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Hazard ratios and 95% CIs, adjusted for age, gender and cardiovascular risk, for each group relative to the reference group were: celecoxib 1.39 (1.25, 1.55), diclofenac 1.44 (1.28, 1.62), meloxicam 1.49 (1.25, 1.78), rofecoxib 1.58 (1.39, 1.79), non-selective NSAIDs 1.76 (1.59, 1.94).
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With the use of glioblastoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, we comparatively analyzed the effects of celecoxib, UMC, and DMC in various short-term (< or =48 hours) cellular and molecular studies, as well as in long-term (< or =3 months) focus formation assays. We found that DMC exhibited the most potent antitumor activity; celecoxib was somewhat less effective, and UMC clearly displayed the overall weakest antitumor potential in all aspects. The differential growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-stimulatory potency of these compounds in short-term assays did not at all correlate with their capacity to inhibit COX-2, but was closely aligned with their ability to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), as indicated by the induction of the ERS marker CHOP/GADD153 and activation of the ERS-associated caspase 7. In addition, we found that these compounds were able to restore contact inhibition and block focus formation during long-term, chronic drug exposure of tumor cells, and this was achieved at sub-toxic concentrations in the absence of ERS or inhibition of COX-2.
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It has been shown previously that a novel nitrooxy derivative of celecoxib exerts antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in human colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether these biological properties depend on COX-2 inhibition and/or NO release. Therefore, the derivative was decomposed into the parent compound celecoxib and the NO donor benzyl nitrate and the biological role of each was tested in COX-2-positive (HT-29) and -negative (SW-480) colon cancer cells. The main findings were that the nitro-oxy derivative behaved like celecoxib in HT-29 cells in terms of COX-2 and ERK/MAPK inhibition, as well as induction of apoptosis, while the benzyl nitrate had no such effects. Interestingly, the beta-catenin system was activated by the nitro-oxy derivative as well as by benzyl nitrate alone more potently than by the parent compound celecoxib, suggesting a possible regulatory role for NO. In SW480 cells, these activities were substantially less pronounced, suggesting the presence of COX-2-dependent mechanisms in the modulation of these parameters.
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To study the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on multimodal analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.
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In the phase II study, the objective response rate was 41%. The median time to progression was 7.7 months and median survival time was 21.2 months. Tumor COX-2 expression, by immunohistochemistry, was assessed for 17 patients enrolled in the same phase II study. While not statistically significant, the response rate was better for patients in the low COX-2 expression group, while time to progression and overall survival was longer in patients in the high COX-2 expression group. This discrepancy can be partially attributed to the small sample size.
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In our previous study, we found that celecoxib, a kind of COX-2 inhibitor, led to cell apoptosis while up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells (COX-2 deficient), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the mechanism. Thus, we would like to explore whether these results are universal for other colorectal cancer cells, especially for COX-2-expressing ones, and whether the results in vitro and in vivo are matched.
Analysis of randomized controlled trials from the Pfizer clinical trial repository (final study reports completed by 31 July 2011) in which celecoxib was compared with placebo or non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) for treatment of pain or inflammation in adults. Safety end points comprised 18 terms that had been identified as important AEs among all NSAIDs.
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To evaluate the effects of PTH(1-34) on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and structure in medial meniscectomized guinea pigs and compare them to those of celecoxib (CLX).
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). CYP2C9-derived EETs elicit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis, but the signaling pathways involved are incompletely understood. Because cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in angiogenesis, we determined whether a link exists between CYP2C9 and COX-2 expression.
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Cell proliferation and UGT1A1 induction assays were carried out with individual polyphenols and combinations. Cell viability was determined with AlamarBlue assays. UGT1A1 mRNA was quantified via real time RT-PCR. UGT activity was determined with 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) glucuronidation.
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To investigate the anti-tumor effect of celecoxib combined with tegafur gimeracil oteracil potassium on subcutaneous xenograft tumor of gastric cancer in nude mice and analyze the possible mechanism.
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3-[ 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used to investigate the cell proliferation. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the cell cycle arrest. Immunocytochemistry technique was to observe the expression of VEGF.
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The search included experimental (in vitro and animal models) and clinical studies evaluating the use of NSAIDs for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. The MEDLINE search was supplemented by references from selected articles.
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Initially, patients received MMC on day 1 and irinotecan on days 2, 8, 15 and 22, every 6 weeks. MMC dose was fixed at 6 mg/m(2) and cumulative doses of >36 mg/m(2) were not permitted. Irinotecan was escalated in 25 mg/m(2) increments. Due to late-onset diarrhea, the schedule was subsequently shortened to 4 weeks, omitting irinotecan on days 15 and 22. In the second part of the study, celecoxib 400 mg orally twice daily was added to irinotecan/MMC regimen. Potential pharmacokinetic interactions and Topo-1 and DT-diaphorase (NQ01) gene expressions in peripheral-mononuclear cells were evaluated.
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Experimental periodontitis in rats was induced by repeated injection of purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli endotoxin. Forty-seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five study groups as follows: saline control, LPS, LPS + celecoxib, LPS + omega-3 fatty acid, and LPS + celecoxib + omega-3 fatty acid. Celecoxib and omega-3 fatty acid were given alone or in combination during 14 days of the experimental study period. At the end of the 2-week protocol, serum samples were obtained, and the rats were sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-1beta, OC, and CRP concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Defleshed jaws were analyzed morphometrically for alveolar bone loss. Data were evaluated statistically by non-parametric tests.
This study aimed to measure expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and CD34 in pretreatment tumor biopsies from patients on the RTOG C0128 phase II study, and to correlate expression of these biomarkers, using quantitative immunohistochemistry, with clinical outcome parameters.
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Cetuximab-naive patients with refractory CRC were treated with cetuximab (400 mg/m loading dose followed by weekly cetuximab at 250 mg/m) and celecoxib (200 mg orally twice daily). Urinary PGE-M, a stable metabolite of PGE2 that correlates with in vivo COX-2 activity, and serum TGF-α, a ligand that binds to EGFR, were measured serially to assess the biological effect of COX-2 and EGFR blockade.
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Describe the patterns of use of NSAIDS and COX-2 in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database in UK and the PharMetrics database in USA.
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Cell lines (A549, 201T, 273T) representing NSCLC were treated for 72 h in the presence or absence of inhibitors to PI3K (LY-294002; Tocris Bioscience, Ellisville, MO), BCL-2 (Gossypol; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), Cox-2 (NS-398 [Sigma-Aldrich] or Celecoxib [Pfizer]), MAPK (U0126 [Sigma-Aldrich]), and EGFR (Iressa; AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, United Kingdom) both alone and in combination with 10 or 30 mum cisplatin (Sigma-Aldrich) (18 possible regimens for each cell line). MTT assay (Trevigen, Gaithersburg, MD) was used to measure cytotoxicity. Controls were represented by cells with either a pure culture medium (monotherapy regimen control) or culture medium with the corresponding dose of cisplatin (combination regimen control). Unpaired t-test was used to classify response to therapy as highly sensitive (P < 0.01), sensitive (0.01 < or = P < 0.05), or resistant (P > or = 0.05). Concordance was defined as a similar response category between cell lines.
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To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, to induce regression and prevent the progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN.
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Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by prolonged severe constriction of the basilar artery, which often leads to ischemic brain damage. Locally elevated concentrations of spasmogenic substances induce persistent depolarization of myocytes in the basilar artery, leading to continuous influx of calcium (Ca) through voltage-sensitive Ca channels and myocyte contraction. Potassium (K) channel openers may have therapeutic utility to oppose membrane depolarization, dilate the arteries, and reduce ischemia. Here, we examined the involvement of vascular Kv7 K channels in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm and tested whether Kv7 channel openers are effective therapeutic agents in a rat model of SAH. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that 3 different spasmogens (serotonin, endothelin, and vasopressin) suppressed Kv7 currents and depolarized freshly isolated rat basilar artery myocytes. These effects were significantly reduced in the presence of a Kv7 channel opener, retigabine. Retigabine (10 μM) also significantly blocked L-type Ca channels, reducing peak inward currents by >50%. In the presence of a selective Kv7 channel blocker, XE991, the spasmogens did not produce additive constriction responses measured using pressure myography. Kv7 channel openers (retigabine or celecoxib) significantly attenuated basilar artery spasm in rats with experimentally induced SAH. In conclusion, we identify Kv7 channels as common targets of vasoconstrictor spasmogens and as candidates for therapeutic intervention for cerebral vasospasm.
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Traditional nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cyclooxygenase-2-specific nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs interfere with tendon-to-bone healing.
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Acetaminophen (paracetamol--P) and Nimesulide (N) are widely used analgesic-antipyretic/anti-inflammatory drugs. The rate of adverse hypersensitivity reactions to these agents is generally low. On the contrary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly involved in such reactions. Celecoxib (CE) is a novel drug, with high selectivity and affinity for COX-2 enzyme.
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Diclofenac did not affect the metabolic balance of PG and HA whereas, in a relatively dose-dependent manner, celecoxib increased the synthesis of HA and PG; celecoxib also reduced the net loss of labeled HA and PG molecules from cartilage explants.
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Expenditures on prescribed drugs in Canada are now well past those for all services provided by outpatient physicians ($26.9 billion vs. $21.5 billion in 2007). Government has the opportunity to dedicate resources to continuing medical education of physicians, and effective profiling would assist in the allocation of these educational resources.
A non-competitive mechanism of inhibition was revealed and equilibrium inhibitory constant equal to 313±40 µmol/l was determined. Comparing to AChE, celecoxib was not proved as an inhibitor of enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The lowest ΔG was equal to -7.78 kcal/mol. In this case, celecoxib stacked sulfonamide moiety between TYR 337 and TYR 341 of alfa anionic subsite of active site. Cation-Π interactions appears to be responsible for the inhibition.
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To compare the prevalence of contra-indications and selected risk factors for NSAID-toxicity among COX-2 inhibitor users and non-selective NSAID users.
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In terms of protection of small intestine from NSAIDs toxicity, celecoxib monotherapy was superior to loxoprofen+lansoprazole combination therapy (UMIN: 000007936).
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The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) celecoxib and sulindac have been reported to suppress lung cancer migration and invasion. The class III deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) possesses both pro- and anticarcinogenic properties. However, its role in inhibition of lung cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by NSAIDs is not clearly known. We attempted to investigate the potential use of NSAIDs as inhibitors of TGF-β1-induced EMT in A549 cells, and the underlying mechanisms of suppression of lung cancer migration and invasion by celecoxib and sulindac. We demonstrated that celecoxib and sulindac were effective in preventing TGF-β1-induced EMT, as indicated by upregulation of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and downregulation of mesenchymal markers and transcription factors. Moreover, celecoxib and sulindac could inhibit TGF-β1-enhanced migration and invasion of A549 cells. SIRT1 downregulation enhanced the reversal of TGF-β1-induced EMT by celecoxib or sulindac. In contrast, SIRT1 upregulation promoted TGF-β1-induced EMT. Taken together, these results indicate that celecoxib and sulindac can inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT and suppress lung cancer cell migration and invasion via downregulation of SIRT1. Our findings implicate overexpressed SIRT1 as a potential therapeutic target to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT and to prevent lung cancer cell migration and invasion.
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The nocturnal pattern of activity of healthy rats comprised 3 main bursts. Chronic painful monarthritis altered this spontaneous pattern of nocturnal behavior (normal period of activity). Monarthritic rats showed a decrease in the total time spent in activity during the night, and lost their pattern of activity. These behavioral disturbances were reversed after long-term treatment with acetaminophen or celecoxib, with celecoxib appearing to be more effective. Aspirin was ineffective.