Diamox is an FDA-approved medication used to treat certain types of glaucoma, congestive heart failure, certain types of seizures. Diamox also prevents altitude sickness.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Acetazolamide.
Diamox contains an active ingredient Acetazolamide, which belongs to class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.
Diamox effectively treats certain types of glaucoma (excessive pressure in the eyes) by reducing the amount of fluid in the eye, and thereby decreases pressure inside the eye.
Acetazolamide acts also as a diuretic ("water pill") and inhibits the protein in the body called carbonic anhydrase. This leads to reducing the build-up of certain fluids in the body, significantly alleviating the symptoms of congestive heart failure.
Acetazolamide is also used to treat certain types of seizures, and to treat or prevent altitude sickness.
Diamox is available in tablets.
The dosage depends on the disease and its prescribed treatmen.
250 mg to 1 gram per 24 hours in 2 or more smaller doses.
In secondary glaucoma and before surgery in acute congestive (closed-angle) glaucoma, the usual dosage is 250 mg every 4 hours or, in some cases, 250 mg twice a day.
The daily dosage is 8 to 30 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight in 2 or more doses. Typical dosage may range from 375 to 1,000 mg per day.
Congestive Heart Failure treatment:
The usual dosage is 250 mg to 375 mg per day or 5 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight, taken in the morning.
Diamox can be used by children.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Diamox suddenly.
If you overdose Diamox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Diamox are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Diamox if you are allergic to Diamox components.
Be careful with Diamox if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Do not take Diamox if your sodium or potassium levels are low.
Do not take Diamox if you have kidney or liver disease, including cirrhosis.
Be careful with Diamox if you suffer from or have a history of emphysema or other breathing disorders.
Be careful with Diamox if you take high doses of aspirin.
Be careful with Diamox if you are taking Amitriptyline, Cyclosporine, Lithium, Methenamine, oral diabetes drugs such as Glyburide, Quinidine.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.
Do not stop taking Diamox suddenly.
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Neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of the fish gill are respiratory chemoreceptors that detect changes in O2 and CO2/H(+) and are homologous to type I cells of the mammalian carotid body. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), stimulation of NECs by hypoxia or hypercapnia initiates inhibition of K(+) channels and subsequent membrane depolarisation. The goal of the present study was to further elucidate, in zebrafish NECs, the signalling pathways that underlie CO2/H(+) sensing and generate intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Breathing frequency was elevated maximally in fish exposed to 5 % CO2 (~37.5 mmHg). Measurement of [Ca(2+)]i in isolated NECs using Fura-2 imaging indicated that [Ca(2+)]i increased in response to acidic hypercapnia (5 % CO2, pH 6.6) and isocapnic acidosis (normocapnia, pH 6.6), but not to isohydric hypercapnia (5 % CO2, pH 7.6). Measurement of intracellular pH (pHi) using BCECF demonstrated a rapid decrease in pHi in response to acidic and isohydric hypercapnia, while isocapnic acidosis produced a smaller change in pHi. Intracellular acidification was reduced by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, without affecting [Ca(2+)]i responses. Moreover, intracellular acidification using acetate (at constant extracellular pH) was without effect on [Ca(2+)]i. The acid-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and was unaffected by Ca(2+) channel blockers (Cd(2+), Ni(2+) or nifedipine). The results of this study demonstrate that, unlike type I cells, extracellular H(+) is critical to the hypercapnia-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in NECs. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i occurs independently of pHi and appears to originate primarily from Ca(2+) derived from intracellular stores.
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The mechanisms involved in ammonia uptake by rat liver cells and the effects of changes in extracellular pH have been investigated in vivo and in vitro. When NH4Cl solutions were infused in the hepatic portal vein, ammonia uptake by the liver was practically quantitative up to about 1 mM in afferent blood. Ammonia transfer into hepatocytes was extremely rapid: for 2 mM ammonia in external medium, the intracellular concentration reached 5 mM within 10 s. Comparatively, [14C]methylamine influx was slower and the cell concentrations did not reach a steady-state level, probably in relation with diffusion into the acidic lysosomal compartment. Intracellular accumulation of ammonia was dependent on the delta pH across the plasma membrane: the distribution ratio (internal/external) was about 1 for an external pH of 6.8 and about 5 at pH 8. Urea synthesis was maximal at physiological pH and markedly declined at pH 7.05. This inhibition was not affected by manipulation of bicarbonate concentrations in the medium, down to 10 mM. Additional inhibition of ureogenesis by 100 microM acetazolamide was also observed, particularly at low concentrations of bicarbonate in the medium. Inhibition of ureogenesis when extracellular pH is decreased could be ascribed to a lower availability of the NH3 form. Assuming that NH3 readily equilibrates between the various compartments, the availability of free ammonia for carbamoyl-phosphate synthesis could be tightly dependent on extracellular pH.
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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular malformations, hydrocephalus, or central nervous system (CNS) infection. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by high opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with exclusion of secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. If not treated properly, it may lead to severe visual dysfunction. Here we review the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and management of IIH in children through illustration of the clinical and radiological presentation of a 13-year-old overweight girl who presented with severe headache, diplopia and bilateral papilledema. Otherwise, she had unremarkable neurological and systemic examinations. Lumbar puncture showed a high CSF opening pressure (360-540 mmH2O). Her investigations showed normal complete blood count (CBC), normal renal, liver, and thyroid function tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood chemistry were unremarkable. Magnetic resonant image (MRI) of the brain demonstrated empty sella turcica, tortuous optic nerves, and flattening of the posterior sclera. Magnetic resonant venography (MRV) showed focal narrowing of the distal transverse sinuses and absence of venous sinus thrombosis. She required treatment with acetazolamide and prednisolone. With medical treatment, weight reduction, and exercise, our patient had a remarkable improvement in her symptoms with resolution of papilledema in two months. This review highlights the importance of early recognition and management of IIH to prevent permanent visual loss.
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The WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains were compared in their time and dose responses to acetazolamide administered in a single subcutaneous injection regime. WB/ReJ has a genetically determined, high-frequency, transient fetal edema that has maximum expression on day 14 and is resolved by day 18. Acetazolamide, at 1,000 mg/kg, appears to induce edema in WB/ReJ with a time of response on days 9 and 10, and the induced edema follows the same time course of appearance and disappearance as the spontaneous trait. The dose-response analysis is not interpretable in the WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains and their reciprocal F1 fetuses because there was significant response only at the highest dose (2,000 mg/kg) used in this study. The time of ectrodactyly response is maximal on day 9 in both WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains. The dose-response analysis demonstrates that, for the usual measure of total fetuses with ectrodactyly (or penetrance), the Wb/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains and the WB/ReJ x C57BL/6J F1 (WB.B6F1) have the same slope of the dose-response curve and the strain difference in response can be interpreted as a difference in dosage tolerance. The tolerance of WB/ReJ is twofold greater than that of C57BL/6J. This overdominance of relative resistance to acetazolamide ectrodactyly supports the general finding of directional dominance of relative resistance among genetically different strain pairs. The median effective dose for penetrance of the ectrodactyly response of the reciprocal B6.WBF1 embryo is similar to the WB.B6F1, but the slope of the dose-response curve is significantly different, and a different teratogenic mechanism of response may be involved. Ectrodactyly was predominantly right sided in all genotypes, and, in bilaterally affected fetuses, the right forelimb was more severely affected. An unexpected difference between WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J was found when the laterality of ectrodactyly was analyzed further. There is a significant increase with dosage in bilaterally affected fetuses (a measure of expressivity) in C57BL/6J but not in WB/ReJ, even though the dose-response of total affected fetuses (penetrance) is similar in both strains. In C57BL/6J, the left and right forelimbs are correlated in their responses with the left, requiring approximately a threefold greater dose. The left and right forelimbs are symmetrical in response, and the difference can be interpreted in terms of a developmental (or teratogenic) gradient. In WB/ReJ, the right forelimb has the same dose response as C57BL/6J and requires a twofold greater dose than the right forelimb of C57BL/6J, but the left forelimb has a very flat slope and is not correlated with the response of the right.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Quantitative crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and the correlation with a reduction in supratentorial regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVR) were investigated in clinically stable patients with major cerebral artery occlusion by the iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) method. Thirty patients with major cerebral artery occlusion underwent SPECT by the I-123 IMP autoradiographic method. Regional CBF was measured in the cerebral hemisphere, frontal and parietal lobes, temporo-parietal lobe, and cerebellum both at rest and after administration of acetazolamide. Eighteen of 30 patients (60%) had CCD. CCD was significantly related to magnetic resonance imaging evidence of infarction. Quantitative CCD was 17% and the CVR in the cerebellum was preserved in patients with CCD. There was a significant difference in CBF and CVR between the affected and normal sides in all regions of interest in the patients without CCD [CBF (ml/100 g/min): hemisphere (H), normal side (N): 31.4 +/- 6.8, affected side (A): 27.5 +/- 7.4; p < 0.05. CVR: H, N: 0.56 +/- 0.38, A: 0.42 +/- 0.18; p < 0.01]. CCD is common in patients with major cerebral artery occlusion, and quantitative I-123 IMP SPECT is helpful in detecting CCD in clinically stable patients with occlusion of major cerebral arteries.
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Thirty eyes of 26 patients were analyzed. The mean foveal thickness was 209 ± 26 μm before capsulotomy, 213 ± 23 μm, 204 ± 19 μm, 213 ± 23 μm 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months, respectively, after capsulotomy. The foveal thickness did not significantly change during the first 3 months following laser treatment. No complications occurred.
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Skeletal changes induced by treatment of pregnant rats with four potent teratogens, busulfan, acetazolamide, vitamin A palmitate, and ketoconazole, were evaluated using Alizarin Red S and Alcian Blue double-staining to investigate the relationship between drug-induced skeletal malformations and cartilaginous changes in the fetuses. Pregnant rats (N = 8/group) were treated once or twice between gestation days (GDs) 10 to 13 with busulfan at doses of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg; acetazolamide at 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg; vitamin A palmitate at 100,000, 300,000, or 1,000,000 IU/kg; or ketoconazole at doses of 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg. Uterine evaluations and fetal external and skeletal examinations were conducted on GD 20. Marked skeletal abnormalities in ribs and hand/forelimb bones such as absent/ short/bent ribs, fused rib cartilage, absent/fused forepaw phalanx, and misshapen carpal bones were induced at the mid- and high-doses of busulfan and acetazolamide and at the high-dose of vitamin A palmitate and ketoconazole. Increased incidences of discontinuous rib cartilage (DRC) and fused carpal bone (FCB) were observed from the low- or mid-dose in the busulfan and acetazolamide groups, and incidences of FCB were increased from the mid-dose in the vitamin A palmitate and ketoconazole groups. Therefore, DRC and FCB were detected at lower doses than those at which ribs and hand/forelimb malformations were observed in the four potent teratogens.
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Four patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (one sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SC); three sickle cell trait (AS)) and hyphemas had a higher percentage of erythrocytes sickled in their anterior chambers than in their circulating venous blood. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was severely increased, despite relatively small amounts of intracameral blood. Systemic hypotensive agents were not always successful in reducing IOP, and in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy, are probably contraindicated in high or repeated dose regimens. Moderate increase of IOP in sickle cell hemoglobinopathy patients may produced rapid deterioration of visual function, because of a greater than usual effect on vascular perfusion in the central retinal artery and optic nerve. Early anterior chamber paracentesis may be the best treatment for this type of hyphema-induced secondary glaucoma.
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Most movement disorders, reflecting degenerative disorders, develop in a slowly progressive fashion. Some movement disorders, however, manifest with an acute onset. We wish to give an overview of the management and therapy of those acute-onset movement disorders.Drug-induced movement disorders are mainly caused by dopamine-receptor blockers (DRB) as used as antipsychotics (neuroleptics) and antiemetics. Acute dystonic reactions usually occur within the first four days of treatment. Typically, cranial pharyngeal and cervical muscles are affected. Anticholinergics produce a prompt relief. Akathisia is characterized by an often exceedingly bothersome feeling of restlessness and the inability to remain still. It is a common side effect of DRB and occurs within few days after their initiation. It subsides when DRB are ceased. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening adverse reaction to DRB which may occur at any time during DRB application. It is characterised by hyperthermia, rigidity, reduced consciousness and autonomic failure. Therapeutically immediate DRB withdrawal is crucial. Additional dantrolene or bromocriptine application together with symptomatic treatment may be necessary. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are childhood onset disorders characterised by dystonic postures, chorea, athetosis and ballism occurring at irregular intervals. In Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia they are triggered by rapid movements, startle reactions or hyperventilation. They last up to 5 minutes, occur up to 100 times per day and are highly sensitive to anticonvulsants. In Paroxysmal Non-Kinesiogenic Dyskinesia they cannot be triggered, occur less frequently and last longer. Other paroxysmal dyskinesias include hypnogenic paroxysmal dyskinesias, paroxysmal exertional dyskinesia, infantile paroxysmal dystonias, Sandifer's syndrome and symptomatic paroxysmal dyskinesias. In Hereditary Episodic Ataxia Type 1 attacks of ataxia last for up to two minutes, may be accompanied by dysarthria and dystonia and usually respond to phenytoin. In Type 2 they can last for several hours, may be accompanied by vertigo, headache and malaise and usually respond to acetazolamide. Symptomatic episodic ataxias can occur in a number of metabolic disorders, but also in multiple sclerosis and Behcet's disease.
Of 34 patients whose cerebrovascular reserves were considered compromised based on qualitative criteria, 17 (50%) did not have a steal response as defined by quantitative Xe/CT CBF (i.e., false positive). Eleven of 62 (18%) who were not considered compromised by qualitative criteria had a steal response (i.e., false negative). Our data indicate that a qualitative approach has a 61% sensitivity and a 75% specificity for detecting patients with compromised reserves. Further, the positive predictive value of this method is only 50%. Therefore, the two methodologies do not predict the same patients as having compromised reserves.
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is expressed in many solid tumors in response to hypoxia and plays an important role in tumor acid-base homeostasis under these conditions. It is also constitutively expressed in the majority of renal cell carcinoma. Its functional inhibition with small molecules has recently been shown to retard tumor growth in murine models of cancer, reduce metastasis and tumor stem cell expansion. Additionally, CAIX is a promising antigen for targeted drug delivery approaches. Initially validated with anti-CAIX antibodies, the tumor-homing capacity of high-affinity small-molecule ligands of CAIX has recently been demonstrated. Indeed, conjugates formed of CAIX ligands and potent cytotoxic drugs could eradicate CAIX-expressing solid tumors in mice. These results suggest that CAIX is a promising target for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of solid tumors.
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Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on SPECT-BRBP/CBF to detect the abnormally elevated PET-OEF in the affected hemisphere were 100%, 86.4%, 66.7%, and 100%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in detecting the abnormally elevated PET-OEF in the affected hemisphere did not differ between analysis of the combination of SPECT-CBF and SPECT-CVR in the affected hemisphere (0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94) and that of the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on SPECT-BRBP/CBF (0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.97). The combination of the 3 detected abnormally elevated PET-OEF with 97.0% specificity and 90.0% positive predictive value.
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Approach to Mount Everest base camp in the Nepal Himalayas at 4280 m or 4358 m and study end point at 4928 m during October and November 2002.
To compare the clinical outcome of argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) against systemic medications in treatment of acute primary angle-closure (APAC).
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An association between optic disk pits and incontinentia pigmenti is presented. The case demonstrates the utility of oral acetazolamide in the treatment of serous maculopathy associated with optic disk pits.
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Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with iodine-123 (123I)-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) is widely used in measuring the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to acetazolamide stress for assessment of cerebral vascular reserve. To quantitate CBF by means of SPECT with IMP, an autoradiographic (ARG) method has been developed and is widely used. Because the relation between the brain counts on the SPECT scan and CBF is not linear in the ARG method, a mixture of gray and white matter in a pixel causes errors in the calculation of CBF. In the present study, errors in the calculation of CBF and vascular response to acetazolamide stress by the ARG method due to tissue heterogeneity were estimated by simulation study. Correction for effects of tissue heterogeneity in SPECT data was also attempted.
Melioidosis is a severe disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis currently relies on the isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples, which can take several days. An indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) is widely used for serodiagnosis, but it has a short shelf life, is poorly standardized, and requires a viable bacteria culture performed in a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory. To improve the diagnostic methods, we have developed two rapid latex agglutination tests based on purified B. pseudomallei O-polysaccharide (OPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens. The immunodiagnostic potential of these tests was evaluated using serum from culture-confirmed melioidosis patients (N = 143) and healthy donors from either endemic (N = 199) or non-endemic areas (N = 90). The sensitivity of the OPS-based latex agglutination assay (OPS-latex; 84.4%) was significantly higher than both the CPS-latex (69.5%) (P < 0.001) and IHA (69.5%) (P = 0.001). When evaluated with Thai donor serum, the OPS-latex had comparable specificity (56.9%) to the CPS-latex (63.8%) (P = 0.053), but was significantly lower than the IHA (67.6%) (P = 0.002). In contrast, all tests with U.S. donor serum were highly specific (≥ 97.8%). These results suggest that polysaccharide-based latex agglutination assays may be useful for serodiagnosis of melioidosis in non-endemic areas.
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The mean baseline IOP of the operated and fellow eyes was 28.14±9.4 and 16.5±6.1 mm Hg, respectively. IOP of fellow eyes significantly increased compared with baseline at all timepoints (P<0.001), with a maximum rise 6 weeks postoperatively (4.8±3.3 mm Hg). There was no significant difference in the consensual rise between glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous fellow eyes, or between patients treated with or without acetazolamide before surgery. Regression analysis showed no baseline factor associated with the rise in IOP. By the sixth postoperative month, 24 patients required surgery or needed an increase in medications in the fellow eye for IOP control.
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Multiple malformations in all four children of a mother taking anticonvulsant drugs are reported, along with the extended family pedigree.
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Glomerulotubular balance, defined as proportionality between filtered and reabsorbed sodium during inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (diluting segment), was examined in anaesthetized dogs by gradual reduction of renal arterial pressure. In control experiments, glomerulotubular balance applied over the whole rante of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) examined but was absent after acetazolamide administration (30 mg/kg/body wt) at GFR above 50% of control. Hence, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide varied with GFR. At control GFR, acetazolamide reduced tubular sodium reabsorption by 32 +/- 2% chloride reabsorption by 34 +/- 3%, and bicarbonate reabsorption by 52 +/- 2%; no significant effect was observed at GFR below 50% of control. For each bicarbonate ion, three sodium ions and two chloride ions were inhibited. Measurements of renal oxygen consumption and heat accumulation rates showed that acetazolamide did not reduce renal metabolic rate significantly. It is proposed that energy-requiring hydrogen ion secretion occurs at unchanges rate during variations in GFR but that back leakage of hydrogen ions varies with bicarbonate concentration in tubular fluid. Net secretion of hydrogen ions is associated with bicarbonate transport into the intercellular space and is linked with sodium reabsorption. The concentration difference of bicarbonate salts over the tight junction (zonula occludens), which is much less permeable to bicarbonate than to sodium chloride, provides the osmotic force for reabsorption of water and sodium chloride from the tubular lumen into the intercellular space. Glomerulotubular balance is mediated by variations in filtered amounts of bicarbonate.
With a total of 61 cases, an annual incidence of 0.5 per 100 000 children <18 years was found. Children of all age groups were affected. A female preponderance and obesity was only found in adolescents. Clinical presentation was variable. Headaches represent the most common symptom affecting prepubertal children less frequently. A wide range of vision problems could be documented (papilledema, visual loss, double vision, visual field defects, disturbed colour and stereo vision). In 10 patients no papilledema was found. Comorbidities were reported in 23% of patients. 14 children gained remission after lumbar puncture without medication. Acetazolamide was the drug of choice, with relatively low dosages used. Escalation strategies were variable. 2 patients were treated invasively (sinus venous stent, LP shunt).
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Pseudotumor cerebri, also referred to as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure and excludes underlying structural or systemic causes. Pseudotumor cerebri/idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been reported commonly in obese young women but can occur in children and adolescents. With the rise in overweight children, it is important to include this condition as a differential diagnosis, particularly when patients present with complaints of headache.
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Two 73-year-old identical twin sisters presented to the emergency room with a complaint of decreased vision and eye pain after having been in a fist fight with each other the previous night. One sister exhibited signs of angle-closure glaucoma with an intraocular pressure > 50 mmHg in the left eye, while her twin sister presented with bilateral angle-closure glaucoma and similar intraocular pressures. Both patients were treated with anti-glaucoma medications and bilateral laser iridotomies.
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A 63-year-old man with obstructive pulmonary disease developed severe metablic alkalosis and coma while receiving steroid therapy and nasogastric suction. Treatment, which included the acute induction of hypercarbia and the simultaneous administration of acetazolamide and saline, restored acid-base balance within 24 hours. This combined approach eliminated the need to infuse hydrochloric acid.
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We report a series of ten patients with oral acetazolamide CADR and skin tests.
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All trekkers through a single Australian tour company between August 2012 and July 2014 were included. Participants ascended via the Rongai route and attempted the summit on day 6. Daily assessments were made using the self-reported Lake Louise score (LLS) questionnaire. Two different AMS diagnostic criteria (LLS ≥ 3 and LLS ≥ 5) were used for data analysis. Risk factors for development of AMS and summit success were analyzed.
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A serosa-mucosa movement of bicarbonate against concentration gradient was detected at this intestinal level. This movement is partially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation since it is abolished by DNP administration, but as it is not affected by acetazolamide administration it can be supposed as dependent on carbonic anhydrase activity.
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Visual field testing and optic disc assessment with optic disc photographs seem to be effective methods to monitor eyes with OOKP for glaucoma. Treatment strategies include oral medications to lower intraocular pressure and cyclophotocoagulation.
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Carotid balloon test occlusion (BTO) is used to assess the collateral circulation and cerebrovascular reserve in patients in whom carotid artery occlusion is contemplated. Eight patients in whom the test was successful were evaluated with perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the resting state and after acetazolamide challenge. Three of the patients showed symmetric blood flow and normal response to acetazolamide. One of them underwent permanent carotid occlusion and did not develop any delayed ischemic stroke. The remaining five patients showed asymmetric blood flow. One of them had markedly low blood flow and abnormal response to acetazolamide. The patient developed ipsilateral hemispheric stroke following permanent carotid occlusion after the superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass graft occluded. In the other four patients, the steal phenomenon was seen in ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Although definitive quantitative values for perfusion CT are not yet standardized, it may be feasible to predict that the patients with symmetric blood flow and normal acetazolamide-enhanced challenge test results will do well after permanent carotid occlusion. Patients with asymmetric blood flow and abnormal response to the acetazolamide challenge test may require a revascularization procedure to protect them from delayed ischemic stroke.
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Over 40 million people travel to high altitude for both work and pleasure each year, and all of them are at risk of the acute effects of hypoxia. This article reviews the prevention, diagnostic features and treatments of these illnesses.
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