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Diamox (Acetazolamide)

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Diamox is an FDA-approved medication used to treat certain types of glaucoma, congestive heart failure, certain types of seizures. Diamox also prevents altitude sickness.

Other names for this medication:

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Lasix, Topomax, Topiragen, Trokendi XR, Zonegran, Qudexy XR, Topamax Sprinkle


Also known as:  Acetazolamide.


Diamox contains an active ingredient Acetazolamide, which belongs to class of drugs called carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

Diamox effectively treats certain types of glaucoma (excessive pressure in the eyes) by reducing the amount of fluid in the eye, and thereby decreases pressure inside the eye.

Acetazolamide acts also as a diuretic ("water pill") and inhibits the protein in the body called carbonic anhydrase. This leads to reducing the build-up of certain fluids in the body, significantly alleviating the symptoms of congestive heart failure.

Acetazolamide is also used to treat certain types of seizures, and to treat or prevent altitude sickness.


Diamox is available in tablets.

The dosage depends on the disease and its prescribed treatmen.

Glaucoma treatment:

250 mg to 1 gram per 24 hours in 2 or more smaller doses.

In secondary glaucoma and before surgery in acute congestive (closed-angle) glaucoma, the usual dosage is 250 mg every 4 hours or, in some cases, 250 mg twice a day.

Epilepsy treatment:

The daily dosage is 8 to 30 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight in 2 or more doses. Typical dosage may range from 375 to 1,000 mg per day.

Congestive Heart Failure treatment:

The usual dosage is 250 mg to 375 mg per day or 5 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight, taken in the morning.

Diamox can be used by children.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Diamox suddenly.


If you overdose Diamox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Diamox are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Diamox if you are allergic to Diamox components.

Be careful with Diamox if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Diamox if your sodium or potassium levels are low.

Do not take Diamox if you have kidney or liver disease, including cirrhosis.

Be careful with Diamox if you suffer from or have a history of emphysema or other breathing disorders.

Be careful with Diamox if you take high doses of aspirin.

Be careful with Diamox if you are taking Amitriptyline, Cyclosporine, Lithium, Methenamine, oral diabetes drugs such as Glyburide, Quinidine.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Diamox suddenly.

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Neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of the fish gill are respiratory chemoreceptors that detect changes in O2 and CO2/H(+) and are homologous to type I cells of the mammalian carotid body. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), stimulation of NECs by hypoxia or hypercapnia initiates inhibition of K(+) channels and subsequent membrane depolarisation. The goal of the present study was to further elucidate, in zebrafish NECs, the signalling pathways that underlie CO2/H(+) sensing and generate intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Breathing frequency was elevated maximally in fish exposed to 5 % CO2 (~37.5 mmHg). Measurement of [Ca(2+)]i in isolated NECs using Fura-2 imaging indicated that [Ca(2+)]i increased in response to acidic hypercapnia (5 % CO2, pH 6.6) and isocapnic acidosis (normocapnia, pH 6.6), but not to isohydric hypercapnia (5 % CO2, pH 7.6). Measurement of intracellular pH (pHi) using BCECF demonstrated a rapid decrease in pHi in response to acidic and isohydric hypercapnia, while isocapnic acidosis produced a smaller change in pHi. Intracellular acidification was reduced by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, without affecting [Ca(2+)]i responses. Moreover, intracellular acidification using acetate (at constant extracellular pH) was without effect on [Ca(2+)]i. The acid-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and was unaffected by Ca(2+) channel blockers (Cd(2+), Ni(2+) or nifedipine). The results of this study demonstrate that, unlike type I cells, extracellular H(+) is critical to the hypercapnia-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in NECs. The increase in [Ca(2+)]i occurs independently of pHi and appears to originate primarily from Ca(2+) derived from intracellular stores.

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The mechanisms involved in ammonia uptake by rat liver cells and the effects of changes in extracellular pH have been investigated in vivo and in vitro. When NH4Cl solutions were infused in the hepatic portal vein, ammonia uptake by the liver was practically quantitative up to about 1 mM in afferent blood. Ammonia transfer into hepatocytes was extremely rapid: for 2 mM ammonia in external medium, the intracellular concentration reached 5 mM within 10 s. Comparatively, [14C]methylamine influx was slower and the cell concentrations did not reach a steady-state level, probably in relation with diffusion into the acidic lysosomal compartment. Intracellular accumulation of ammonia was dependent on the delta pH across the plasma membrane: the distribution ratio (internal/external) was about 1 for an external pH of 6.8 and about 5 at pH 8. Urea synthesis was maximal at physiological pH and markedly declined at pH 7.05. This inhibition was not affected by manipulation of bicarbonate concentrations in the medium, down to 10 mM. Additional inhibition of ureogenesis by 100 microM acetazolamide was also observed, particularly at low concentrations of bicarbonate in the medium. Inhibition of ureogenesis when extracellular pH is decreased could be ascribed to a lower availability of the NH3 form. Assuming that NH3 readily equilibrates between the various compartments, the availability of free ammonia for carbamoyl-phosphate synthesis could be tightly dependent on extracellular pH.

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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare neurological disorder in children. It is characterized by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in the absence of brain parenchymal lesion, vascular malformations, hydrocephalus, or central nervous system (CNS) infection. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by high opening pressure of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with exclusion of secondary causes of intracranial hypertension. If not treated properly, it may lead to severe visual dysfunction. Here we review the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and management of IIH in children through illustration of the clinical and radiological presentation of a 13-year-old overweight girl who presented with severe headache, diplopia and bilateral papilledema. Otherwise, she had unremarkable neurological and systemic examinations. Lumbar puncture showed a high CSF opening pressure (360-540 mmH2O). Her investigations showed normal complete blood count (CBC), normal renal, liver, and thyroid function tests. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood chemistry were unremarkable. Magnetic resonant image (MRI) of the brain demonstrated empty sella turcica, tortuous optic nerves, and flattening of the posterior sclera. Magnetic resonant venography (MRV) showed focal narrowing of the distal transverse sinuses and absence of venous sinus thrombosis. She required treatment with acetazolamide and prednisolone. With medical treatment, weight reduction, and exercise, our patient had a remarkable improvement in her symptoms with resolution of papilledema in two months. This review highlights the importance of early recognition and management of IIH to prevent permanent visual loss.

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The WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains were compared in their time and dose responses to acetazolamide administered in a single subcutaneous injection regime. WB/ReJ has a genetically determined, high-frequency, transient fetal edema that has maximum expression on day 14 and is resolved by day 18. Acetazolamide, at 1,000 mg/kg, appears to induce edema in WB/ReJ with a time of response on days 9 and 10, and the induced edema follows the same time course of appearance and disappearance as the spontaneous trait. The dose-response analysis is not interpretable in the WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains and their reciprocal F1 fetuses because there was significant response only at the highest dose (2,000 mg/kg) used in this study. The time of ectrodactyly response is maximal on day 9 in both WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains. The dose-response analysis demonstrates that, for the usual measure of total fetuses with ectrodactyly (or penetrance), the Wb/ReJ and C57BL/6J strains and the WB/ReJ x C57BL/6J F1 (WB.B6F1) have the same slope of the dose-response curve and the strain difference in response can be interpreted as a difference in dosage tolerance. The tolerance of WB/ReJ is twofold greater than that of C57BL/6J. This overdominance of relative resistance to acetazolamide ectrodactyly supports the general finding of directional dominance of relative resistance among genetically different strain pairs. The median effective dose for penetrance of the ectrodactyly response of the reciprocal B6.WBF1 embryo is similar to the WB.B6F1, but the slope of the dose-response curve is significantly different, and a different teratogenic mechanism of response may be involved. Ectrodactyly was predominantly right sided in all genotypes, and, in bilaterally affected fetuses, the right forelimb was more severely affected. An unexpected difference between WB/ReJ and C57BL/6J was found when the laterality of ectrodactyly was analyzed further. There is a significant increase with dosage in bilaterally affected fetuses (a measure of expressivity) in C57BL/6J but not in WB/ReJ, even though the dose-response of total affected fetuses (penetrance) is similar in both strains. In C57BL/6J, the left and right forelimbs are correlated in their responses with the left, requiring approximately a threefold greater dose. The left and right forelimbs are symmetrical in response, and the difference can be interpreted in terms of a developmental (or teratogenic) gradient. In WB/ReJ, the right forelimb has the same dose response as C57BL/6J and requires a twofold greater dose than the right forelimb of C57BL/6J, but the left forelimb has a very flat slope and is not correlated with the response of the right.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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Quantitative crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and the correlation with a reduction in supratentorial regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVR) were investigated in clinically stable patients with major cerebral artery occlusion by the iodine-123-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) method. Thirty patients with major cerebral artery occlusion underwent SPECT by the I-123 IMP autoradiographic method. Regional CBF was measured in the cerebral hemisphere, frontal and parietal lobes, temporo-parietal lobe, and cerebellum both at rest and after administration of acetazolamide. Eighteen of 30 patients (60%) had CCD. CCD was significantly related to magnetic resonance imaging evidence of infarction. Quantitative CCD was 17% and the CVR in the cerebellum was preserved in patients with CCD. There was a significant difference in CBF and CVR between the affected and normal sides in all regions of interest in the patients without CCD [CBF (ml/100 g/min): hemisphere (H), normal side (N): 31.4 +/- 6.8, affected side (A): 27.5 +/- 7.4; p < 0.05. CVR: H, N: 0.56 +/- 0.38, A: 0.42 +/- 0.18; p < 0.01]. CCD is common in patients with major cerebral artery occlusion, and quantitative I-123 IMP SPECT is helpful in detecting CCD in clinically stable patients with occlusion of major cerebral arteries.

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Thirty eyes of 26 patients were analyzed. The mean foveal thickness was 209 ± 26 μm before capsulotomy, 213 ± 23 μm, 204 ± 19 μm, 213 ± 23 μm 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months, respectively, after capsulotomy. The foveal thickness did not significantly change during the first 3 months following laser treatment. No complications occurred.

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Skeletal changes induced by treatment of pregnant rats with four potent teratogens, busulfan, acetazolamide, vitamin A palmitate, and ketoconazole, were evaluated using Alizarin Red S and Alcian Blue double-staining to investigate the relationship between drug-induced skeletal malformations and cartilaginous changes in the fetuses. Pregnant rats (N = 8/group) were treated once or twice between gestation days (GDs) 10 to 13 with busulfan at doses of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg; acetazolamide at 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg; vitamin A palmitate at 100,000, 300,000, or 1,000,000 IU/kg; or ketoconazole at doses of 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg. Uterine evaluations and fetal external and skeletal examinations were conducted on GD 20. Marked skeletal abnormalities in ribs and hand/forelimb bones such as absent/ short/bent ribs, fused rib cartilage, absent/fused forepaw phalanx, and misshapen carpal bones were induced at the mid- and high-doses of busulfan and acetazolamide and at the high-dose of vitamin A palmitate and ketoconazole. Increased incidences of discontinuous rib cartilage (DRC) and fused carpal bone (FCB) were observed from the low- or mid-dose in the busulfan and acetazolamide groups, and incidences of FCB were increased from the mid-dose in the vitamin A palmitate and ketoconazole groups. Therefore, DRC and FCB were detected at lower doses than those at which ribs and hand/forelimb malformations were observed in the four potent teratogens.

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Four patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (one sickle cell hemoglobin C disease (SC); three sickle cell trait (AS)) and hyphemas had a higher percentage of erythrocytes sickled in their anterior chambers than in their circulating venous blood. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was severely increased, despite relatively small amounts of intracameral blood. Systemic hypotensive agents were not always successful in reducing IOP, and in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy, are probably contraindicated in high or repeated dose regimens. Moderate increase of IOP in sickle cell hemoglobinopathy patients may produced rapid deterioration of visual function, because of a greater than usual effect on vascular perfusion in the central retinal artery and optic nerve. Early anterior chamber paracentesis may be the best treatment for this type of hyphema-induced secondary glaucoma.

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Most movement disorders, reflecting degenerative disorders, develop in a slowly progressive fashion. Some movement disorders, however, manifest with an acute onset. We wish to give an overview of the management and therapy of those acute-onset movement disorders.Drug-induced movement disorders are mainly caused by dopamine-receptor blockers (DRB) as used as antipsychotics (neuroleptics) and antiemetics. Acute dystonic reactions usually occur within the first four days of treatment. Typically, cranial pharyngeal and cervical muscles are affected. Anticholinergics produce a prompt relief. Akathisia is characterized by an often exceedingly bothersome feeling of restlessness and the inability to remain still. It is a common side effect of DRB and occurs within few days after their initiation. It subsides when DRB are ceased. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening adverse reaction to DRB which may occur at any time during DRB application. It is characterised by hyperthermia, rigidity, reduced consciousness and autonomic failure. Therapeutically immediate DRB withdrawal is crucial. Additional dantrolene or bromocriptine application together with symptomatic treatment may be necessary. Paroxysmal dyskinesias are childhood onset disorders characterised by dystonic postures, chorea, athetosis and ballism occurring at irregular intervals. In Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia they are triggered by rapid movements, startle reactions or hyperventilation. They last up to 5 minutes, occur up to 100 times per day and are highly sensitive to anticonvulsants. In Paroxysmal Non-Kinesiogenic Dyskinesia they cannot be triggered, occur less frequently and last longer. Other paroxysmal dyskinesias include hypnogenic paroxysmal dyskinesias, paroxysmal exertional dyskinesia, infantile paroxysmal dystonias, Sandifer's syndrome and symptomatic paroxysmal dyskinesias. In Hereditary Episodic Ataxia Type 1 attacks of ataxia last for up to two minutes, may be accompanied by dysarthria and dystonia and usually respond to phenytoin. In Type 2 they can last for several hours, may be accompanied by vertigo, headache and malaise and usually respond to acetazolamide. Symptomatic episodic ataxias can occur in a number of metabolic disorders, but also in multiple sclerosis and Behcet's disease.

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Of 34 patients whose cerebrovascular reserves were considered compromised based on qualitative criteria, 17 (50%) did not have a steal response as defined by quantitative Xe/CT CBF (i.e., false positive). Eleven of 62 (18%) who were not considered compromised by qualitative criteria had a steal response (i.e., false negative). Our data indicate that a qualitative approach has a 61% sensitivity and a 75% specificity for detecting patients with compromised reserves. Further, the positive predictive value of this method is only 50%. Therefore, the two methodologies do not predict the same patients as having compromised reserves.

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Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is expressed in many solid tumors in response to hypoxia and plays an important role in tumor acid-base homeostasis under these conditions. It is also constitutively expressed in the majority of renal cell carcinoma. Its functional inhibition with small molecules has recently been shown to retard tumor growth in murine models of cancer, reduce metastasis and tumor stem cell expansion. Additionally, CAIX is a promising antigen for targeted drug delivery approaches. Initially validated with anti-CAIX antibodies, the tumor-homing capacity of high-affinity small-molecule ligands of CAIX has recently been demonstrated. Indeed, conjugates formed of CAIX ligands and potent cytotoxic drugs could eradicate CAIX-expressing solid tumors in mice. These results suggest that CAIX is a promising target for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of solid tumors.

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Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on SPECT-BRBP/CBF to detect the abnormally elevated PET-OEF in the affected hemisphere were 100%, 86.4%, 66.7%, and 100%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in detecting the abnormally elevated PET-OEF in the affected hemisphere did not differ between analysis of the combination of SPECT-CBF and SPECT-CVR in the affected hemisphere (0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.94) and that of the affected side-to-contralateral side asymmetry on SPECT-BRBP/CBF (0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.97). The combination of the 3 detected abnormally elevated PET-OEF with 97.0% specificity and 90.0% positive predictive value.

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Approach to Mount Everest base camp in the Nepal Himalayas at 4280 m or 4358 m and study end point at 4928 m during October and November 2002.

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To compare the clinical outcome of argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) against systemic medications in treatment of acute primary angle-closure (APAC).

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An association between optic disk pits and incontinentia pigmenti is presented. The case demonstrates the utility of oral acetazolamide in the treatment of serous maculopathy associated with optic disk pits.

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Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with iodine-123 (123I)-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) is widely used in measuring the cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to acetazolamide stress for assessment of cerebral vascular reserve. To quantitate CBF by means of SPECT with IMP, an autoradiographic (ARG) method has been developed and is widely used. Because the relation between the brain counts on the SPECT scan and CBF is not linear in the ARG method, a mixture of gray and white matter in a pixel causes errors in the calculation of CBF. In the present study, errors in the calculation of CBF and vascular response to acetazolamide stress by the ARG method due to tissue heterogeneity were estimated by simulation study. Correction for effects of tissue heterogeneity in SPECT data was also attempted.

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Melioidosis is a severe disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis of melioidosis currently relies on the isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples, which can take several days. An indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) is widely used for serodiagnosis, but it has a short shelf life, is poorly standardized, and requires a viable bacteria culture performed in a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratory. To improve the diagnostic methods, we have developed two rapid latex agglutination tests based on purified B. pseudomallei O-polysaccharide (OPS) and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens. The immunodiagnostic potential of these tests was evaluated using serum from culture-confirmed melioidosis patients (N = 143) and healthy donors from either endemic (N = 199) or non-endemic areas (N = 90). The sensitivity of the OPS-based latex agglutination assay (OPS-latex; 84.4%) was significantly higher than both the CPS-latex (69.5%) (P < 0.001) and IHA (69.5%) (P = 0.001). When evaluated with Thai donor serum, the OPS-latex had comparable specificity (56.9%) to the CPS-latex (63.8%) (P = 0.053), but was significantly lower than the IHA (67.6%) (P = 0.002). In contrast, all tests with U.S. donor serum were highly specific (≥ 97.8%). These results suggest that polysaccharide-based latex agglutination assays may be useful for serodiagnosis of melioidosis in non-endemic areas.

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The mean baseline IOP of the operated and fellow eyes was 28.14±9.4 and 16.5±6.1 mm Hg, respectively. IOP of fellow eyes significantly increased compared with baseline at all timepoints (P<0.001), with a maximum rise 6 weeks postoperatively (4.8±3.3 mm Hg). There was no significant difference in the consensual rise between glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous fellow eyes, or between patients treated with or without acetazolamide before surgery. Regression analysis showed no baseline factor associated with the rise in IOP. By the sixth postoperative month, 24 patients required surgery or needed an increase in medications in the fellow eye for IOP control.

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Multiple malformations in all four children of a mother taking anticonvulsant drugs are reported, along with the extended family pedigree.

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Glomerulotubular balance, defined as proportionality between filtered and reabsorbed sodium during inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (diluting segment), was examined in anaesthetized dogs by gradual reduction of renal arterial pressure. In control experiments, glomerulotubular balance applied over the whole rante of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) examined but was absent after acetazolamide administration (30 mg/kg/body wt) at GFR above 50% of control. Hence, the inhibitory effect of acetazolamide varied with GFR. At control GFR, acetazolamide reduced tubular sodium reabsorption by 32 +/- 2% chloride reabsorption by 34 +/- 3%, and bicarbonate reabsorption by 52 +/- 2%; no significant effect was observed at GFR below 50% of control. For each bicarbonate ion, three sodium ions and two chloride ions were inhibited. Measurements of renal oxygen consumption and heat accumulation rates showed that acetazolamide did not reduce renal metabolic rate significantly. It is proposed that energy-requiring hydrogen ion secretion occurs at unchanges rate during variations in GFR but that back leakage of hydrogen ions varies with bicarbonate concentration in tubular fluid. Net secretion of hydrogen ions is associated with bicarbonate transport into the intercellular space and is linked with sodium reabsorption. The concentration difference of bicarbonate salts over the tight junction (zonula occludens), which is much less permeable to bicarbonate than to sodium chloride, provides the osmotic force for reabsorption of water and sodium chloride from the tubular lumen into the intercellular space. Glomerulotubular balance is mediated by variations in filtered amounts of bicarbonate.

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With a total of 61 cases, an annual incidence of 0.5 per 100 000 children <18 years was found. Children of all age groups were affected. A female preponderance and obesity was only found in adolescents. Clinical presentation was variable. Headaches represent the most common symptom affecting prepubertal children less frequently. A wide range of vision problems could be documented (papilledema, visual loss, double vision, visual field defects, disturbed colour and stereo vision). In 10 patients no papilledema was found. Comorbidities were reported in 23% of patients. 14 children gained remission after lumbar puncture without medication. Acetazolamide was the drug of choice, with relatively low dosages used. Escalation strategies were variable. 2 patients were treated invasively (sinus venous stent, LP shunt).

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Pseudotumor cerebri, also referred to as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure and excludes underlying structural or systemic causes. Pseudotumor cerebri/idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been reported commonly in obese young women but can occur in children and adolescents. With the rise in overweight children, it is important to include this condition as a differential diagnosis, particularly when patients present with complaints of headache.

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Two 73-year-old identical twin sisters presented to the emergency room with a complaint of decreased vision and eye pain after having been in a fist fight with each other the previous night. One sister exhibited signs of angle-closure glaucoma with an intraocular pressure > 50 mmHg in the left eye, while her twin sister presented with bilateral angle-closure glaucoma and similar intraocular pressures. Both patients were treated with anti-glaucoma medications and bilateral laser iridotomies.

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A 63-year-old man with obstructive pulmonary disease developed severe metablic alkalosis and coma while receiving steroid therapy and nasogastric suction. Treatment, which included the acute induction of hypercarbia and the simultaneous administration of acetazolamide and saline, restored acid-base balance within 24 hours. This combined approach eliminated the need to infuse hydrochloric acid.

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We report a series of ten patients with oral acetazolamide CADR and skin tests.

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All trekkers through a single Australian tour company between August 2012 and July 2014 were included. Participants ascended via the Rongai route and attempted the summit on day 6. Daily assessments were made using the self-reported Lake Louise score (LLS) questionnaire. Two different AMS diagnostic criteria (LLS ≥ 3 and LLS ≥ 5) were used for data analysis. Risk factors for development of AMS and summit success were analyzed.

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A serosa-mucosa movement of bicarbonate against concentration gradient was detected at this intestinal level. This movement is partially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation since it is abolished by DNP administration, but as it is not affected by acetazolamide administration it can be supposed as dependent on carbonic anhydrase activity.

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Visual field testing and optic disc assessment with optic disc photographs seem to be effective methods to monitor eyes with OOKP for glaucoma. Treatment strategies include oral medications to lower intraocular pressure and cyclophotocoagulation.

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Carotid balloon test occlusion (BTO) is used to assess the collateral circulation and cerebrovascular reserve in patients in whom carotid artery occlusion is contemplated. Eight patients in whom the test was successful were evaluated with perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the resting state and after acetazolamide challenge. Three of the patients showed symmetric blood flow and normal response to acetazolamide. One of them underwent permanent carotid occlusion and did not develop any delayed ischemic stroke. The remaining five patients showed asymmetric blood flow. One of them had markedly low blood flow and abnormal response to acetazolamide. The patient developed ipsilateral hemispheric stroke following permanent carotid occlusion after the superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass graft occluded. In the other four patients, the steal phenomenon was seen in ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Although definitive quantitative values for perfusion CT are not yet standardized, it may be feasible to predict that the patients with symmetric blood flow and normal acetazolamide-enhanced challenge test results will do well after permanent carotid occlusion. Patients with asymmetric blood flow and abnormal response to the acetazolamide challenge test may require a revascularization procedure to protect them from delayed ischemic stroke.

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Over 40 million people travel to high altitude for both work and pleasure each year, and all of them are at risk of the acute effects of hypoxia. This article reviews the prevention, diagnostic features and treatments of these illnesses.

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diamox dose glaucoma 2016-04-02

Cough challenge consisted of consecutive inhalations of four solutions having decreasing concentrations of chloride ions (150, 75, 37.5 and 0 mmol/L). Nine normal subjects underwent the cough challenge 5 minutes after the inhalation of saline placebo, acetazolamide (500 mg), and furosemide (30 mg) according to a randomized, double-blind study design. A group of six subjects were challenged according to the same procedure and study design, after the inhalation of saline placebo and of two doses of acetazolamide buy diamox (250 mg and 500 mg).

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Far more subjects (26/76 = 34%) had an increase of >25% in valproic acid concentration with lamotrigine than those who had a decrease of >25% (4/76 = 5.3%). The mean valproic acid concentration before starting lamotrigine was 61.0 mg/L and on lamotrigine was 67.1 mg/L; the difference in means was 6.1 mg/L (standard error 2.1, 95% confidence limits 2.0, 10.2, p=0.004, highly significant, paired sample t-test, two-tailed), a rise of 10%. The change in valproic acid concentration appeared to depend on the initial valproic acid concentration (Pearson r=-0.405, p<0.001). In 14.5 buy diamox % of the subjects the increase in valproate concentration was >50%, which could lead to toxicity, although the increase tended to occur with lower or intermediate initial valproic acid concentrations whereas a small overall decrease in valproic acid concentrations with lamotrigine was found with the higher initial valproic acid concentrations. One subject had abnormal bruising with the increased valproate level after lamotrigine was added, which resolved on decreasing the valproate dose. The changes in valproic acid concentrations in the comparison group were small (mean increase 2.6%) and were not statistically significant.

diamox generic equivalent 2016-02-04

Experiments were performed on isolated, stripped colonic epithelia of low-salt-adapted hens (Gallus domesticus) in order to characterize acid secretion by this tissue. With symmetric, weak buffer solutions, colonic epithelia acidified both mucosal and serosal sides. Titration measurements of the mucosal acidification rate (pH-stat technique) averaged 1.63 +/- 0.25 Mucosal acidification was also evident in colons from high-salt-adapted birds and in low-salt-adapted coprodeum, but was completely abolished in the high-salt coprodeum. Mucosal acidification by low-salt-adapted colonic epithelium was unaffected by sodium replacement, mucosal amiloride (10(-3) mol.l-1), and serosal ouabain (5 x 10(-4) mol.l-1), although all three treatments significantly reduced or reversed the short-circuit current. Acetazolamide (10(-3) mol.l-1, serosal) reduced mucosal acidification by 15% and simultaneously increased short-circuit current by a similar amount. Colonic epithelia incubated in glucose-free solutions had significantly lower acidification rates (0.59 +/- 0.13, P < 0.002 versus controls) and addition of glucose (15 mmol.l-1), but not galactose, partially restored acidification to control levels. Anoxia (N2 gassing) completely inhibited short-circuit current, but reduced acidification by only 30%. A surface microclimate pH, nearly 2 pH units more acidic than the bath pH of 7.1-7.4, was measured in low-salt- buy diamox adapted colon and coprodeum. The acid microclimate of both tissues was partially attenuated by adaptation to a high-salt diet. Colonic microclimate pH was dependent on the presence of glucose and sensitive to the bath pH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

diamox dose pediatrica 2016-05-22

Acetazolamide (1 g) and adenosine (140 micrograms/kg per minute) were injected intravenously on different days in 6 normal subjects and 6 patients: 4 with unilateral stenosis, buy diamox 1 with bilateral stenosis, and 1 with complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow relative to that of the cerebellum (cortico/cerebellar ratios) from resting conditions were evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and single-photon emission CT.

diamox cost canada 2017-03-28

A retrospective study. buy diamox

diamox er dosage 2015-06-08

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were computationally designed and synthesized for the selective extraction of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, i.e. acetazolamide (ACZ), from human plasma. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to study the intermolecular interactions in the pre-polymerization mixture and to find a suitable functional monomer in MIP preparation. The interaction energies were corrected for the basis set superposition error (BSSE) using the counterpoise (CP) correction. The polymerization solvent was simulated by means of polarizable continuum model (PCM). It was found that acrylamide (AAM) is the best candidate to prepare MIPs. To confirm the results of theoretical calculations buy diamox , three MIPs were synthesized with different functional monomers and evaluated using Langmuir-Freundlich (LF) isotherm. The results indicated that the most homogeneous MIP with the highest number of binding sites is the MIP prepared by AAM. This polymer was then used as a selective adsorbent to develop a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure followed by differential pulse voltammetry (MISPE-DPV) for clean-up and determination of ACZ in human plasma.

diamox 25 mg 2016-05-15

To evaluate short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) changes after phacoemulsification in glaucoma and normal patients and buy diamox the effect of oral acetazolamide (Diamox) to control IOP in these patients.

diamox 125 mg 2016-09-14

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that severe multipedicular lesions involving supraaortic trunks cause compromised cerebral hemodynamics with nonhemispheric symptoms (NHS) that can be relieved by surgical treatment. A total of 11 patients were prospectively included in the study. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral blood flow reactivity (CBFR) were measured by acetazolamide single photon emission computed tomoscintigraphy scans (SPECT) before and after surgery. Seven patients presented with isolated NHS and four presented with NHS associated with hemispheric symptoms. Lesions consisted of either high-grade (>75%) bilateral carotid artery stenosis associated with vertebral or subclavian artery lesions or high-grade (>75%) bilateral vertebral or subclavian artery stenosis associated with medium-grade (>50%) carotid lesions. All patients presented with a functional circle of Willis with no significant intracranial arterial lesions and no corticosubcortical atrophy. A total of 15 procedures were performed for revascularization of buy diamox 19 arteries. The cumulative morbidity/mortality rate was nil. All revascularizations were patent on postoperative controls. Results from this study show that multipedicular lesions lead to hemodynamic changes affecting hemispheric and vertebrobasilar territories. Surgical treatment can improve or normalize cerebral hemodynamic abnormalities and relieve NHS.

diamox dose 2017-01-30

A significant short-term IOP increase may be found after phacoemulsification both in POAG and normal patients; this is not dangerous in normal subjects, but can be potentially dangerous in POAG patients. The use of systemic acetazolamide provided significant control of IOP and could be considered a ' buy diamox possible standard' management of cataract surgery in POAG patients.

diamox dosage pediatrics 2016-08-28

70% of patients responded to dexamethasone implant injection with an improvement in visual acuity (VA) and macular oedema within buy diamox 3 months of injection, but only 30% of eyes gained ≥15 letters. The mean change in VA letter score at 12 months compared with baseline for branch RVO (BRVO) and central RVO (CRVO) was 5.7±2.3 and 11.5±11.0 EDTRS letters, respectively. 56% of patients relapsed, with the median time to relapse being 17 weeks for patients with branch RVO and 18 weeks for patients with CRVO. Repeat injections achieved similar VA gains, but the duration of effect of repeat dexamethasone implants was much shorter at 10 weeks. 14 eyes (27%) developed a significant rise in intraocular pressure, and three of these required treatment with oral acetazolamide. Four eyes with CRVO developed neovascular glaucoma during the study.

diamox 10 mg 2016-05-29

Sixteen patients (average age 52) were evaluated. Obesity was present in 94% of individuals (average BMI = 43, range, 27-65). Papilledema was absent preoperatively in all subjects. Opening pressures via lumbar puncture buy diamox /ventriculostomy were 27.4 ± 7.7 cmH20. Following 6 hours of clamping, measurements significantly increased to 36 ± 9.6 cmH20 (P < .001). IIH controls (average age 33, average BMI = 36, range, 21-52) exhibited average ICP (36.2 ± 11.7) identical to postclamp measurements in the spontaneous CSF leak cohort.

diamox 1000 mg 2017-08-29

Our results suggest that the carbonic anhydrase enzyme may constitute part of a common VTA GABA neuron-based biological pathway responsible for controlling the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation, supporting the buy diamox hypothesis that VTA GABAA receptor hyperpolarization or depolarization is responsible for selecting TPP- or dopamine-dependent motivational outputs, respectively.

diamox drug interaction 2016-02-01

With CO2 and acetazolamide, intracranial flow velocity increased by 31% and 39%, respectively, with a simultaneous increase of common carotid artery flow volume of 47% and 50%, respectively. No change in extracranial flow volume was Exelon Patch Overdose observed in patients with an occluded internal carotid artery.

diamox order online 2017-12-23

Superficial temporal artery - middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery might improve the cerebral blood flow (CBF) but fail to reduce the risk of post-surgical events such as ischaemic stroke. In this study, we studied retrospectively whether the risk of post-surgical events corresponded to the change in resting CBF and/or the change in vasoreactivity observed before and after STA-MCA surgery using N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET). 123I-IMP brain SPET images obtained at rest and following acetazolamide challenge both before and after STA-MCA surgery were studied in 30 patients. Resting CBF was estimated semiquantitatively using the resting count ratios of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) area to the cerebellum. Acetazolamide c hallenge was assumed to result in an average increase in flow of 40% in the cerebellum. The vasoreactive response was then estimated as the ratio of the change in counts (acetazolamide - rest) to the resting cerebellar counts multiplied by 1.4. We classified 14 patients (50.5 +/- 19.3 years) into group I, who h a change in their resting CBF from before to after surgery Inderal 5mg Tablet of >10%, and 16 patients (54.0 +/- 18.8 years) into group II, who had a change in their resting CBF from before to after surgery of ¿leq10%. Oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed in five patients from group I and five patients from group II. One post-surgical event occurred in group I while there were eight post-surgical events in group II (P<0.05). Resting CBF improved by 20.4% +/- 7.5% in group I and by 0.9% +/- 6.9% in group II patients after surgery (P<0.001). No significant difference in the improvement in vasoreactivity was observed between group I patients (32.6% +/- 17.7%) and group II patients (24.6% +/- 15.6%) following surgery. Patients in the group I PET subset showed normalization of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from 0.59 +/- 0.09 before surgery to 0.46 +/- 0.06 after surgery (P<0.05), while patients in the group II PET subset showed no statistical difference in OEF before surgery (0.58 +/- 0.14) and after surgery (0.54 +/- 0.05). We conclude that the outcome of STA-MCA bypass surgery can be predicted by the improvement in resting CBF but not by the improvement in vasoreactivity.

diamox pills 2017-09-28

To review the Bactrim 40 Mg current knowledge about primary periodic paralyses (PPs).

diamox sequels cost 2015-07-24

A new procedure for neovascular glaucoma that has reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly and has caused relatively few postoperative complications is introduced. Aqueous is shunted to the reservoir of an encircling no. 20 silicone band from which fluid is postulated to diffuse into the orbit. The anterior chamber tube shunt to an encircling band (ACTSEB) procedure was conducted in 19 eyes with neovascular glaucoma. After surgery 18 of the 19 eyes (95%) followed for periods ranging between five and 26 months (mean: 59 weeks) had controlled IOP using less than or equal to 20 mm Hg as normal, and one eye had partial control (eye 9) at 26 mm Hg. Despite the preoperative use of atropine sulfate, timolol maleate, acetazolamide, and 20% mannitol, the patients' average preoperative IOP was 54.1 mm Hg. After surgery the average IOP fell, dramatically, to 16.2 mm Hg. The mean change in IOP was 37.9 +/- 9.8 (SD). This change is statistically significant by the paired Luvox Usual Dosage t-test, P less than 0.01. Minimal postoperative medications were required for pressure control. Postoperative complications included hyphema (21%), prolonged flat chamber (74%), localized peripheral lens opacity (5%), localized corneal opacity (5%), and possible acceleration of progressive cataract formation (25%). Results of current surgical procedures used to manage neovascular glaucoma are compared to the ACTSEB results.

diamox 400 mg 2015-07-28

Interventional retrospective Seroquel 300 Mg cross-sectional study.

diamox capsule 2016-09-06

We have demonstrated previously that phenylephrine, a selective postsynaptic alpha-1-adrenergic agonist, significantly potentiates the incidence of acetazolamide-induced right forelimb ectrodactyly in a dose-response manner. As reported herein, phenylephrine also decreases maternal uterine blood flow in a dose-response manner as measured by Amoxil 1g Tablet radioactive microsphere methodology. At the potentiative dose of 12.5 mg/kg phenylephrine decreases uterine blood flow by 86.8% when compared to control. In turn, pretreatment with prazosin, a selective postsynaptic alpha-1-adrenergic antagonist, prevents this large decrease in uterine blood flow and abolishes the potentiation of acetazolamide teratogenesis by phenylephrine. Although the effects of acetazolamide or acetazolamide + phenylephrine on uterine blood flow were not measured the data suggest a correlation between decreased uterine blood flow and potentiation of acetazolamide teratogenesis.

diamox dosage glaucoma 2015-01-11

Systemic acidosis induces preretinal neovascularization (NV) analogous to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the neonatal Strattera Medication Reviews rat. Sodium bicarbonate is used in human neonates to treat acidosis. The effects of alkali administration on the developing retinal vasculature and on acidosis-induced retinopathy (AIR) are unknown. We investigated the effect of sodium bicarbonate gavage on the retinal vasculature of normal and acidotic neonatal rats to determine (1) whether bicarbonate treatment is associated with preretinal NV and (2) whether AIR can be prevented with systemic bicarbonate treatment.

diamox dosing pseudotumor 2015-07-18

In conscious rats pretreatment with indomethacin or flurbiprofen, two chemically unrelated inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, reduced urine volume and sodium excretion induced by four diuretics, acetazolamide, amiloride, bendrofluazide and frusemide, or oral sodium chloride loads. Risperdal Pills The maximum reduction in sodium excretion was limited to approximately 2 mmol/kg Na+ even when sodium excretion was greatly increased. In contrast these inhibitors did not appreciably affect potassium excretion. These results indicate that part of the natriuretic response in the rat to highly and moderately efficacious diuretics and to sodium chloride loading is modified by prostaglandins. We suggest that the lack of effects on potassium excretion indicate that the collecting tubule is the probable site of action.

diamox dosing pediatric 2015-02-14

Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate pressure increases after intravitreal injections (IVI) and the interest in using prophylactic pressure-lowering medications. 
Methods. This was a prospective study of 250 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor IVI (ranibizumab) divided into 5 groups of 50 IVI (group 1: no intraocular pressure [IOP]-lowering medication; group 2: apraclonidine 1%; group 3: acetazolamide; group 4: fixed Norvasc Pill Identifier association brimonidine + timolol; group 5: fixed association dorzolamide + timolol). The IOP was measured before, immediately after (T1), 15 minutes after (T15), and 45 minutes after (T45) the IVI using a tonometer. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by a Bonferroni as post hoc test if necessary.
Results. The mean IOP peak in group 1 was 46.4±10 mmHg at T1, 21.7±10.2 mmHg at T15, and 15.4±8.6 mmHg at T45. It was not correlated with axial length (r=0.04, p=0.81) or lens status (phakic vs pseudophakic: p=0.88). A mild but significant correlation was found with age (r=0.36, p=0.006). Topical medications produced a significant reduction of IOP at every time point, of around 9 mmHg at T1. The reduction in IOP obtained with acetazolamide was not significant at T1 (-1.6 mmHg, p=0.12), but became significant at T15 and T45 (p=0.011 and p=0.015). 
Conclusions. Intraocular pressure spike was high but transient. Topical medications, however, produced a significant reduction in IOP spike as well as in the duration of the increased pressure. It would be advisable to prevent this IOP spike, especially when procedures are repeated, notably in patients with glaucoma.

diamox iv dose 2016-01-12

The present study deals with the large scale open system cultivation of the novel microalga: Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 (KC733762) previously isolated in our laboratory. SA1 strain was cultivated in open system at varying CO2 levels ranging from 0. Asacol Drug Class 03% to 35% (v/v) and subsequently the carbonic anhydrase activity (CA) and the biochemical properties were monitored. Maximum biomass concentration (1.39 ± 0.023 g L(-1)), CO2 fixation rate (97.65 ± 1.03 mg L(-1)d(-1)) and total CA activity (166.86 ± 3.30 E.U./mg chla) were obtained at 35% CO2. CA inhibitors: acetazolamide and ethoxyzolamide inhibited the external and internal enzyme activity in SA1. High CO2 levels were favorable for the accumulation of lipids and chlorophyll. The present results suggested that SA1 possessed high CO2 tolerance and high carbohydrate, lipid and chlorophyll content when cultivated in open system thus being suitable for CO2 mitigation in outdoor ponds and subsequent generation of value added products.

diamox 250 mg 2015-01-30

Studying chemical control of ventilation implies evaluation of both chemoreceptor functions taken into account however the mechanical factors influencing the effector organs. The role of abnormal chemical drives has been demonstrated in COPD patients. More recently the role of abnormal chemical drives was studied during sleep. Absent or severely depressed drives may facilitate the development of central apneas and hypoventilation. High drives may lead to periodic breathing eventually with central apneas as well. Most intriguing therefore is the role of chemical drives in the pathogenesis of the obstructive and central sleep apnea syndrome. There is accumulating evidence that fluctuations in the drive to breathe may adversely affect the upper airway patency and facilitate upper airway closure and obstructive apneas. Interaction with chemical drives (eg by administration of acetazolamide) has been shown to improve central (and eventually also obstructive) sleep apnea. Studying chemical drives will probably be clinically useful in solving the complex mechanisms controlling ventilation during sleep in patients with and without underlying airway or lung disease.

diamox dosing iv 2015-06-19

An 18-month-old Quarter Horse filly was evaluated because of dorsal displacement of the soft palate associated with epiglottic dysfunction that caused exercise intolerance and an abnormal respiratory noise. The abnormality of the epiglottis was corrected by use of a sedative dose of xylazine hydrochloride. There was no familial predisposition to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, which may cause similar laryngopharyngeal signs, and the horse did not respond to administration of acetazolamide. There was no known history of trauma that could have caused neuritis, which has also been suggested as a cause of laryngeal dysfunction. It was unusual that a complete response was obtained with xylazine hydrochloride, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, although this drug has various effects on the respiratory tract in horses. It was also unusual that the response outlasted the sedative effect of the drug.

diamox dosage altitude 2015-03-20

The indication for operation in patients with asymptomatic high-grade carotid artery stenosis is still under debate. Since impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation is associated with an increased risk for ischaemic events, assessment of cerebral vascular reactivity might be a valuable selection criterion for surgery. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the incidence of impaired autoregulation in asymptomatic patients with acetazolamide-single photon emission computed tomography (ACZ-SPECT) and transcranial CO (2)-dopplersonography (CO (2)-TCD). Furthermore, both methods were compared in regard to results and clinical practicability.