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To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the oropharynx of healthy children, throat swabs were obtained from 683 children and cultured. The disk diffusion method and the E test were used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated organisms. Twenty-nine children (4.2%) harbored S. pneumoniae in their oropharynx. Fifteen (51.7%) of the isolates showed intermediate resistance to penicillin and 14 (48.3%) were susceptible. All strains were susceptible to rifampicin and moxifloxacin. One was resistant to telithromycin. The rates of resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline were 41.3, 44.8, 34.4, and 44.8%, respectively. Risk factors for S. pneumoniae carriage were also assessed.
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Retrospective case series.
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Between 2008 and 2014, 2525 strains of S. aureus isolates, mainly from sputum, skin/soft tissue, bloodstreams were collected from several hospital departments including respiratory, burn, brain surgery, orthopedics, ICU, and emergency. During these periods, the resistance rate of S. aureus to most drugs, including oxacillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, showed a tendency to decrease. The resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim showed the opposite trend (P = 0.075) and there were no S. aureus strains resistant to linezolid and vancomycin. The MRSA infection rate was different across crucial hospital departments, with the burns department and ICU maintaining a high infection level. Over the 7-year period, both the brain surgery and the emergency departments had an expected upward trend (P < 0.05), while the orthopedic department showed a clear downward trend (P < 0.05) in MRSA infection rate.
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We describe an 82-year-old male with pneumococcal aortitis of the descending aorta, visualized by echocardiography and positron emission tomography using fluorinated deoxyglucose (FDG-PET). Computed tomography is considered to be the best diagnostic imaging modality in infected aortic lesions; in this case, the use of FDG-PET, which gives the opportunity to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory aortic aneurysms, made an important contribution to the diagnosis.
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Susceptibility to 17 antibiotics was studied in 180 strains of the Streptococcus milleri group (88 Streptococcus anginosus, 63 Streptococcus constellatus, and 29 Streptococcus intermedius) isolated over a 5-year period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin were in the intermediate range for 5.6% of the strains. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 17.1% and 16.6% of the isolates, respectively. A steady increase in the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was observed over the study period. Imipenem was the most active beta-lactam agent tested. Glycopeptide antibiotics showed excellent activity. Only slight differences between the three species were found in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. Intermediate resistance to penicillin is appearing among the Streptococcus milleri group in our area; consequently, care must be taken when choosing a macrolide for the management of infections caused by these microorganisms.
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A purulent MRSA SSTI strongly predicted the presence of a clindamycin-susceptible MRSA isolate. Presence of the pvl genes was almost universal among MRSA isolates causing purulent SSTIs; this was less common in nonpurulent SSTIs and other clinical syndromes.
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Babesiosis is caused by a tick-borne hemoparasite that, like malaria, can cause fever, hemolysis, and anemia. Typically self-limited, in the asplenic, immunocompromised, or elderly, disease can be severe or deadly. US cases have been primarily due to Babesia microti; WA-1, which may be related to Babesia gibsoni; and MO-1, related to Babesia divergens. European infections are usually due to B. divergens. North American cases are treated either with quinine and clindamycin or with atovaquone and azithromycin. The latter regimen appears less toxic.
The capsular polysaccharide (CP) of Bacteroides fragilis is an important virulence factor in the formation of experimental intraabdominal abscesses. Incubation of this organism with subinhibitory doses of clindamycin induced morphological changes in the bacteria, including elongation and loss of CP, detected by ferritin-labeled antibody to capsule. Pretreatment of bacteria with subinhibitory doses of clindamycin, however, did not affect the ability of live or heat-killed organisms to produce intraabdominal abscesses in a mouse model of intraabdominal sepsis. Dose-response experiments with purified CP as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from B. fragilis ATCC strain 23745 mixed with sterile cecal contents as adjuvant revealed that both surface components of the organism were capable of causing abscesses in the mouse model. The dose of LPS required to induce abscesses was five times higher than the required dose of CP. Nevertheless, these studies suggested that B. fragilis LPS is another virulence factor in the formation of intraabdominal abscesses.
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In this study, patterns of antimicrobial prescription for patients hospitalized with CAP were assessed for the first time in Korea. There was divergence from the 2009 Korean guidelines for the treatment of CAP, reinforcing the need for assessment of physicians' adherence to the guidelines.
A study was conducted in 2 dairy research herds to determine whether prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride was effective for reducing the percentage of heifers and mammary quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation. Almost 96% of Jersey heifers (67 of 70) and 71.3% of quarters (199 of 279) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 75% (54 of 72) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 87% (61 of 70) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 56% (32 of 57) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Jersey heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (61%), Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis (19%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Almost 73% of Holstein heifers (40 of 55) and 34.3% of mammary quarters (73 of 213) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 76% (19 of 25) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 59% (17 of 29) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 26% (5 of 19) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Holstein heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (44%) and Staph. aureus (30%). In both herds, the bacteriological cure rate was significantly higher in heifer mammary glands treated with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride than in untreated controls. Prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride significantly reduced the percentage of heifers and quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation.
Patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in Actinomyces and related genera are very limited in the literature. Data of predominant susceptibility profiles could contribute to the establishment of an accurate empirical treatment.
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Streptococci strains of the anginosus group isolated from various oral and maxillofacial infections (OMF) were screened for their susceptibility to the following antimicrobial agents: benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole. The isolates were susceptable to: clindamycin, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and all beta-lactam antibiotics, except ceftazidime to which 54.5% of the strains showed intermediate susceptibility. Intermediate susceptibility to tetracycline was found in 11.3% of the strains, whereas resistance to the same antibiotic was demonstrated in 61.4%. Resistance to erythromycin and trimethoprime-sulphamethoxazole was of 2.3% for both. In conclusion, penicillin is the drug of choice in infections caused by streptococci of the anginosus group.
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The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 23 Bacteroides fragilis clinical isolates from Cape Town, South Africa, were established using the E-test method. Eight percent of the strains were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole (≥256 mg/L) imipenem and cefoxitin. This is an 8% increase in resistance compared to the previous metronidazole susceptibility screening performed in South Africa in 1998. Clindamycin was the most effective antibiotic with all strains showing sensitivity. Most of the strains (65%) were tetracycline resistant, while one strain, B. fragilis GSH15, showed multidrug resistance to metronidazole, imipenem, cefoxitin and tetracycline. PCR screening revealed that none of the strains contained any of the published nim genes. The particle agglutination assay was employed to determine the ability of the isolates to bind the ECM components fibronectin, laminin, mucin and collagen. This revealed that 78% of the clinical isolates adhered to all four ECM components to varying extents, with the strongest being to laminin and weakest to mucin and collagen Type I.
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A single-centre prospective study.
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We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.
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This survey aims to describe and analyse the dosage regimens of antibiotics in French neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
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In a retrospective study, 1538 strains of beta-haemolysin-producing Staphylococcus species isolated from dermatitis in dogs at three veterinary clinical microbiology laboratories in Norway during 1986-87 and 1993-94 were investigated for their antimicrobial susceptibility. None of the strains was resistant to cloxacillin, cephalexin or the quinolones enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. More than 96% of the strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulphonamide, bacitracin and fucidic acid. Between 67% and 89% of the strains were susceptible to erythromycin, lincosamides, tetracycline, neomycin and chloramphenicol. Only 37.9% of the strains were susceptible to penicillin. The frequency of penicillin resistance increased significantly between the first and second periods, from 46.0% to 58.6%. The frequency of resistance to lincomycin, clindamycin and erythromycin also increased significantly between the first and second periods, from 3.0%, 2.1% and 3.3% to 25.5%, 19.5% and 24.8%, respectively. A moderate increase in resistance to tetracycline was also noted, from 20.4% in the first to 27.6% in the second period. On the other hand, the frequency of resistance to trimethoprim-sulphonamide decreased significantly from 4.1% in the first to 0.9% in the second period. Many different resistance patterns were observed in each period. However, the proportion of multiresistant strains increased from 2.1% in the first to 10.2% in the second period. There was a decrease in resistance to the combination of trimethoprim-sulphonamide and penicillin from the first to the second period. Resistance to the combination of lincosamides and penicillin increased. For the combinations penicillin-tetracycline-lincosamides, penicillin-lincosamides-erythromycin, and penicillin-tetracycline-lincosamides-erythromycin, there was a striking increase in resistance between the first and the second periods.
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We studied MRSA strains from seven pediatric CF centers to determine the clonal distribution based on DNA sequencing of the staphylococcal protein A gene (spa typing), the type of staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec), and the proportion of strains with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Antimicrobial susceptibility to systemic and topical antibiotics was compared between different MRSA types.
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The patient received long-term oral clindamycin therapy, which cured her disseminated infection.
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Most prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are due to wound contamination at the time of surgery. Some infections occur due to the hematogenous spread of bacteria from distant sites of infection. A review of the literature falls to associate PJI with transient bacteremias from invasive dental procedures. Several authors have described conditions which, they believe, render patients with prosthetic joints more at risk for infection. Prosthetic joint patients with these "high risk" conditions have the same types of infecting organisms as other patients with PJI. This indicates that the infecting bacteria are from wound contamination or distant sites of infection and not related to dental procedure bacteremias. Based on this review, antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated for patients with prosthetic joints when receiving invasive dental procedures, since there is no proven benefit and there are known risks involved with the use of antibiotics. However, the American Dental Association (ADA) and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS), in an advisory statement, suggest prophylaxis for "high risk" patients. The ADA and AAOS recommend a single dose of amoxicillin, cephradine, or clindamycin when prophylaxis is selected. The dentist is ultimately responsible for making treatment recommendations for his or her patients.
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Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was rapidly bactericidal resulting in >2 log(10) cfu/mL decrease at 8 h and >3 log(10) cfu/mL decrease at 24 h in vitro. No antibiotic combination exhibited better killing than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole alone. Adding rifampicin to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed a trend towards antagonism in vitro. There were no differences in the bactericidal activity of any antimicrobial or antimicrobial combination against MRSA isolates carrying SCCmec type IVa versus those carrying SCCmec type II.
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Anthrax is a zoonosis which is particularly prevalent in cattle, goats and sheep and is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore forming aerobic microorganism. The endospores can survive outside of the body for many decades. The natural form of anthrax has a cutaneous, pulmonary and intestinal form. The pulmonary form can be rapidly fatal but is difficult to recognise due to an initially non-specific, flu-like clinical picture. As a result of spores being inhaled, a mediastinal lymphadenitis arises from which a systemic disease develops with a violent toxaemia, damage to the vascular endothelium, oedema, internal haemorrhages and circulatory collapse. Anthrax is diagnosed by demonstrating the presence of the bacteria in the cutaneous abnormality, in blood or another sterile body component such as cerebrospinal fluid, by means of a direct preparation, immunofluorescence or surface antigens, molecular diagnostics with PCR, or by means of culturing. B. anthracis is sensitive to quinolones, clindamycin and tetracyclines, and often to penicillin. Although naturally acquired cutaneous anthrax can be effectively treated with a short antibiotic cure, it is nevertheless advised in the USA to complete the full 60-day cure and to regard the cutaneous manifestation as a telltale sign of possible respiratory exposure. Anthrax is not transmitted from one person to another.
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A regression analysis was performed, which showed 100% resistance to the following antibiotics throughout the entire testing period: carbapenem, cephalosporin (1st-4th generation), penicillin G, aminopenicillin, β-lactamase, and isoxazolyl penicillin. However, a significant decrease in resistance was found for amikacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and mupirocin.
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We present a case report of a patient who was previously treated for spontaneous epistaxis with a petroleum jelly gauze (0.5 in x 72 in) anterior nasal packing filled with an antibiotic ointment, along with prophylactic oral clindamycin. The patient presented with fever and hypotension 3 days after the nasal packing. Her blood cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the transesophageal echocardiography showed vegetation on the atrial surface of the posterior mitral valve leaflet, confirming the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis attributable to nasal packing. Several case reports discuss toxic shock syndrome after nasal packing, but none describe endocarditis of the native heart valves subsequent to anterior nasal packing. Current guidelines on endocarditis prophylaxis produced by the American Heart Association, European Cardiac Society, and British Cardiac Society together with published evidence do not recommend endocarditis prophylaxis for patients with native heart valves undergoing anterior nasal packing.
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To analyse the efficacy of antibiotics in the acute and chronic stage of bone infections, we established long-term in vitro and in vivo osteomyelitis models. Antibiotics that were tested include β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, rifampicin and clindamycin.
The kinetics of intraperitoneally administered clindamycin phosphate were studied in 9 volunteer subjects undergoing CAPD. Volunteers were assigned to 2 groups with the first group receiving clindamycin phosphate 300 mg/l in exchanges 1 through 5, and the second group receiving clindamycin phosphate 300 mg/l in exchange 1, and then 30 mg/l in exchanges 2 through 5. Clindamycin serum and dialysate effluent levels were determined by bioassay. When admixed with dialysate fluid and instilled into the peritoneal cavity, clindamycin phosphate is rapidly activated. Serum concentrations of clindamycin were rapidly achieved in both groups during the first exchange. Subjects in groups I and II had peak serum levels of active drug within 3 (3.94 ug/ml) and 5 (7.35 ug/ml) h, respectively. These results support the practice of not only administering intraperitoneal clindamycin phosphate to treat CAPD-related peritonitis, but using this route of administration to treat systemic infections due to susceptible bacteria in patients without intravenous access.
Among the isolates collected, 309 were characterized as MRSA, with a prevalence of 59.8%. Three major clones were found to be prevalent in China: ST239-MRSA-III-t030, ST239-MRSA-III-t037 and ST5-MRSA-II-t002. These three clones were associated with two characteristic resistance profiles, namely, gentamicin/ciprofloxacin/rifampicin/levofloxacin for the first clone and gentamicin/ciprofloxacin/clindamycin/erythromycin/tetracycline/levofloxacin/trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for the latter two. Several geographically unique minor clones were also identified.
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Reports of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have recently increased in Japan. To determine the status of MRSA infections in our hospital, we investigated their Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types and prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). In addition, we investigated the relation between their SCCmec and antimicrobial susceptibility. The 191 strains were isolated from January to July in 2011 and were classified as SCCmec type I (2, 1.0％), type II (136, 71.2％), type IV (36, 18.8％), type V (4, 2.1％) and type VIII (2, 1.0％). Eleven isolates (5.8％) were designated as nontypable. No isolates were PVL-positive in this study. The SCCmec type IV strains were more susceptible to imipenem (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) than SCCmec type II strains (MIC90, >16 μg/ml). This difference was also observed between SCCmec type IV and SCCmec type II in susceptibility levels to clarithromycin, clindamycin, minocycline, and levofloxacin, but not to gentamicin. In particular, SCCmec type IV strains were susceptible to imipenem and minocycline. The result indicates these susceptibility is useful to discriminate CA-MRSA from Hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA).
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An antibiotic, to be effective for prophylaxis in abdominal trauma, should quickly achieve high concentrations in the intestinal wall and at enough inhibitory levels to kill most aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that are potential contaminants at the site of surgical incision. Therefore, we studied the intestinal tissue levels of clindamycin, gentamicin, and mezlocillin to see whether the tissue levels achieved by these antibiotics in the intestinal tissue were adequate. A single dose of mezlocillin, 4 grams; clindamycin, 600 mg and gentamicin, 80 mg; quickly reached the desired concentrations, i.e., 52.3, 9.69 and 6.1 micrograms/gram of intestinal tissue respectively. These levels were high enough to inhibit the growth of most isolates of E. coli and B. fragilis, common pathogens involved in intra-abdominal abscess.
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There is a need for greater numbers of adequately sized, blinded, randomized controlled trials evaluating systemic antimicrobial interventions for canine pyoderma. Improved differentiation between superficial and deep pyoderma in outcome reporting, outcome measure standardization and association of outcomes with causative bacterial species and their resistance patterns are required.