 0.1-0.4 mg/kg, Verapamil significantly enhanced the clastogenic activity of cyclophosphamide in mice of both strains. This calcium antagonist produced identical effects when administered to BALB/C mice intraperitoneally (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) and by gavage (5 mg/kg) and to C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally (5 and 10 mg/kg) and by gavage (2.5 mg/kg). Repeated administration of Verapamil (at all doses tested) promoted the clastogenic effect of dioxidine (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally) on C57BL/6 mice, having no such influence on BALB/C mice. These results demonstrate the co-clastogenic activity of Verapamil in mice and suggest that its specific manifestations depend on the dose, method, and route of drug administration and the genotype of test animals.

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To determine the lipophilicity trend line from the relationship between the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability and the lipophilicity of permeants and compare it with that of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

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Six women and 1 man, aged 26-76 years (median, 56 years), with magnetic resonance imaging-proven progression of ≥ 25% in cross-sectional area of recurrent meningioma (2 World Health Organization grade I, 5 grade II) within the preceding 6 months received HU 1000 or 1500 mg/day (20 mg/kg/day, twice daily) as well as verapamil sustained-release tablets with dose escalation every 2 weeks (120-240 mg/day). They underwent magnetic resonance imaging every 3 months during therapy. To augment the clinical trial results, we performed mouse orthotopic xenograft experiments using similar dosing to test tumor growth, vascularity, and drug bioavailability.

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To ascertain whether circulating adipsin levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between adipsin and metabolic parameters or carotid intima media thickness (CIMT).

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The mechanism of NH4+ transport in inner medulla is not known. The purpose of these experiments was to study the process that is involved in ammonium (NH4+) transport in cultured inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD-3) cells. Cells grown on coverslips were exposed to NH4+ and monitored for pHi changes by the use of the pH-sensitive dye BCECF. The rate of cell acidification following the initial cell alkalinization was measured as an index of NH4+ transport. The rate of NH4+ transport was the same in the presence or absence of sodium in the media (0.052 +/- 0.003 vs 0.048 +/- 0.004 pH/min. P > 0.05), indicating that NH4+ entry into the cells was independent of sodium. The presence of ouabain, bumetanide, amiloride, barium, or 4,4'-di-isothiocyanostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) did not block the NH4(+)-induced cell acidification, indicating lack of involvement of Na+:K(+)-ATPase, Na+:K+:2Cl- transport, Na+:H+ exchange, K+ channel, or Cl-/base exchange, respectively, in NH4+ transport. The NH4(+)-induced cell acidification was significantly inhibited in the presence of high external [K+] as compared to low external [K+] (0.018 +/- 0.001 vs. 0.049 +/- 0.003 pH/min for 140 mM K+ vs. 1.8 mM K+ in the media, respectively, P < 0.001). Inducing K+ efflux by imposing an outward K+ gradient caused intracellular acidification by approximately 0.3 pH unit in the presence but not the absence of NH4+. This K+ efflux-induced NH4+ entry increased by extracellular NH4+ in a saturable manner with a Km of approximately 5 mM, blocked by increasing extracellular K+ and was not inhibited by barium. The K+ efflux-coupled NH4+ entry was electroneutral as monitored by the use of cell membrane potential probe 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine. These results are consistent with the exchange of internal K+ with external NH4+ in a 1:1 ratio. The K(+)-NH4+ antiporter was inhibited by verapamil and Schering 28080 in a dose-dependent manner, was able to work in reverse mode, and did not show any affinity for H+ as a substrate, indicating that it is distinct from other NH4(+)-carrying transporters. We conclude that a unique transporter, a potassium-ammonium (K+/NH4+) antiport, is responsible for NH4+ transport in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells. This antiporter is sensitive to verapamil and Schering 28080, is electroneutral, and is selective for NH4+ and K+ as substrates. The K+/NH4+ antiporter may play a significant role in acid-base regulation by excretion of ammonium and elimination of acid.

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1. Mitochondrial uncouplers are potent stimulants of the carotid body. We have therefore investigated their effects upon isolated type I cells. Both 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (FCCP) caused an increase in [Ca2+]i which was largely inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or Na+, or by the addition of 2 mM Ni2+. Methoxyverapamil (D600) also partially inhibited the [Ca2+]i response. 2. In perforated-patch recordings, the rise in [Ca2+]i coincided with membrane depolarization and was greatly reduced by voltage clamping the cell to -70 mV. Uncouplers also inhibited a background K+ current and induced a small inward current. 3. Uncouplers reduced pHi by 0.1 unit. Alkaline media diminished this acidification but had no effect on the [Ca2+]i response. 4. FCCP and DNP also depolarized type I cell mitochondria. The onset of mitochondrial depolarization preceded changes in cell membrane conductance by 3-4 s. 5. We conclude that uncouplers excite the carotid body by inhibiting a background K+ conductance and inducing a small inward current, both of which lead to membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ entry. These effects are unlikely to be caused by cell acidification. The inhibition of background K+ current may be related to the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

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The effect of pretreatment of some voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists was studied on haloperidol-induced catalepsy in male Wistar rats. Cataleptogenic effect of haloperidol (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) was enhanced dose-dependently by nitrendipine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and the highest dose of nimodipine (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Neither verapamil (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) nor diltiazem (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the score of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. These results suggest the involvement of calcium-dependent mechanisms in the generation of haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The possible involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms and modification by calcium channel antagonists are discussed.

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Cyclosporine A (CsA) and verapamil are two agents used in renal transplantation, both of which are suspected of inducing gingival overgrowth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of verapamil on the severity and prevalence of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth. Fifty-one (51) renal transplant recipients (total group) of whom 22 were using only CsA (Group A) and 29 of whom were prescribed CsA + verapamil (Group B) were evaluated for various periodontal and pharmacological parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in age, sex, plaque index, gingival index, calculus index, probing depth, CsA oral dose, CsA whole blood level, duration of CsA therapy, azathioprine dose, and prednisolone dose. Although the prevalence of the gingival overgrowth was more pronounced in CsA + verapamil group compared to CsA group (51.72% vs. 40.91%), the difference was not statistically significant. Similarly, the severity of gingival overgrowth, although more manifest in CsA + verapamil group than CsA patients (34.24% vs. 28.91%), was not significantly different. Gingival overgrowth scores in the main group, CsA, and CsA + verapamil groups were found to be positively correlated to periodontal probing depths (r = 0.60, r = 0.70, r = 0.52, respectively) and the gingival index (r = 0.60, r = 0.70, r = 0.54, respectively). CsA oral dose, whole blood level, and duration of CsA therapy were not found to be correlated with the gingival overgrowth in either group. Likewise, the dose of verapamil and the duration of verapamil therapy were not correlated with the gingival overgrowth in Group B. This study indicates that verapamil, when prescribed as the calcium channel blocker in renal transplant patients, has no augmenting effect on the severity and the prevalence of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth.

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A 9-month-old male infant was transported to the intensive care unit at Children's Hospital in Denver, Colorado, for evaluation and treatment of a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systemic hypertension. The child was full-term with no perinatal problems. Specifically, the child never required umbilical arterial catheterization. He was well until 6 months of age when his parents noted poor weight gain. At 9 months of age, he was evaluated at the referral hospital for failure to thrive. On examination he was noted to have a blood pressure of 170/110 mm Hg, but no other abnormalities. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Laboratory studies demonstrated normal electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. However, urinalysis demonstrated 4+ protein without red blood cells. An echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction of 16%. On admission the child was noted to be cachectic. His vital signs, including blood pressure, were normal for age. The physical examination was unremarkable. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were normal. Echocardiographic studies suggested a dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He was started on digoxin and captopril. Subsequently, he demonstrated episodic hypertension ranging from 170/90 to 220/130 mm Hg. A repeat echocardiogram 24 hours after admission demonstrated a purely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Verapamil and nifedipine were added to the treatment regimen in an effort to better control the blood pressure without success. Urine and blood for catecholamines and plasma renin activity, respectively, were sent and treatment with phentolamine instituted because of a possible pheochromocytoma. A spiral abdominal computerized tomographic scan revealed a markedly abnormal right kidney with linear streaky areas of calcification around the hilum and also an area of nonenhancement in the posterior upper pole. The adrenals and the left kidney were normal. Doppler ultrasound revealed a decrease in right renal arterial flow. The urinary catecholamines were normal and surgery was scheduled after the blood pressure was brought under control by medical treatment. At surgery, tumorous tissue and thrombosis of the renal artery were found in the right upper pole. A right nephrectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the kidney showed the presence of a diffuse spindle cell proliferation in the interstitium of the kidney. The angiogenic/angiocentric character of the proliferation was demonstrated in several large renal vessels. The lumen of most vessels was narrowed and some vessels were totally occluded with recanalization and dystrophic calcifications observed. Immunostaining of the tumor demonstrated strong desmin and vimentin positivity and minimal actin positivity in the spindle cells. Mitotic activity was not noted in the spindle cell process. These pathologic changes were consistent with a diagnosis of infantile myofibromatosis (IM). The child's preoperative plasma renin activity was 50 712 ng/dL/h (reference range, 235-3700 ng/dL/h).

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The role of Ca2+ in sturgeon sperm maturation and motility was investigated. Sperm from mature male sterlets (Acipenser ruthenus) were collected from the Wolffian duct and testis 24 h after hormone induction. Testicular spermatozoa (TS) were incubated in Wolffian duct seminal fluid (WDSF) for 5 min at 20°C and were designated 'TS after IVM' (TSM). Sperm motility was activated in media with different ion compositions, with motility parameters analysed from standard video microscopy records. To investigate the role of calcium transport in the IVM process, IVM was performed (5 min at 20°C) in the presence of 2 mM EGTA, 100 µM Verapamil or 100 µM Tetracaine. No motility was observed in the case of TS (10 mM Tris, 25 mM NaCl, 50 mM Sucr with or without the addition of 2 mM EGTA). Both incubation of TS in WDSF and supplementation of the activation medium with Ca2+ led to sperm motility. The minimal Ca2+ concentration required for motility activation of Wolffian duct spermatozoa, TS and TSM was determined (1-2 nM for Wolffian duct spermatozoa and TSM; approximately 0.6 mM for TS). Motility was obtained after the addition of verapamil to the incubation medium during IVM, whereas the addition of EGTA completely suppressed motility, implying Ca2+ involvement in sturgeon sperm maturation. Further studies into the roles of Ca2+ transport in sturgeon sperm maturation and motility are required.

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Fluorescence videomicroscopy was used to monitor changes in the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the mouse muscle cell line C2Cl2 during in vitro myogenesis. Three different patterns of changes in [Ca2+]i were observed: (i) [Ca2+]i oscillations; (ii) faster Ca2+ events confined to subcellular regions (localized [Ca2+]i spikes) and (iii) [Ca2+]i spikes detectable in the entire myotube (global [Ca2+]i spikes). [Ca2+]i oscillations and localized [Ca2+]i spikes were detectable following the appearance of caffeine-sensitivity in differentiating C2Cl2 cells. Global [Ca2+]i spikes appeared later in the process of myogenesis in cells exhibiting coupling between voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors. In contrast to [Ca2+]i oscillations and localized [Ca2+]i spikes, the global events immediately stopped when cells were perfused either with a Ca2+-free solution, or a solution with TTX, TEA and verapamil. To explore further the mechanism of the global [Ca2+]i spikes, membrane currents and fluorescence signals were measured simultaneously. These experiments revealed that global [Ca2+]i spikes were correlated with an inward current. Moreover, while the depletion of the Ca2+ stores blocked [Ca2+]i oscillations and localized [Ca2+]i spikes, it only reduced the amplitude of global [Ca2+]i spikes. It is suggested that, during the earlier stages of the myogenesis, spontaneous and repetitive [Ca2+]i changes may be based on cytosolic oscillatory mechanisms. The coupling between voltage-operated Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors seems to be the prerequisite for the appearance of global [Ca2+]i spikes triggered by a membrane oscillatory mechanism, which characterizes the later phases of the myogenic process.

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Portuguese Man-of-war venom markedly increases calcium (45Ca2+) influx into primary, cultured, embryonic chick heart cells. This action is dose-dependent, but is unaffected by organic calcium blockers (diltiazem, verapamil, nifedipine, nimodipine and mibefradil). On the other hand, certain trivalent (La3+, Gd3+) and divalent (Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Mn2+) metals inhibit venom-induced calcium influx. Sodium (22Na+) influx into chick heart cells is also significantly increased by Man-of-war venom. Flecainide does not block venom-induced sodium influx. The efflux of the potassium analogue, 86Rb+, from heart cells is also significantly increased by the venom. The venom, however, has little or no effect on rubidium (86Rb+) or 2-deoxy-D-[2-3H] glucose influx.

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Prediabetes is the preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with intermediate state of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia results in a state of oxidative stress, which may contribute to the production of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and long-term complications of diabetes. Novel approaches are required for prevention and treatment of diabetes. New biomarkers that can be used in risk stratification and therapy control as supplementary to current parameters are needed. These biomarkers may facilitate a more individualized and sufficient treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the levels of oxidatively induced DNA damage products, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) (also known as 8-OH-dG), (5'R)- and (5'S)-8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosines (R-cdA and S-cdA), and the lipid peroxidation product 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) as reliable oxidative stress markers in patients with prediabetes or T2DM in comparison with healthy volunteers. Urine samples were collected from these subjects. Absolute quantification of 8-oxo-dG, R-cdA, S-cdA and 8-iso-PGF2α was achieved by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. The levels of 8-oxo-dG, S-cdA and 8-iso-PGF2α were significantly greater in prediabetes patients than those in healthy volunteers. T2DM patients also had higher levels of 8-oxo-dG than healthy volunteers. No statistically significant difference was observed for R-cdA levels. 8-Oxo-dG levels positively correlated with R-cdA and S-cdA levels for prediabetes and newly diagnosed T2DM. S-cdA levels and HbA1c were found negatively correlated in prediabetes patients. Also 8-iso-PGF2α levels and HbA1c were found negatively correlated in prediabetes patients. These results indicate that oxidatively induced macromolecular damage appears before the establishment of T2DM. Thus, our data suggest that oxidatively induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation products that were found to be elevated in prediabetic stage may be used as early disease markers in patients at risk for T2DM.

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All of these analytical assays confirmed the ability to reduce the chemoresistance of the cancer cells based on the proposed procedure.

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Primarily randomized, controlled trials of medications.

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calan generic name 2015-10-05

TFH, Que and Isor might decrease the levels of [Ca(2+)](i) in VSMCs by blocking both voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDC) and receptor-operated calcium channels (ROC) in buy calan physiological or pathological state, which may be one of the important mechanisms of their hypotensive and protective effects on target organs in patients with hypertension.

calan sr medication 2015-04-17

Genetic variation in the multidrug resistance gene ABCB1, which encodes the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been associated with buy calan Parkinson disease. Our goal was to investigate P-gp transport of paraquat, a Parkinson-associated neurotoxicant. We used in vitro transport models of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, transepithelial permeability, and rhodamine-123 inhibition. We also measured paraquat pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Friend leukemia virus B-type (FVB) wild-type and P-gp-deficient (mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-)) mice following 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg oral doses. In vitro data showed that: 1) paraquat failed to stimulate ATPase activity; 2) resistance to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity was unchanged in P-gp-expressing cells in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] and verapamil-37.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2-41.4], 46.2 (42.5-50.2), and 34.1 µM (31.2-37.2)-respectively; 3) transepithelial permeability ratios of paraquat were the same in P-gp-expressing and nonexpressing cells (1.55 ± 0.39 and 1.39 ± 0.43, respectively); and 4) paraquat did not inhibit rhodamine-123 transport. Population pharmacokinetic modeling revealed minor differences between FVB wild-type and mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-) mice: clearances of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.52] and 0.78 l/h (0.58-0.98), respectively, and volume of distributions of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.50-2.04) and 3.36 liters (2.39-4.33), respectively; however, the change in clearance was in the opposite direction of what would be expected. It is noteworthy that paraquat brain-to-plasma partitioning ratios and total brain accumulation were the same across doses between FVB wild-type and mdr1a(-/-)/mdr1b(-/-) mice. These studies indicate that paraquat is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, the association between ABCB1 pharmacogenomics and Parkinson disease is not attributed to alterations in paraquat transport.

calan 180 mg 2017-08-01

To assess the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation for verapamil-sensitive ventricular tachycardia buy calan (VT).

calan 40 mg 2015-01-27

Our study showed that there is a significant variation in the use of SDAC between toxicologists and emergency doctors buy calan in some scenarios. Clinical toxicologists are more likely to administer SDAC in certain overdose settings. It is essential to provide education on the benefits versus actual risks of SDAC in acute poisoning so that doctors will understand when to administer SDAC or seek further advice.

calan pill 2015-03-22

Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) buy calan has been implicated in various pathological conditions of the heart including ischaemia/reperfusion and ventricular hypertrophy. This study investigated the effects of sevoflurane on SOCE.

calan dosage 2015-01-31

This report describes an automated coupled column microbore-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection for direct determination of verapamil in small volume of rat plasma. We used HPLC system consisting of three columns such as precolumn, intermediate and analytical column and six-port switching valve and injected small volume of rat plasma to the system without sample preparation. An aliquot of sample was directly injected into Capcell Pak MF Ph precolumn for clean-up and enrichment, 35 mm Capcell Pak C18, intermediate column for concentration of compounds and 250 mm Capcell Pak C18 analytical column for separation of compounds and two mobile phases are used as mobile phase A (50mM ammonium phosphate, pH 4.5) and B (50mM ammonium phosphate:acetonitrile=70:30 v/v). Analysis of verapamil and internal standard, buy calan propranolol was performed with direct injection of 10 microl of rat plasma to the system and were eluted at 22 and 12 min, respectively, at a mobile phase flow rate of 0.5 (mobile phase A) and 0.15 ml/min (mobile phase B). The peaks of verapamil and internal standard were good shapes and well separated from any interfering endogenous peaks during a total run time of 25 min. The calibration curve for verapamil showed good linearity (r(2)=0.9997) over the concentration range of 0.01-2.50 microg/ml. The mean RSD (%) values of intra-day (n=5) and inter-day (n=5) variability of verapamil ranged from 1.96 to 9.06 and 0.62 to 3.08%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 0.01 and 0.025 microg/ml, respectively, for verapamil using 10 microl of rat plasma. An automated coupled column microbore-HPLC method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous injection of 3mg/kg of verapamil to the normal and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced hepatofibrotic rats.

calan medication 2016-04-13

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is widely used as a pharmacological tool to inhibit lipoxygenases; however, recent evidence suggests that it increases renal intracellular [Ca2+]i via novel mechanisms. Here the effect of NDGA on Ca2+ signaling in MG63 osteoblastic cells was explored using fura-2 as a Ca2+ indicator. NDGA (2-50 microM) increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. The signal comprised an initial rise and an elevated phase over a time period of 4 min. Removing extracellular Ca2+ reduced 2-50 microM NDGA-induced signals by 62+/-2%. After incubation with 50 microM NDGA in Ca2+-free medium for several minutes, addition of 3 mM CaCl2 induced an increase in [Ca2+]i. NDGA (50 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i increases were not changed by pretreatment with 10 microM of verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine, nimodipine and nicardipine. In Ca2+-free medium, pretreatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor thapsigargin (1 microM) inhibited 50 microM NDGA-induced [Ca2+]i increases by 69+/-3%. Inhibition of phospholipase C with 2 microM U73122 had little effect on 50 microM NDGA-induced Ca2+ release. Several other lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect on basal [Ca2+]i. At a concentration that did not increase basal [Ca2+]i, NDGA (1 microM) did not alter 10 microM ATP- or 1 microM thapsigargin-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Alteration of protein kinase C activity with 1 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or 2 microM GF 109203X did not affect 50 microM NDGA-induced [Ca2+]i increases. Together, the results show that NDGA increased [Ca2+]i in osteoblasts in a lipoxygenase-independent manner, by releasing stored Ca2 buy calan + in a fashion independent of phospholipase C activity, and by causing Ca2+ influx.

calan sr dosage 2017-06-17

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil on the pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel (50 mg/kg) when paclitaxel is co-administered with verapamil (1, 5, and 15 mg/kg) or pretreated with verapamil (5 mg/kg) for 0.5 h, 3 days, and 6 days orally in rats. When paclitaxel was either co-administered or pretreated with verapamil, the peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of paclitaxel with verapamil were significantly higher (p<0.05 at 5 mg/kg and 0.5 h; p<0.01 at 15 mg/kg, 3 days and 6 days) than that of the control. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of paclitaxel with verapamil were significantly (p<0.05 at 5 mg/kg and 0.5 h; p<0.01 at 15 mg/kg, 3 days and 6 days) higher than that of the control. The AUCs of paclitaxel were increased with verapamil in the dose dependent manner. The half-life (t(1/2)) of paclitaxel with verapamil was significantly prolonged compared with that of the control, except for 1 mg/kg co-administration. The absolute bioavailability of paclitaxel with verapamil (3.9-5.4%) was significantly (p<0.05 at 5 mg/kg and 0.5 h; p<0.01 at 15 mg/kg, 3 days and 6 days) higher than that of the control (2.2%). The relative bioavailability of paclitaxel pretreated with verapamil was higher than that buy calan of co-administration in rats. Based on these results, it might be considered that the pharmacokinetic parameters of paclitaxel was significantly affected by verapamil which is an inhibitor of the metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) in the intestinal mucosa and liver, and the p-glycoprotein efflux pump in the intestinal mucosa. If these results are confirmed in humans in a clinical setting, the paclitaxel dose should be adjusted when it is given concomitantly with verapamil.

calan overdose 2015-07-22

Co-administration of Radix euphorbiae pekinensis extract can buy calan increase the bioavailability of orally administered paclitaxel.

calan tab 2015-12-17

This review highlights the most important research data related to membrane potential and current changes in cardiomyocytes during hypotonic stress. Relative decrease in osmolarity in extracellular compartment (due to accumulation of metabolic products in the cells) during acute episodes of ischemia in the heart muscle leads to cell swelling caused by water entering the cells. Such condition starts regulatory volume decrease (RDV) in cardiomyocytes--a process involving activation of various ion channels. It seems to be the crucial proarrhythmic mechanism in ischemic heart, probably very often responsible for sudden cardiac death. Understanding of electrophysiological changes during hypotonic stress of cardiomyocytes is a basis for appropriate pharmacological intervention preventing serious arrhythmias. For instance, outwardly rectifying swelling-induced chloride currents (IClswell), inwardly rectifying non-selective cation current (INSC) and slow component of delayed rectifier K+ currents (IKs) are activated during hypotonic stress in ventricular myocytes and substances like anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC), chromanol (293B) and gadolinium (Gd3+), able to modulate former channels, should be considered to be potential antiarrhythmic drugs in the near buy calan future.

calan 120 mg 2015-07-05

The state of lipid transport function of the blood, blood contents of stable nitrogen metabolites, and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-a and IL-1b) during therapy with simvastatin were studied in 29 patients receiving combination antihypertensive therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and verapamil. Lipid lowering action of simvastatin was realized just in 1 month of treatment and remained sustained for half a year (average duration). 6 months after addition of simvastatin to antihypertensive therapy substantial (58.4%, p=0.044) rise of plasma content of stable nitrogen metabolites took place. At the same time therapy with metoprolol in a similar group of patients exerted no considerable effect on blood plasma concentration of nitrate and nitrite anions. Lowering of median values of TNF-alpha from 20.13 (12.67-52.80) to 11.34 (3.31-31.29) pg/ml (p<0.0038) was also noted at the background of combination antihypertensive therapy. This happened without distinct affair with degree of lipid lowering action of simvastatin. The results of the study document positive effect of half year treatment of patients with concomitant hypertension and diabetes with simvastatin (10-20 mg/day) in combination with ACEI and verapamil on metabolism of nitric oxide and plasma content of TNF-alpha which realizes independently from degree buy calan of hypolipidemic action of simvastatin.

calan drug 2015-10-15

We measured P-gp expression and activity on CD3(+)/CD8(+), buy calan CD3(+)/CD4(+), B lymphocytes, and NK cells of 36 kidney transplant candidates using a flow cytometric assay. P-gp activity was determined for each subpopulation of cells by the ratio of the mean Rhodamine 123 fluorescence (MFI Rh123) in the presence of verapamil divided by the MFI Rh123 in the absence of verapamil. P-gp expression was noted as the percentage of P-gp(+) cells.

calan 5 mg 2015-03-27

FK317, a novel substituted dihydrobenzoxazine, was examined for antitumor effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumor cells in vitro and buy calan in vivo. In nude mice, FK317 markedly inhibited the growth of s.c. implanted KB-V1 vinblastine (VLB)-resistant human epidermal carcinoma KB cells, as well as the parent cells (KB-3-1). However, KB-V1 showed much greater resistance to FK317 than to VLB and adriamycin (ADM) in the in vitro study. This resistance was reversed by the addition of verapamil, whereby intracellular accumulation of FK317 in the KB-V1 cells was also decreased. After incubation of FK317 in human and mouse blood, it was shown to be rapidly metabolized to a monodeacetylated form, and slowly metabolized further to a dideacetylated form. With the removal of the acetyl groups from FK317, resistance indexes in KB-V1 and SBC-3/ADM, ADM-resistant human lung carcinoma, decreased. In addition, photolabeling of P-glycoprotein with [3H]azidopine in KB-V1 plasma membrane was completely inhibited by FK317, but not by the deacetylated metabolites. These results indicate that FK317 is metabolized to deacetylated forms, which do not bind to P-glycoprotein and are incorporated into MDR cells, causing cytotoxic effects.

calan dosage forms 2015-04-12

Adenosine, verapamil, propranolol, and procainamide are widely used antiarrhythmic drugs. The interactions among them are still not known in human beings. Adenosine-induced negative dromotropic effects were assessed by rapid bolus injection of adenosine during constant high right atrial pacing in each patient. The initial dose of adenosine was 0.5 mg and was followed by a stepwise increment of 0.5 mg until atrioventricular (AV) nodal block occurred. The negative dromotropic actions of adenosine were examined in the control state and in the following three protocols in three groups of patients: (1) In 12 patients (group 1), intravenous verapamil, 0.15 mg/kg, was given; (2) In 12 patients (group 2), intravenous propranolol, 0.1 mg/kg, was given; and (3) in 10 patients (group 3), intravenous procainamide, 15 mg/kg, was given. The dose-response curves of adenosine on AV nodal conduction were almost identical in the control state and after verapamil, propranolol, or procainamide injection. However, verapamil, in contrast to propranolol, significantly reduced the dose of adenosine required to produce AV nodal block, from 4.4 +/- 0.7 mg to 2.7 +/- 0.3 mg (p < 0.01). Of note, procainamide exerted no significant effects on adenosine-induced negative dromotropism on AV nodal conduction or AV nodal block. In buy calan conclusion, the negative dromotropic effects of adenosine are preserved and independent even in the presence of verapamil, propranolol, or procainamide. Both verapamil and propranolol can exhibit additive effects with adenosine in prolonging AV nodal conduction time; however, only verapamil can reduce the dose of adenosine required to produce AV nodal block. This finding indicates that the dose of adenosine may be reduced for patients who have already been treated with verapamil.

calan reviews 2015-07-05

An acute increase in atrial pressure during tachycardia is associated with Neurontin Drug shortening of atrial refractoriness and a propensity for AF, i.e., atrial mechanoelectrical feedback, which may be enhanced by autonomic blockade and attenuated by calcium channel blockade.

calan 80 mg 2017-06-01

Cysteine-free mouse MDR3 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was constructed by mutagenesis of the nine natural Cys to Ala. The Cys-free protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Yield, purity, ATPase activity, K(m)(MgATP), and stimulation of ATPase by verapamil, were similar to wild-type mouse Ppg. Mouse Cys-free Pgp was superior in yield and stability to Cys-free human MDR1 Pgp. Mutants Y1040A and Y1040C were constructed in mouse Cys-free Pgp background. Both showed extremely low ATPase activity, strongly-impaired vanadate-trapping of ADP, and reduced photolabeling by 8-azido-ATP. The results are consistent with the conclusion that Tyr-1040 is Zofran 5 Mg located in the MgATP-binding site in NBD2 and is required for correct binding and/or orientation of bound MgATP substrate in Pgp as previously suggested by X-ray structures of other ABC transporters and by sequencing of photolabeled Pgp. The results also support our previous conclusion that both catalytic sites must be intact for normal function in Pgp.

calan eeze review 2017-06-18

In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, the outflow concentration-time Paxil 30mg Reviews curve and the residual amount in cardiac tissue of IDA and its active metabolite idarubicinol (IDOL) were measured after 0.5 mg dose of IDA in the absence and presence of the P-gp inhibitors verapamil and PSC 833.

calan tablets 2017-01-14

The solubility of amprenavir in a pH 7 buffer at 37 degrees C was 0.036+/-0.007 mg/mL. The solubility linearly increased with increasing vitamin E Lipitor Missed Dose -TPGS concentration (above 0.2 mg/mL). Polarized transport was demonstrated in the basolateral to apical direction, exceeding apical to basolateral transport by a factor of 6. The active efflux system was inhibited by vitamin E-TPGS and known P-glycoprotein inhibitors verapamil and GF120918.

calan drug classification 2016-01-18

The human MDR1-encoded transporter is a 170-kDa plasma membrane glycoprotein [P-glycoprotein (P-gp)] capable of binding and energy-dependent extrusion of structurally diverse organic compounds and drugs. P-gp seems to play a significant role in uptake, distribution, and excretion of many different drugs. To determine whether common polymorphic forms of P-gp are likely to alter function of P-gp, we characterized five known MDR1 coding polymorphisms (N21D, F103L, S400N, A893S, and A998T) using a vaccinia virus-based transient expression system. Cell surface expression of wild-type P-gp was time-dependent over a time course of 5.5 to 34.5 h; highest expression was obtained by 22 to 26.5 h after infection/transfection, indicating that a semiquantitative assay for P-gp expression levels was possible. HeLa cells stained with the P-gp specific monoclonal antibodies MRK-16 and Western blots probed with C219 revealed similar cell surface expression for the polymorphisms and for wild-type protein. Time-dependent P-gp pump function maximal at 22 h after infection/transfection was demonstrated for the following MDR1 fluorescence substrates: 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoic acid, succinimidyl ester (bodipy-FL)-verapamil, bodipy-FL-vinblastine, calcein-AM, bodipy-FL-prazosin, bisantrene, and bodipy-FL-forskolin, but not for daunorubicin. Transport studies of all tested substrates indicated that the substrate specificity of the pump was not substantially affected by any of the tested polymorphisms. Cell surface expression and function of double mutants including the more common polymorphisms (N21D-S400N, N21D-A893S, and S400N-A893S) showed no Evista Medication Guide differences from wild-type. These results demonstrate that the common MDR1 coding polymorphisms result in P-gps with a cell surface distribution and function similar to wild-type P-gp.

calan 240 mg 2015-03-30

These results suggest that the bronchodilator activity of CECD is partly due to presence of scopoletin, and mediated possibly through CCB and PDE Glucophage 1000 Mg inhibition.

calan generic name 2017-01-30

The present study examined the interactions of local anesthetics (LA) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on rhythmicity of heart using in vivo and in vitro experiments. ECG recordings were made from the anesthetized rats for in vivo preparations and spontaneously beating isolated rat right atrial potential for the in vitro experiments. The in vivo experiments with LA showed dose-dependent bradycardia with lignocaine (LIG, 100-500 Zofran Pediatric Dose microg/kg) and bupivacaine (BUP, 10-100 microg/kg). BUP was 4-5 times more potent than LIG. Verapamil (VML) and diltiazem (DTZ), CCBs also produced dose (10-100 microg/kg) -dependent bradycardia. However, none of them affected the PR/QT interval or QRS complex. Further, LA-induced bradycardia was potentiated by CCBs. In addition, flattening of P-wave in ECG was observed with doses (10-25 microg/kg) of LA in the presence of CCBs. Similarly, the in vitro experiments demonstrated a concentration-dependent decrease in atrial rate by BUP or VML. The BUP-induced decrease was potentiated in the presence of VML. Thus, the results suggest that CCBs potentiate the LA-induced bradycardia by involving pacemaker activity. Further, the flattening of P-wave in ECG serves as an early indicator of the cardiotoxicity produced by these drugs.

calan sr medication 2015-01-29

All patients (mean age 33.7 years) presented a typical history of effort intolerance, palpitations and tachycardia. Resting HR (bpm) was decreased: 106.5 +/- 3 to 88.5 +/- 2 (week 1), to 77.0 +/- 3 (week 2) and to 73.7 +/- 13 (month 3). Reductions (Holter monitoring) of the maximum, average and minimum HR (beats) were: 152.0 +/- 19 to 128.5 +/- 18; 96.0 +/- 1.4 to 73 +/- 3.2 and 63.2 +/- 6 to 48.2 +/- 3. Chloromycetin Suspension Mufel Total exercise time was amplified (555 +/- 99 to 679 +/- 90 s) and quality of life improved.

calan 180 mg 2017-12-19

We have shown that in isolated human atrial strips the β1-adrenoceptor agonist dobutamine can induce spontaneous, stable and durable rhythmic contractions. The amplitude and frequency of these contractions were regulated endogenously by the tissue. We tested whether the spontaneously contracted atrial strips could be used as an experimental assay model to determine inotropic and chronotropic effects of existing drugs and candidate chemicals directly on human heart muscle. Atarax 300 Mg The well-established inotropic and chronotropic effects of the calcium channel blocker (verapamil), the β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol), the phosphodiesterase inhibitor (theophylline) and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor (ouabain) were tested on spontaneously contracting strips of human atrium. With demonstrative tracings, we showed the negative inotropic and chronotropic effects of verapamil and propranolol, the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of theophylline and the transient inotropic and tachyarrhythmic effects of ouabain on dobutamine-pretreated human atrial strips. By using this method the undetermined inotropic and chronotropic effects of any candidate compound can be evaluated directly on spontaneously contracting human atrial muscle. Furthermore, we demonstrated the advantages of using dobutamine instead of conventional electrical field stimulation in order to obtain stable and durable contractions of the atrial strips. In conclusion, we describe a new, simple, reliable, convenient and ethical method for investigating the inotropic and chronotropic effects of candidate drugs directly on human atrium tissue without the need for human test subjects.

calan 40 mg 2016-09-30

We conclude that ERT partially improves Suprax Tab 400mg HRV favoring increased parasympathetic drive, and that part of the effect may be mediated by changes in metabolic variables.

calan pill 2017-10-16

We studied the role of natural occurring 1-O-alkylglycerols on the calcium signalling in Jurkat T-cells. Alkylglycerols evoked an increase in free intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i, in a dose-dependent manner. When the experiments were performed in calcium-free buffer, the alkylglycerol response on the rise of [Ca2+]i was wholly abolished compared with the one in calcium-containing buffer, suggesting that these etherlipids induce a calcium influx by the opening of Ca2+ channels. We further employed inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels. We observed that omega-conotoxin, a blocker of N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, but not verapamil, a blocker of L-type voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, curtailed significantly the calcium rise evoked by the lipid agents. Alkylglycerols also induced plasma membrane depolarisation, known to be involved in the opening of the voltage-gated calcium channels. Our study shows that alkylglycerols increase [Ca2+]i influx in human Jurkat T-cells possibly by modulating the permeability of calcium channels.

calan dosage 2017-11-10

Antihypertensive treatment is more effective than placebo for controlling SBP and DBP in previously untreated participants with type 2 diabetes exhibiting low threshold BP values. Combination therapy with verapamil SR/trandolapril was more effective than trandolapril alone for controlling DBP.

calan medication 2017-01-30

In the presence of NMDA receptor open-channel blockers [Mg(2+); (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801); 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane (memantine)] and TTX, high concentrations (30-100 microm) of either 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me-5-HT) significantly potentiated NMDA-induced depolarizations of frog spinal cord motoneurones. Potentiation was blocked by LY-53,857 (10-30 microm), SB 206553 (10 microm), and SB 204741 (30 microm), but not by spiroxatrine (10 microm), WAY 100,635 (1-30 microm), ketanserin (10 microm), RS 102221 (10 microm), or RS 39604 (10-20 microm). Therefore, alpha-Me-5-HT's facilitatory effects appear to involve 5-HT(2B) receptors. These effects were G-protein dependent as they were prevented by prior treatment with guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP, 100 microm) and H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-D-Trp-Met-NH(2) (GP antagonist 2A, 3-6 microm), but not by pertussis toxin (PTX, 3-6 ng ml(-1), 48 h preincubation). This potentiation was not reduced by protein kinase C inhibition with staurosporine (2.0 microm), U73122 (10 microm) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide HCl (H9) (77 microm) or by intracellular Ca(2+) depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microm) (which inhibits Ca(2+)/ATPase). Exposure of the spinal cord to the L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers nifedipine (10 microm), KN-62 (5 microm) or gallopamil (100 microm) eliminated alpha-Me-5-HT's effects. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide (W7) (100 microm) diminished the potentiation. However, the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) blocker KN-93 (10 microm) did not block the 5-HT enhancement of the NMDA responses. In summary, activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors by alpha-Me-5-HT facilitates NMDA-depolarizations of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) from the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) through L-type Ca(2+) channels, the binding of Ca(2+) to calmodulin and a lessening of the Mg(2+) -produced open-channel block of the NMDA receptor.

calan sr dosage 2016-10-01

Macro-reentrant ventricular tachycardias (VT) utilizing the bundle branches and Purkinje fibers have been reported as verapamil sensitive VT (idiopathic left VT), bundle branch reentrant VT (BBRT) and inter-fascicular reentrant tachycardia (inter-fascicular VT). However, diagnostic confusion exists with these VTs due to the difficulty in differentiating between them with conventional electrophysiological (EP) studies. The aim of this study was to clarify the EP and anatomical entity of inter-fascicular VT, and provide successful methods for the radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of inter-fascicular VT.

calan overdose 2015-01-12

All three drugs similarly reduced maximal rate of increase of left ventricular pressures (LV+dP/dt(max)) by approximately 10%, but diversely modified the force-interval relationship. The parameter c (the reduction in LV+dP/dt(max) of a fixed premature stimulus on mechanical restitution) was significantly reduced by metoprolol (by 9+/- 4%, p < 0.05), was increased by verapamil (by 6 +/- 2%, p < 0.05), and was not significantly changed by sotalol. Similarly, metoprolol had a minimal effect on the extent of frequency potentiation, whereas sotalol and verapamil attenuated frequency potentiation (the relative response to 10 s of rapid pacing was 1.19 +/- 0.58-fold, 0.07 +/- 0.35-fold, and 0.03 +/- 0.17-fold of the baseline response after 10 min of metoprolol, sotalol, or verapamil, respectively).

calan tab 2017-03-21

The membrane transporter P-glycoprotein (PGP) has been immobilized on an immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) LC stationary phase. The resulting PGP-IAM phase retained the ability of the native PGP to bind the known PGP-ligand vinblastine. Displacement studies using other known PGP ligands, verapamil and cyclosporin A, demonstrated that there was selective binding between vinblastine and the immobilized PGP transporter. The binding affinity (Kd value) of vinblastine for the PGP-IAM was determined to be 19+/-20 and 71+/-11 nM on two separate columns. These values are consistent with previously reported values of 9+/-2, 8+/-2, and 37+/-10 nM, which were obtained using native membranes. The Kd values obtained on the PGP-IAM for cyclosporin A and verapamil were 492+/-21 and 172+/-29 microM, respectively. These results were higher than the corresponding Kd values obtained using native membranes, but the relative affinities vinblastine > cyclosporin A > verapamil are consistent in both approaches. During several months of experiments and storage, the PGP-IAM was found to be reproducible and stable. The stationary phase appears to be useful in the on-line screening for PGP ligands.