Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
combivir medication guide
Short-course CBV significantly reduced but did not eliminate the emergence of NVP resistance after sdNVP. NVP-resistant variants were detected in about one-third of women despite CBV treatment, but the duration of persistence and clinical impact of these variants in response to antiretroviral therapy is uncertain.
Approximately 8% of patients screened as having R5 virus by OTA were classified as having non-R5 virus by V3-loop genotyping. These patients were less likely to have early or sustained week-48 treatment response to MVC, but not EFV. When restricted to patients with R5 virus by genotype, reanalysis of the primary study endpoint (plasma viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48) showed noninferiority of MVC twice daily to EFV (67% vs. 68%). Rescreening by genotype and ESTA had 84% concordance; patients receiving MVC twice daily rescreened as having R5 virus had greater than 1 log10 copies per milliliter decrease in viral load over those rescreened as having non-R5 virus. Where genotype and ESTA screening results were discordant outcomes were similar.
Combination therapy with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir and emtricitabine, resulted in a significant reduction in serum liver enzyme levels, attenuation of cholangitis and decreased MMTV levels in the livers of NOD.c3c4 mice. Furthermore, treatment with the retroviral protease inhibitors, lopinavir and ritonavir, in addition to the reverse transcriptase inhibitors, resulted in further decrease in MMTV levels and attenuation of liver disease in this model.
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To show the present status of the AF population and the evolution of mortality.
In this study, a slight but not significant decrease in the plasma lopinavir C(trough) was found during the third trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that standard dosing of the tablet formulation is also appropriate during the later stages of pregnancy.
combivir medication info
One hundred and forty-two HIV-infected naive patients without AIDS.
The global mortality registered was 33.4%, with decreasing annual mortality from 15.7% of its active population in 1995 to 1.9% in 2004. As of 12/31/2004, 817 patients (76.7%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 19.3% either did not require nor accept it. Thirty one percent received Combivir and nevirapine, with undetectable viral load (<400 copies per ml) in 78%. Thirty percent received Combivir and efavirenz with undetectable viral load in 80% at last count. Both regimens were used mainly as first therapy. Lopinavir/ritonavir was received by 6.3% of patients, mainly for post failure therapy and 58% had undetectable viral load. A baseline CD4 count <200 x mm(3) was present in 70% of patients, 45.3% had a count below 100 and 47.8% had clinical AIDS. At the last follow up assessment, CD4 count was <200 in 36.8%, <100 in 10.6% and 200-350 in 44.9%.
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The efficacy and safety of raltegravir (RAL) with tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) have been well studied in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, limited clinical data are available on the use of RAL with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) or zidovudine (ZDV)/3TC. We investigated HIV-1-infected Korean adults, including 13 antiretroviral-naïve patients and 15 antiretroviral-experienced patients, treated with RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC. Virological suppression was achieved in 12 of the 13 (92%) antiretroviral-naïve patients within 24 weeks and in all (100%) patients within 96 weeks. In 13 of the 15 treatment-experienced patients, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) was replaced with RAL because of hyperlipidemia (n = 11) and diarrhea (n = 2). A significant decrease in median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels was observed in these patients (P < 0.01, each). No adverse event related to RAL was observed in any of the 28 patients. The RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC regimens were effective and safe in antiretroviral-naïve Korean HIV-infected patients, and replacing LPV/r with RAL significantly improved lipid abnormalities in patients previously treated with regimens including LPV/r.
Samples were analysed from 27 women in the sdNVP arm and 24 each in the CBV 4-day (sdNVP/CBV4) and 7-day (sdNVP/CBV7) arms. ASP detected NVP-resistant variants in week 6 samples from 70% of women in the sdNVP arm, 29% in the sdNVP/CBV4 arm and 33% in sdNVP/CBV7 arm (P<0.01 for sdNVP/CBV4 or sdNVP/CBV7 versus sdNVP; P=1.0 for sdNVP/CBV4 versus sdNVP/CBV7). Lamivudine resistance was detected by ASP in only 1 of 51 women who received CBV.
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Twelve centres in Spain (9) and Argentina (3).
Patients received combivir (zidovudine 300 mg/lamivudine 150 mg, twice-daily) plus either nelfinavir (1250 mg) twice-daily (zidovudine/lamivudine/nelfinavir, n=70) or nevirapine (200 mg) twice-daily (zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine, n=72), and were followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-1 RNA (pVL) of less than 200 copies/ml by PCR at 12 months. pVL of less than 20 copies/ml (PCR), changes in CD4 counts, clinical progression and adverse events were also evaluated. Efficacy was assessed using intent-to-treat (ITT) (missing=failure) and on-treatment analysis.
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This study was prematurely terminated due to APL-associated idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. The primary endpoint of the study was the proportion of patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/ml who remained on randomized treatment through week 12. Of the 147 patients enrolled, 145 patients received one dose of treatment and were included in the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/ml at week 12 was 53%, 50% and 66% in the APL 600 mg twice daily, APL 800 mg twice daily, and EFV arms, respectively. Common clinical adverse events (AEs) were diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue and headache. APL demonstrated non-linear pharmacokinetics with high interpatient variability. In addition to the hepatic findings, there was an apparent dose-response relationship in the incidence of diarrhoea.
Eleven electronic databases were searched from inception to December 2007.
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Efavirenz and abacavir, two recently approved drugs, have simplified HIV treatment. They are taken less often than some other drugs, and fewer pills are required. Results are reported from studies which have evaluated different dosing schedules and the effectiveness of new drug combinations. The studies have involved AZT, Combivir, d4T, amprenavir, Indinavir, Ritonavir, and Delavirdine. Researchers hope that the results of these studies may provide alternatives to three times a day dosing schedules.
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sdNVP alone, administered at the onset of labour and to the infant, was compared to sdNVP with AZT plus 3TC, given as combivir (CBV) for 4 (NVP/CBV4) or 7 (NVP/CBV7) days, initiated simultaneously with sdNVP in labour; their newborns received the same regimens. Women were randomised 1ratio1ratio1. HIV-1 resistance was assessed by population sequencing at: baseline, 2, and 6 wk after birth. An unplanned interim analysis resulted in early stopping of the sdNVP arm. 406 pregnant women were randomised and took study medication (sdNVP 74, NVP/CBV4 164, and NVP/CBV7 168). HIV-1 resistance mutations emerged in 59.2%, 11.7%, and 7.3% of women in the sdNVP, NVP/CBV4, and NVP/CBV7 arms by 6 wk postpartum; differences between NVP-only and both NVP/CBV arms were significant (p<0.0001), but the difference between NVP/CBV4 and NVP/CBV7 was not (p = 0.27). Estimated efficacy comparing combined CBV arms with sdNVP was 85.6%. Similar resistance reductions were seen in infants who were HIV-infected by their 6-wk visit.
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Emergence of drug resistance following HIV prophylaxis has an important impact on ART program.
combivir drug information
Abacavir (ABC) may be associated with a small, increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected adults, possibly related to cytokine-mediated inflammation.
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The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) are commonly used in combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with hypersensitivity reactions on induction therapy. We report a case of recurrent hypersensitivity associated with Combivir, when there was a delay in determining the cause as the NNRTIs were considered to be the more likely cause.
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The attenuation of cholangitis with regimens containing the reverse transcriptase inhibitors, tenofovir and emtricitabine, and the protease inhibitors, lopinavir and ritonavir, suggests that retroviral infection may play a role in the development of cholangitis in this model.
Disparities in drug exposure between formulations were observed; however, the FDC tablet delivered therapeutically adequate exposures of each drug and could well play an important role in simplifying antiretroviral treatment for children.
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There is strong evidence that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral drugs in the timely management of occupational exposures sustained by healthcare workers decreases the risk of HIV infection and PEP is now widely used. Antiretroviral drugs have well documented toxicities and produce adverse events in patients living with HIV/AIDS. In the era of "highly active antiretroviral therapy", non-adherence to treatment has been closely linked to the occurrence of adverse events in HIV patients and this ultimately influences treatment success but the influence of adverse events on adherence during PEP is less well studied.
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We conducted a study to evaluate the tolerance of the zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) combination regimen in HIV-1 patients by a descriptive analytical retrospective study of all HIV-1 patients receiving AZT-3TC-NVP combination between 2008 and 2011. Seventy patients were included. Two thirds of the patients presented at least one side effect (44 cases). The digestive disorders (15 cases) and neuropsychiatric (14 cases) were the most frequent. Epigastralgia (20%), headaches (20%) and arthralgias (13%) were main side effects. A maculo-papular exanthema was noted in three cases. During the follow-up, five patients presented with anemia. No patient presented hepatic cytolysis due to NVP. All the patients followed for more than six months presented a side effect against 29.7% when the duration of treatment was equal to or less than 6 months (p=10(-5)). Most of the side effects due to the association AZT/3TC/NVP are minor. The evaluation of the clinical and biological tolerance must be maintained during all the follow-up.
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Patients were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to TZV twice daily (n = 85), COM/NFV 1250 mg twice daily (n = 88), or d4T 40 mg+3TC 150 mg+NFV 1250 mg twice daily (n = 81) for 96 weeks. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with regard to changes from baseline in fasting lipids in the total population and in sex and ethnic subgroups. The proportions of patients achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 and <400 copies/mL were compared using a 95% confidence interval (CI) on the difference between proportions.
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During the past two years, two new classes of drugs have emerged that are effective in treating HIV infection. Since protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are highly effective but difficult to take, pharmaceutical manufacturers have developed new formulations of some of these drugs. People taking AZT and ritonavir can sometimes switch to a product called Combivir, a combination of the two. Saquinavir patients may be able to switch to a gel formulation of the same drug, Fortovase, that is more readily absorbed by the body. Potential side effects and impacts on treatment are reviewed.
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The median CD4 count was 346 cells/mm(3) (2-2600). Triple therapy combinations of ARV drugs used by patients included zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC)/efavirenz (EFV; 42.4%), ZDV/3TC/nevirapine (NVP; 33.8%), tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine/EFV (19.9%), and TDF/3TC/EFV (3.9%). The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in patients was 77.5%. There were varied prevalence of derangement of individual lipids among patients. Age, body mass index, CD4 count, sex, and duration of ARV drug use were the predictors of poor lipid profiles.
Acute HIV infection was verified in 16 infected subjected basing either on seroconversion (by immunoblotting) or a documented negative result 6-12 months before registration of a positive result for HIV antibodies.
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