In univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with treatment failure were acute haematogenous infections (p = 0.022), leucocyte count at admission > 10 × 10(9)/l (p < 0.01), pain in the joint (p < 0.01), and ineffective empirical antibiotics (p < 0.01). In a multivariate Cox model, leucocyte count > 10 × 10(9)/l and ineffective empirical antibiotics were significant risk factors for failure. Compared to rifampin-ciprofloxacin, the hazard ratio (HR) for treatment failure was significantly increased in the rifampin-other antibiotics group (HR 6.0, 95% CI 1.5-28.8, p = 0.014) and the group treated without rifampin (HR 14.4, 95% CI 3.1-66.9, p < 0.01).
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Circulation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outside hospitals could alter the impact of hospital-based control strategies. We investigated two groups of cases (each matched to controls with MRSA): 61 'community cases' not in acute hospital in the year before MRSA isolation; and 21 cases with ciprofloxacin-sensitive (CipS) MRSA. Multi-locus sequence typing, spa-typing and Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene testing were performed and demographics obtained. Additional questionnaires were completed by community case GPs. Community cases comprised 6% of Oxfordshire MRSA. Three community cases had received no regular healthcare or antibiotics: one was infected with CipS. Ninety-one percent of community cases had healthcare-associated sequence type (ST)22/36; CipS MRSA cases had heterogeneous STs but many had recent healthcare exposure. A substantial minority of UK MRSA transmission may occur outside hospitals. Hospital strains are becoming 'feral' or persisting in long-term carriers in the community with regular healthcare contacts; those with recent healthcare exposure may nevertheless acquire non-hospital epidemic MRSA strains in the community.
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To compare the efficacy of different treatment strategies for distal ureteral stones smaller than 10 mm.
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The susceptibility of 186 isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to 8 antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution susceptibility test. The antibiotics of ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were used.
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In the present study, 19 antibiotics in combinations were tested against an MDRSP isolate. In vitro susceptibility studies including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and disk agar diffusion (DAD), tolerance to resistant antibiotics, checkerboard assay, time-kill curve, hemolytic assay, and autolysis assay were performed on the test strain to study its in vitro susceptibility to combination therapy.
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Retrospective study of ocular bacterial isolates and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test results of Henan Eye Institute in the past six years.
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A total number of 300 patients suffering from gonorrhoea were included in this study. They were randomly divided into 3 groups of 100 patients each. Group-A patients were given Tablet Ciprofloxacin 500 mg, Group-B patients Injection Ceftriaxone 500 mg, and Group-C patients were put on Injection Spectinomycin 2 gm, all in stat dosage. On the 5th day following the treatment, all patients were re-examined and their clinical and laboratory findings were recorded and analysed.
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Use of cosmetic contact lenses and buying them online is a fairly common practice among teenagers. This can lead to serious eye infection as in this case. To our knowledge, this is the first report of contact lens-related keratitis simultaneously involving these two rare organisms.
The S. pneumoniae carriage rate was higher among younger children. High antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae against erythromycin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole was observed. Being in the young age group and living with younger children are risk factors for pneumococcal carriage.
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* Sealing the dentinal tubules of the chamber prevents the undesirable crown discolouration produced by tri-antibiotic medication whilst maintaining the revascularization potential of the pulp. * Further research is warranted to seek an alternative infection control protocol capable of preventing possible allergic reactions and development of resistant strains of bacteria, as well as a biological material capable of inducing angiogenesis and allow a more predictable scaffold and tissue regeneration.
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The proportion of patients with facial palsy and diabetes in our series was comparable to those reported in the literature. But the incidence of P. aeruginosa was much lower and the rate of resistance to ciprofloxacin was high, which was supposed to result from the popularity and previous use of the quinolone ear drops before referral. And the leading cause of mortality is patient's comorbidities. Treating necrotizing otitis externa remains a great challenge even in nowadays with modern image modalities and advanced antibiotics. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion when facing patients at risk with refractory external ear infection so as to give them timely diagnosis and optimal treatment.
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Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri is a causative agent of contagious agalactia in goats. In this study, M. mycoides subsp. capri mutants were selected for resistance to fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) by serial passes in broth with increasing concentrations of antibiotic. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to the three fluoroquinolones were found in the quinolone resistance determining regions of the four genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Different mutations in the DNA gyrase GyrA subunit suggest a different mechanism of inhibition between norfloxacin and the other tested fluoroquinolones. The presence of an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux system was suggested through the use of the inhibitor orthovanadate.
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A prolonged outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a German university medical centre in 2006 was investigated; the investigation included a descriptive epidemiological analysis, a case-control study, environmental sampling, molecular typing of A. baumannii isolates using PFGE and repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing, and detection of OXA-type carbapenemases by multiplex PCR. Thirty-two patients acquired the outbreak strain in five intensive care units (ICUs) and two regular wards at a tertiary care hospital within 10 months. The outbreak strain was resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, imipenem and meropenem, and carried the bla(OXA-23)-like gene. Based on PFGE and rep-PCR typing, it was shown to be related to the pan-European A. baumannii clone II. The most likely mode of transmission was cross-transmission from colonized or infected patients via the hands of health-care workers, with the severity of disease and intensity of care (therapeutic intervention scoring system 28 score >median) being independently associated with acquisition of the outbreak strain (odds ratio 6.67, 95 % confidence interval 1.55-36.56). Control of the outbreak was achieved by enforcement of standard precautions, education of personnel, screening of ICU patients for carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and cohorting of patients. This is believed to be the first report of an outbreak of A. baumannii carrying the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Germany.
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We investigated the prevalence of contamination of retail-level beef, mutton, and broiler carcasses in Istanbul, Turkey, by thermophilic Campylobacter spp. (TCS) and determined antimicrobial susceptibilities of the TCS strains isolated from these carcasses. From November 2005 to October 2006, 198 beef and 120 mutton carcass excision samples, and 232 chicken carcasses (whole and pieces) were randomly collected from different retail stores and meat-processing plants in Istanbul. TCS were isolated from 11.1%, 21.6%, and 50.4% of beef, mutton, and chicken samples tested, respectively. There was no significant seasonal variation in the prevalence of TCS. A total of 292 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from the samples (56.5% C. jejuni, 33.9% C. Coli, and 9.6% C. lari). C. jejuni was the species most commonly isolated from chicken meat (56.5%<65.9 from table 2>), while C. coli was the most common in beef (63.3%) and mutton (63.9%) carcasses. Susceptibilities of 246 strains for eight antimicrobial drugs were determined using disk diffusion assay. Campylobacter isolates were most often resistant to tetracycline (69.1%), followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (64.2%), nalidixic acid (58.1%), erythromycin (56.9%), enrofloxacin (48.8%), ciprofloxacin (42.7%), chloramphenicol (36.2%), and gentamicin (26.0%). The results of this study suggest that a high proportion of meat samples, particularly chicken carcasses, are contaminated by TCS, most of which are antimicrobial-resistant strains. Since campylobacteriosis is transmitted primarily through food of animal origin, the presence of antimicrobial-resistant strains in meat has important implications for public health and food safety.
There was increased resistance of gram-positive organisms to ciprofloxacin and cefazolin, but not gentamicin, in the two examined time periods. Increased resistance to these commonly used antibiotics emphasizes the need for close follow-up after initial empiric treatment, and maintaining a low threshold for selecting alternative therapy.
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Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are essential antimicrobials for treating invasive salmonellosis, although emerging resistance to these antimicrobials is of growing concern, especially in India. Therefore, a study was conducted to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes, types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene plasmids and serological relationships of 21 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from patients who attended three different hospitals in India from 2006 to 2008. The isolates were cultured from stool, blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from patients presenting with diarrhoea and accompanying systemic manifestations such as fever, vomiting and meningism. Non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates were investigated using serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. PCR screening was also performed to detect the β-lactamase, qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes and class 1 integrons. Sequencing for quinolone resistance mutations and plasmid replicon typing were also performed. An antimicrobial resistance microarray was used for preliminary screening and identification of bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) genes, and phenotypic testing for the presence of efflux pumps was also performed. Ten out of 21 isolates (48%) possessed the extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance phenotype, with PCR amplification and sequencing revealing that isolates possessed TEM-1, SHV-12, DHA-1, OXA-1-like and CTX-M-15 ESBL genes. FII(s) plasmid replicons were detected in seven isolates (33%). The involvement of efflux pumps was detected in four isolates (19%) resistant to ciprofloxacin. It was concluded that SHV-12-carrying Salmonella serotype Agona may play an important role in ESBL-mediated resistance in non-typhoidal salmonellae in India. The very high percentage (48%) of ESBL-producing non-typhoidal salmonellae isolated from these patients represents a real and immediate challenge to the effective antimicrobial therapy of Salmonella infections associated with systemic manifestations. Continued surveillance for the presence of ESBL-producing (non-typhoidal) salmonellae in India is essential.
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Typhoid and paratyphoid are febrile illnesses, due to a bacterial infection, which remain common in many low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in areas with known resistance to the older first-line antibiotics.
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A total 210 cases were randomly chosen for evaluation, half during times when EMPs were present and half when they were absent. There were 130 males (62%) with an overall mean age of 54±18years. Overall, 178 (85%) of 210 of the antibiotic orders were appropriate, with 95% appropriate when an EMP was present compared to 74% when an EMP was absent (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-18.8). In a logistic regression model, antibiotic appropriateness was independently associated with the presence of the EMP and creatinine clearance.
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In the in vitro study, the mycobacterial suspension and colonies were treated with the following: no MB, no light (normal control); MB and no light (dye control); light and no MB (light control); MB and light (PDT). Morphologic characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The bactericidal effects of combined PDT and antibiotic therapy (ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin) were determined using the broth microdilution technique. Twenty-one rabbits with Mycobacterium keratitis were randomly divided into three groups (no treatment, topical amikacin treatment, and PDT combined with amikacin treatment). The clinical features of keratitis were scored and graded before treatment and before euthanatization. The diseased corneas were trephined for quantitative bacteriologic analysis to determine the antibacterial efficacy of the treatment.
Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is a key component of antibiotic stewardship programs. In 2007, a significantly higher resistance rate of Escherichia coli to ciprofloxacin was found at the Department of Urology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland, when compared to other hospital units. Thus, we aimed to determine the risk factors for this increased fluoroquinolone resistance in outpatients and inpatients with urinary tract infection (UTI) or colonisation with E. coli.
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DPCs were cultured and exposed to either no medicament treatment or low concentrations (0.3-5 mg ml(-1) ) of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ], triple antibiotic paste (TAP), or double antibiotic paste (DAP) for 3 days. After that, toxicity to the DPCs was determined by lactate dehydrogenase activity assays (LDH) and cell proliferation was measured by colorimetric assays (WST-1). Two-way anova followed by Fisher's protected least significant differences was used for statistical analyses (α = 0.05).
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We describe a case of isolated acute appendicitis due to Aspergillus carneus in a neutropenic child with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated according to the AIEOP AML 2002/01 protocol. Despite prophylaxis with acyclovir, ciprofloxacin and fluconazole administered during the neutropenic phase, 16 days after the end of chemotherapy the child developed fever without identified infective foci, which prompted a therapy shift to meropenem and liposomial amphotericin B. After five days of persisting fever he developed ingravescent abdominal lower right quadrant pain. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with acute appendicitis and he underwent appendectomy with prompt defervescence. PAS+ fungal elements were found at histopathology examination of the resected vermiform appendix, and galactomannan was low positive. A. carneus, a rare species of Aspergillus formerly placed in section Flavipedes and recently considered a member of section Terrei, was identified in the specimen. Treatment with voriconazole was promptly started with success. No other site of Aspergillus localization was detected. Appendicitis is rarely caused by fungal organisms and isolated intestinal aspergillosis without pulmonary infection is unusual. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection due to A. carneus in a child and in a primary gastrointestinal infection.
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The infection of the root canal system is considered to be a polymicrobial infection, consisting of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Because of the complexity of the root canal infection, it is unlikely that any single antibiotic could result in effective sterilization of the canal. A combination of antibiotic drugs (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) is used to eliminate target bacteria, which are possible sources of endodontic lesions. Three case reports describe the nonsurgical endodontic treatment of teeth with large periradicular lesions. A triple antibiotic paste was used for 3 months. After 3 months, teeth were asymptomatic and were obturated. The follow-up radiograph of all the three cases showed progressive healing of periradicular lesions. The results of these cases show that when most commonly used medicaments fail in eliminating the symptoms then a triple antibiotic paste can be used clinically in the treatment of teeth with large periradicular lesions.
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This is the first study to collect so much data on FQ prescriptions for hospitalized children. Use in practice went beyond the licensed indication. Doses were consistent with those for recommended indications.
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Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has led to increased levels of resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. We investigated the evolution of ciprofloxacin susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of clinical E. coli isolates in haematology patients receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis on the population and individual patient level.
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Treatment of TTs with ototopical antibiotic preparations reduces P. aeruginosa growth and biofilm formation in vitro. This may, in part, explain the reduction of PTTO rates observed with single doses of OAPs.
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Plastic stents used for the treatment of biliary obstruction will become occluded over time due to microbial colonization and formation of biofilms. Treatment of stent-associated cholangitis is often not effective because of inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents or antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to assess the current bacterial and fungal etiology of stent-associated biofilms, with particular emphasis on antimicrobial resistance.