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Increased renal sodium retention is considered a major risk factor contributing to hypertension associated with chronic hyperinsulinemia and obesity. However, the molecular mechanism involved is not understood. The present study investigates the effect of insulin treatment on AT1 receptor expression and ANG II-induced stimulation of Na/H exchanger (NHE) and Na-K-ATPase (NKA) in opossum kidney (OK) cells, a proximal tubule cell line. The presence of the AT1 receptors in OK cells was confirmed by the specific binding of 125I-sar-ANG II and by detecting approximately 43-kDa protein on Western blot analysis with AT1 receptor antibody and blocking peptide as well as by expression of AT1 receptor mRNA as determined by RT-PCR. Insulin treatment (100 nM for 24 h) caused an increase in 125I-sar-ANG II binding, AT1 receptor protein content, and mRNA levels. The whole cell lysate and membrane showed similar insulin-induced increase in the AT1 receptor protein expression, which was blocked by genistein (100 nM), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and cycloheximide (1.5 microg/ml), a protein synthesis inhibitor. Determination of ethyl isopropyl amiloride-sensitive 22Na+ uptake, a measure of the NHE activity, revealed that ANG II (1-100 pM)-induced stimulation of NHE in insulin-treated cells was significantly greater than in the control cells. Similarly, ANG II (1-100 pM)-induced stimulation of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake, a measure of NKA activity in insulin-treated cells, was significantly greater than in the control cells. ANG II stimulation of both the transporters was blocked by AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, suggesting the involvement of AT1 receptors. Thus chronic insulin treatment causes upregulation of AT1 receptors, which evoked ANG II-induced stimulation of NHE and NKA. We propose that insulin-induced increase in the renal AT1 receptor function serves as a mechanism responsible for the increased renal sodium reabsorption and thus may contribute to development of hypertension in conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia.
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Losartan reduced the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rat atherosclerotic lesions. The anti-atherogenic effects of losartan were due to the direct inhibition of Ang II bioactivity.
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In diabetic individuals with nephropathy, systolic blood pressure visit-to-visit variability is associated independently with hard kidney disease outcomes.
Uremia was induced in apoE-/- mice by 5/6 nephrectomy (NX). Treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (2 or 12 mg/kg/d) from week 4 to 36 after NX reduced the aortic plaque area fraction from 0.23+/-0.02 (n=20) in untreated mice to 0.11+/-0.01 (n=21) and 0.08+/-0.01 (n=23), respectively (P<0.0001); the aortic plaque area fraction was 0.09+/-0.01 (n=22) in sham-operated controls. Enalapril from week 20 to 44 after NX also retarded the progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and concentrations of IgM antibodies against oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL) increased after NX (P<0.01). Enalapril (12 mg/kg/d) attenuated these increases (P<0.05) and reduced aortic expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 mRNA (P<0.05). Atherosclerosis in NX mice was also reduced by losartan (an angiotensin II receptor-blocker), but not when blood pressure was lowered with hydralazine (a non-RAS-dependent vasodilator).
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The rostral ventrolateral medullary pressor area (RVLM) is known to be critical in the regulation of cardiovascular function. In this study, it was hypothesized that the RVLM may be one of the sites of cardiovascular actions of a newly discovered angiotensin, angiotensin-(1-12) [Ang-(1-12)]. Experiments were carried out in urethane-anaesthetized, artificially ventilated, adult male Wistar rats. The RVLM was identified by microinjections of L-glutamate (5 mM). The volume of all microinjections into the RVLM was 100 nl. Microinjections of Ang-(1-12) (0.1-1.0 mM) into the RVLM elicited increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Maximal cardiovascular responses were elicited by 0.5 mM Ang-(1-12); this concentration was used in the other experiments described. Microinjections of Ang-(1-12) increased greater splanchnic nerve activity. The tachycardic responses to Ang-(1-12) were not altered by bilateral vagotomy. The cardiovascular responses elicited by Ang-(1-12) were attenuated by microinjections of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) antagonist (losartan), but not an AT(2)R antagonist (PD123319), into the RVLM. Combined inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase in the RVLM abolished Ang-(1-12)-induced responses. Angiotensin-(1-12)-immunoreactive cells were present in the RVLM. Angiotensin II type 1 receptors and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl-transferase were present in the RVLM neurons retrogradely labelled by microinjections of Fluoro-Gold into the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. Angiotensin-(1-12)-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus did not project to the RVLM. These results indicated that: (1) microinjections of Ang-(1-12) into the RVLM elicited increases in mean arterial pressure, heart rate and greater splanchnic nerve activity; (2) both angiotensin-converting enzyme and chymase were needed to convert Ang-(1-12) into angiotensin II; and (3) AT(1)Rs, but not AT(2)Rs, in the RVLM mediated the Ang-(1-12)-induced responses.
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Angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor belongs to the super-family of G-protein-coupled receptors, and antagonists of the AT(1) receptor are effectively used in the treatment of hypertension. To understand the molecular interactions of these antagonists, such as losartan and telmisartan, with the AT(1) receptor, a homology model of the human AT(1) (hAT(1)) receptor with all connecting loops was constructed from the 2.6 A resolution crystal structure (PDB i.d., 1L9H) of bovine rhodopsin. The initial model generated by MODELLER was subjected to a stepwise ligand-supported model refinement. This protocol involved initial docking of non-peptide AT(1) antagonists in the putative binding site, followed by several rounds of iterative energy minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. The final model was validated based on its correlation with several structure-activity relationships and site-directed mutagenesis data. The final model was also found to be in agreement with a previously reported AT(1) antagonist pharmacophore model. Docking studies were performed for a series of non-peptide AT(1) receptor antagonists in the active site of the final hAT(1) receptor model. The docking was able to identify key molecular interactions for all the AT(1) antagonists studied. Reasonable correlation was observed between the interaction energy values and the corresponding binding affinities of these ligands, providing further validation for the model. In addition, an extensive unrestrained molecular dynamics simulation showed that the docking-derived bound pose of telmisartan is energetically stable. Knowledge gained from the present studies can be used in structure-based drug design for developing novel ligands for the AT(1) receptor.
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Blood pressure (BP) control is frequently difficult to achieve in patients with predominantly elevated systolic BP. Consequently, these patients frequently require combination therapy including a thiazide diuretic such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and an agent blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Current clinical practice usually limits the daily dose of HCTZ to 25 mg. This often leads to the necessity of using additional antihypertensive agents to control BP in a high proportion of patients.
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The binding of renin or prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) promotes angiotensin (Ang) II formation and mediates Ang II-independent signaling pathways. In the central nervous system (CNS), Ang II regulates blood pressure via inducing oxidative stress; however, the role of PRR-mediated Ang II-independent signaling pathways in oxidative stress in the CNS remains undefined. To address this question, Neuro-2A cells were infected with control virus or an adeno-associated virus encoding the human PRR. Human PRR over-expression alone increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase activity, as well as NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms 2 and 4 mRNA expression levels and these effects were not blocked by losartan. Moreover, the increase in NOX 2 and NOX 4 mRNA levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and ROS levels induced by PRR over-expression was prevented by mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) inhibition, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (IP3/Akt) inhibition, indicating that PRR regulates NOX activity and ROS formation in neuro-2A cells through Ang II-independent ERK1/2 and IP3/Akt activation. Interestingly, at a concentration of 2 nM or higher, prorenin promoted Ang II formation, and thus further increased the ROS levels in cultured Neuro-2A cells via PRR. In conclusion, human PRR over-expression induced ROS production through both angiotensin II-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We showed that PRR-mediated angiotensin II-independent ROS formation is associated with activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3/Akt signaling pathways and up-regulation of mRNA level of NOX 2 and NOX4 isoforms in neuronal cells.
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Previous studies have indicated that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors can induce an increase of blood pressure and exacerbate myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion, whereas angiotensin II receptor antagonists protect the myocardium against injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion. Isolated hearts from male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) or male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to 20 min global ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. Heart rate, coronary flow, left ventricular pressure, and its first derivatives (+/-dP/dt(max)) were recorded, and serum concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and NO and the release of creatine kinase in coronary effluent were measured. The level of ADMA was significantly increased and the concentration of NO was decreased in SHR. Ischemia and reperfusion significantly inhibited the recovery of cardiac function and increased the release of creatine kinase, and ischemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury in SHR was aggravated compared with WKY. Vasodilation responses to acetylcholine of aortic rings were decreased in SHR. Treatment with losartan (30 mg/kg) for 14 days significantly lowered blood pressure, elevated the plasma level of NO, and decreased the plasma concentration of ADMA in SHR. Treatment with losartan significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxation and cardiac function during ischemia and reperfusion in SHR. Exogenous ADMA also aggravated myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in isolated perfused heart of WKY, as shown by increasing creatine kinase release and decreasing cardiac function. The present results suggest that the protective effect of losartan on myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion is related to the reduction of ADMA levels.
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Studies were performed on the central antidiuretic actions via the tachykinin NK-3 receptor in the rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Microinjections of the selective tachykinin NK-3 receptor agonist senktide (2-200 pmol) into the PVN resulted in prolonged inhibition of urine output in water-loaded rats, its effect being dose-dependent. The antidiuretic action of senktide was blocked by pretreatment with the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist OPC-31260 (1 mg/kg, i.v.), but not by microinjection of the angiotensin II AT-1 receptor antagonist losartan (1 nmol) into the PVN. NK-3 receptor mRNA was strongly detected in the magnocellular part of the PVN and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus as detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Moreover, [3H]senktide binding sites were also detected in the PVN and the SON by receptor autoradiography. These findings suggest that NK-3 receptors in the PVN may be involved in water regulation by stimulation of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland, and that vasopressin caused water reabsorbtion via the kidney V2 receptor.
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Activation of efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (ERSNA) increases afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA), leading to decreases in ERSNA by activation of the renorenal reflexes in the overall goal of maintaining low ERSNA. The renorenal reflex responses to various stimuli are impaired in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Because renal tissue density of α(2)-adrenoceptors (ARs) is increased in SHR, we examined whether the ERSNA-induced increases in ARNA are impaired in SHR and, if so, the role of α(2)-ARs. The ARNA responses to increases in ERSNA were impaired in SHR, 2390 ± 460%·seconds, versus in Wistar-Kyoto rats, 6620 ± 1690%·seconds. Renal pelvic release of substance P was not altered by 6250 pmol/L norepinephrine (NE) in SHR but was increased by 250 pmol/L NE in Wistar-Kyoto rats, from 5.7 ± 0.7 to 12.5±1.3 pg/min. Renal pelvic administration of the α(2)-AR antagonist rauwolscine enhanced the ERSNA-induced increases in ARNA, 4170 ± 900%·seconds, in SHR but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In the presence of rauwolscine, 250 pmol/L NE increased substance P release, from 5.2 ± 0.3 to 11.2 ± 0.8 pg/min, in pelvises from SHR. Because angiotensin II suppresses the activation of renal mechanosensory nerves in SHR, we examined whether losartan improved the ERSNA-induced ARNA responses. Losartan had no effect on the ARNA responses or the NE-induced increases in substance P in SHR. However, losartan+rauwolscine resulted in further enhancement of the responsiveness of the renal sensory nerves to increases in ERSNA and NE in SHR but not in WKY. We conclude that increased activation of renal α(2)-ARs and angiotensin II type 1 receptors contributes to the impaired interaction between ERSNA and ARNA in SHR.
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Short-term add-on therapy with losartan reduced B-type natriuretic peptide levels in patients hospitalized for decompensated severe heart failure and low cardiac output with inotrope dependence.
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Four weeks after ACE2 gene transfer, the adenovirus-ACE2 group showed increased ACE2 expression, matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, and LV ejection fractions and decreased LV volumes, myocardial fibrosis, and ACE, Ang-II, and collagen expression in comparison with the adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein and control groups. ACE2 was superior to losartan in improving LV remodeling and function and reducing collagen expression. The putative mechanisms may involve a shift in balance toward an inhibited fibroblast-myocyte cross-talk for collagen and transforming growth factor-beta production and enhanced collagen degradation by matrix metalloproteinase-2.
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AT1 -receptor blockers differ both in their ability to reduce pulse pressure and in their duration of effect, candesartan cilexetil having a greater and more sustained effect than losartan. Different dose-effect relationships on SBP, DBP or pulse pressure were observed. Further prospective studies based on pulse pressure are needed to analyse the mechanism of reduction of pulse pressure and to determine its prognostic value.
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Treatment of manifestations: Treatment includes use of corticosteroids to control pain. Losartan may be a helpful adjuvant therapy to minimize the need for steroids to control pain. Pain is also managed with analgesics and non-pharmacologic methods. Bilateral myringotomy can improve conductive hearing loss resulting from serous otitis. Surveillance: Following initiation of corticosteroid treatment, blood pressure should be monitored monthly; when maintenance steroid dose is achieved, yearly evaluation includes complete neurologic examination, CBC, blood pressure, hearing screen, and bone density scan.
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We studied the promigratory effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on cultured bovine retinal microvascular pericytes. ANG II stimulated migration of pericytes by 86% at 10(-8) M, but this effect was lost at 10(-4) M. Migratory responses were inhibited by the ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor antagonist losartan but not by PD-123319, an AT(2) antagonist. Addition of PD-123319 to the 10(-4) M ANG II dose restored migratory responses. The promigratory effect of ANG II (10(-7) M) was reduced by 59% in absence of gradient. Although ANG II augmented the latent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity of the pericyte by 35%, it also doubled tissue inhibitors of MMPs. ANG II-induced migration was not altered by a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001); it was inhibited by ~50% by antibodies against transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1/2/3) and was abolished by antibodies against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. We conclude that ANG II induces chemotactic responses on retinal microvascular pericytes acting through the AT(1) receptor. This effect is opposed by the AT(2) receptor. ANG II-induced chemotaxis is mediated by PDGF-BB and involves TGF-beta, but it is independent of MMP activity. It is also independent of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) because VEGF did not stimulate pericyte migration. ANG II can contribute to the regulation of retinal neovascularization by stimulating pericyte migration.
Dahl-S rats fed a high-salt (4% sodium chloride) diet for 6 weeks were treated with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor alacepril or the angiotensin receptor antagonist losartan for 4 weeks. Functional and morphological alterations in the kidney were investigated.
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Little is known about the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal prostaglandins in modulating the renal vasoconstrictive and natriuretic effects of synthetic urodilatin (URO) in healthy humans.
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Exercise training markedly improves aerobic capacity and cardiac function after myocardial infarction, either alone or in combination with angiotensin inhibition. The two interventions appear to act by complementary mechanisms; whereas exercise training restores cardiac energy metabolism, mainly at the level of energy transfer, losartan unloads the heart by lowering filling pressure and afterload.
Rats were fed a high (4% w/w) or low (0.2% w/w) NaCl diet for six days. Both groups were then given a combined intraperitoneal injection of perindopril (6 mg/kg/day) and losartan (10 mg/kg/day) with maintained dietary treatment for another seven days. At the end of the treatment period, animals were anaesthetised and their hearts were removed and weighed. Left ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and cell dimensions were evaluated. A line scan camera and digital imaging technique were used to assess cardiomyocyte contraction and inotropic responses to exogenous Ang II (10 to 10(-8) M).
Among various angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) play crucial roles in regulating angiogenesis and vascular integrity. Infusion of angiotensin-II (ang II) induces hypertension and focal renal tubulointerstitial injuries. In the present study we investigated the renal expression of VEGF, Ang1, Ang2, and corresponding receptors in association with tubulointerstitial lesions in a rat ang II infusion model.
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Intracerebroventricular injection of the putative AT2 agonist, p-aminophenylalanine6 angiotensin II (p-NH2Phe6-Ang II), caused dose-dependent increases in intakes of water and NaCl similar to those produced by angiotensin II but requiring more than one thousand times the dose. Very large doses of another AT2 agonist, angiotensin(1-7) heptapeptide (Ang(1-7)), had no effect on intakes of water and NaCl up to 24 h after injection, nor did Ang(1-7) affect angiotensin II-induced drinking when the two peptides were given together. The AT1 antagonist, losartan, but not the AT2 antagonist, CGP 42112B, inhibited p-NH2Phe6-Ang II- and angiotensin II-induced drinking, suggesting that p-NH2Phe6-Ang II, like angiotensin II, acts on AT1 but not AT2 receptors. However, large doses of the AT2 antagonist, PD 123319, inhibited drinking in response to both dipsogens. Since p-NH2Phe6-Ang II- and angiotensin II-induced drinking were unaffected by CGP 42112B, this could mean that there are different AT2 receptor subtypes of which only the PD 123319-sensitive one is involved in drinking. But because of the very large doses of PD 123319 used it is also likely that there was loss of receptor specificity resulting in cross-reaction of PD 123319 with AT1 receptors. The results do not favour involvement of AT2 receptors in angiotensin-induced thirst and sodium appetite in the short term.
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The incidence of choroidal neovascularization formation was 99.5 +/-.2% (mean +/- standard deviation) in controls and 72.5 +/- 8.8% in losartan-treated rats (P <.01). Quantitative morphometric assessment revealed mean choroidal neovascularization lesion thickness of 54 and 44.8 microm, respectively, in controls and losartan-treated rats (P <.01).
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Salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with severe organ damage. Generating oxygen radicals is an integral component of salt-induced kidney damage, and activated leukocytes are important in oxygen radical biosynthesis. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet causes the upregulation of immune-related mechanisms, thereby contributing to the susceptibility of Dahl salt-sensitive rats to hypertensive kidney damage. For verifying the hypothesis, we investigated leukocytes adhering to retinal vessels when Dahl salt-sensitive rats were challenged with a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet using acridine orange fluoroscopy and a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The high-salt diet increased leukocyte adhesion after 3 days and was associated with a significant increase in mRNA biosynthesis of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) -related molecules in the kidney. Losartan treatment did not affect increased leukocyte adhesion during the early, pre-hypertensive phase of high salt loading; however, losartan attenuated the adhesion of leukocytes during the hypertensive stage. Moreover, the inhibition of leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage by anti-CD18 antibodies decreased tethering of leukocytes and was associated with the attenuation of functional and morphological kidney damage without affecting blood pressure elevation. In conclusion, a high-salt challenge rapidly increased leukocyte adhesion through the over-expression of ICAM-1. Increased leukocyte adhesion in the pre-hypertensive stage is responsible for subsequent kidney damage in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Immune system involvement may be a key component that initiates kidney damage in a genetic model of salt-induced hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 16 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.31.
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To evaluate whether rescinding the prior authorization (PA) requirement (managerial pre-approval) for losartan in an health maintenance organization (HMO) could reduce prescribing of the more expensive angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
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Angiotensin II/Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) effects are dependent on ROS production stimulated by NADPH oxidase activation. Hsp70 regulates a diverse set of signaling pathways through their interactions with proteins. CHIP is a E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for polyubiquitination and degradation.
One-kidney, 1-clip rats (1K1C) or uninephrectomized controls were treated with either the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (0.5 mmol. kg(-1). d(-1)), angiotension type 1 receptor inhibitor losartan (50 mmol. L(-1). kg(-1). d(-1)), or both (n=6 per group) for 2 weeks. At the end of the study, systolic blood pressure (BP) decreased on average by 21% in tempol-treated and 29% in losartan-treated versus untreated 1K1C (217+/-4.4 mm Hg) and was normalized in the losartan plus tempol group. Mean BP also decreased from 159+/-3.7 mm Hg in 1K1C to 93+/-2.8 mm Hg in the losartan plus tempol group. Also, aortic wall area was reduced by 18% in losartan- or tempol-treated 1K1C and by 30% in losartan plus tempol rats compared with untreated 1K1C. Plasma renin activity was increased from 4.8+/-0.3 in untreated 1K1C to 15.9+/-0.9 ng. mL(-1). h(-1) in losartan-treated but not tempol-treated 1K1C. Superoxide generation by the isolated aortic rings assessed by lucigenin chemiluminescence was significantly decreased (by approximately 40%) in all losartan, tempol, and losartan plus tempol groups compared with untreated 1K1C. Nitrotyrosine ELISA in the kidney displayed a significant reduction, from 59+/-13 ng/mg of protein in 1K1C to 12.5+/-5 ng/mg of protein in the losartan plus tempol 1K1C. Western blotting for nNOS in kidney cortex and medulla showed a protein increase in both fractions of 1K1C versus controls and was normalized by losartan plus tempol treatment. Collectively, data show a synergistic effect of losartan and tempol on BP reduction in 1K1C rats. The mechanism may involve reduced superoxide production and nitrotyrosine formation in kidney and decreased kidney neuronal-type NO synthase expression in treated animals. This status in the oxidative balance seems to affect BP in the renal hypertensive rats.
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The pharmacological effects of angiotensin II (AII) are potently inhibited by several peptide and recently synthesized nonpeptide AII receptor antagonists. The interaction of sarcosine1, isoleucine8-AII (sarile), sarcosine1,O-methyltyrosine4-AII (sarmesin), and the nonpeptide AII antagonists 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5- hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)- methyl]imidazole (DuP 753, Losartan potassium) and its metabolite 2-n-butyl-4-chloro-1-[(2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]imidaz ole - 5-carboxylic acid (EXP3174) with AII binding sites was investigated in radioligand binding and functional studies. Sarile, sarmesin, DuP 753, and EXP3174 inhibited 125I-AII binding to rat lung tissue, with Ki values of 3.5, 16.1, 23.7, and 10.4 nM, respectively. The Hill coefficients of all displacement curves, except for sarile (nH, 1.45), were not significantly different from unity. In functional experiments using rabbit aorta, sarmesin and DuP 753 competitively inhibited the contractile response to AII, with pA2 values of 6.75 and 8.01, respectively. Sarile, in contrast, revealed noncompetitive antagonism, i.e., the maximum contractile force and the slope of the concentration-contractile force curve were significantly and concentration-dependently depressed. The concentration-contractile response curve for AII was shifted to the right in a parallel fashion in the presence of EXP3174 (3 nM to 1 microM); however, the maximum contractile force was significantly decreased, by 24%. The marked noncompetitive antagonism of sarile (3 nM) was reversed in the presence of increasing concentrations of sarmesin (30 nM to 30 microM) or DuP 753 (10 nM to 1 microM), whereas in the presence of increasing concentrations of EXP3174 (3-300 nM) a 25% depression in maximum contractile force persisted. Moreover, the reduction of the maximum contractile force by EXP3174 (10 nM) was concentration-dependently restored in the presence of increasing concentrations of DuP 753 (10 nM to 1 microM), indicating interaction with the same binding site. Whereas sarile (0.3-10 nM) did not affect the 125I-AII binding capacity in radioligand saturation experiments, a 54% reduction of Bmax was observed in the presence of 100 nM EXP3174. The data provide evidence that all antagonists inhibit the functional response to AII by interacting with a common binding site at the receptor. The noncompetitive behavior of sarile seems to be due to slow dissociation from this receptor site. An additional mechanism must be postulated for EXP3174. An allosteric interaction with the receptor, as suggested by the reduction in Bmax, may be, at least in part, responsible for the nonclassical antagonism of this compound.