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Evista (Raloxifene)

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Generic Evista is the most effective preparation in struggle against female osteoporosis symptoms (bones weakness) after period of menopause. Generic Evista acts as up-to-date anti-osteoporosis remedy which provides bones strengths and health. Generic Evista acts improving bones states, their strength.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Actonel, Fosamax, Tamoxifen, Alendronate, Boniva, Reclast, Duavee, Femhrt, Climara Pro, Jinteli


Also known as:  Raloxifene.


Generic Evista is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problem such as osteoporosis symptoms (bones weakness) after period of menopause. Target of Generic Evista is to make bones stronger.

Generic Evista acts as up-to-date anti-osteoporosis remedy which provides bones strengths and health. Generic Evista acts improving bones states, their strength.

Evista is also known as Raloxifene, Ralista.

Generic Evista is estrogen (woman hormone).

Generic Evista can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Evista is Estrogen.

Brand name of Generic Evista is Evista.


Generic Evista can be taken in form of tablets which should be taken by mouth with water.

Take Generic Evista every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Evista suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Evista and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Evista are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Evista if you are allergic to Generic Evista components.

Do not take Generic Evista if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Generic Evista in case of using diazoxide such as Proglycem, diazepam such as Zetran,Valium, Valrelease, cholestyramine such as Questran, colestipol such as Colestid, estrogen or hormone replacement therapy such as ERT or HRT, warfarin such as Coumadin.

Be careful with Generic Evista in case of having of cancer, stroke, liver or heart disease, breast lumps, high blood cholesterol, blood clots, triglycerides, phlebitis in the leg.

Use Generic Evista with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Generic Evista can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

If you take Generic Evista it is dangerous to smoke cigarettes.

Generic Evista can be dangerous for children.

Do not stop taking Generic Evista suddenly.

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The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial included postmenopausal women with osteoporosis randomized to placebo, raloxifene 60 mg/day, or raloxifene 120 mg/day for 4 years. The protocol specified subgroups based on whether or not patients had a vertebral fracture at baseline. Absolute differences between placebo and raloxifene 60 mg/day (the approved dose) for endpoints in these groups were defined as the incidence in the raloxifene group minus the incidence in the placebo group.

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Nationwide cohort study from Denmark with all users of bisphosphonates and other drugs against osteoporosis between 1996 and 2006 (n = 103,562) as exposed group and three age- and gender-matched controls from the general population (n = 310,683). Adjustments were made for prior fracture, use of systemic hormone therapy, and use of systemic corticosteroids.

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Seven and fourteen days after wounding, samples from OVX rats showed a decrease in transforming growth factor-beta1, tissue transglutaminase 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor compared to samples from sham OVX rats. Oestradiol, raloxifene and genistein all significantly modified this decrease, but the lowest genistein dose exerted a greater effect than the other treatments. Moreover, the lowest dose of genistein was the most effective in improving skin healing and wound tensile strength.

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The importance of statins for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), the recent paradoxical effects of hormone replacement therapy on prevention of CAD, and the role of nontraditional risk factors in CAD in women are examined.

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Postmenopausal women (n=10 101; mean age, 67 years) were randomized to raloxifene 60 mg/d or placebo for a median of 5.6 years. Coronary outcomes were assessed by treatment group in women with coronary heart disease risk factors and those with established coronary heart disease. Raloxifene had no effect on the incidence of coronary events in any subgroup except in the case of a post hoc age subgroup analysis using age categories defined in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials. The effect of raloxifene on the incidence of coronary events differed significantly by age (interaction P=0.0118). The incidence of coronary events in women <60 years of age was significantly lower in those assigned raloxifene (50 events) compared with placebo (84 events; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.83; P=0.003; absolute risk reduction, 36 per 1000 women treated for 1 year). No difference was found between treatment groups in the incidence of coronary events in women > or =60 and <70 or > or =70 years of age.

evista dosage osteoporosis

Women of minority race/ethnicity have been underrepresented in United States-based breast cancer chemoprevention trials. Searches of Medline between 1966 and 2004 were done with priority given to recent reports (1996-2004), and references from bibliographies of relevant articles. Large chemoprevention trials have reported significant breast cancer risk reduction and increased risk of serious adverse events in tamoxifen-treated, high-risk women, which illustrates the need to carefully assess the risk/benefits of this therapy. The mathematical model used for this purpose in the United States-based trials has resulted in the inclusion of very few women of minority racial/ethnic backgrounds. The continued use of this risk assessment that has not been adequately validated for its usefulness in non-Caucasian populations, should be reviewed, especially given that adequate alternative nonmathematical models exist. Current and future chemoprevention trials should also use nonmathematical selection criteria to ensure that eligible underrepresented minorities are adequately included in these trials.

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Hip fracture is a devastating outcome associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. This fracture causes considerable pain, disability, diminished quality of life, and mortality. Although bone loss is an important factor associated with hip fracture, there are other demographic and clinical factors such as those that increase the risk of falling (e.g., unsteady gait, medications) that contribute to the likelihood of experiencing a hip fracture. Nonpharmacological interventions to reduce hip fracture risk include regular weight-bearing exercise, fall intervention programs, and external hip protectors. Patients should receive calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation as necessary. Among available pharmacologic options, the bisphosphonates, risedronate (Actonel) and alendronate (Fosamax), have reduced the risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Raloxifene (Evista), salmon calcitonin nasal spray (Miacalcin), and teriparatide (Forteo) have not demonstrated hip fracture risk reduction in controlled clinical trials. Hormone therapy (HT) reduced hip fracture risk in a recent large placebo-controlled trial; however, the risk/benefit profile of HT has resulted in recommendations to consider alternatives for the management of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis should receive adequate calcium/vitamin D supplementation, be encouraged to exercise, and institute risk factor interventions. Treatment with a bisphosphonate should be considered for those who are also at increased risk for hip fracture.

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Despite the potentially protective effects of estrogen on bone and cardiovascular tissue as well as against kidney diseases, its effects on diabetic nephropathy are unknown. Here, we examined the therapeutic effectiveness of 17beta-estradiol and raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, for preventing functional and histological alterations in the kidneys of db/db mice, a model of type 2 diabetes. In the first experiment, ovariectomized female db/db mice were treated with 17beta-estradiol for 8 weeks. The treatment significantly ameliorated albuminuria, attenuated weight gain, and reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic ovariectomized db/db mice. Histologically, the increases in mesangial area and the accumulation of fibronectin were significantly inhibited by 17beta-estradiol. In the second experiment, mice were administered vehicle or raloxifene hydrochloride (3 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Raloxifene significantly reduced mesangial expansion and fibronectin accumulation in db/db mice, but in contrast to 17beta-estradiol, it failed to affect body weight or hyperglycemia. An in vitro experiment further demonstrated that raloxifene inhibited transforming growth factor beta-1-induced fibronectin transcription and AP-1 activity. Thus, our findings suggest that raloxifene, which lacks the harmful effects of estrogen, is useful for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

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This article reviews lasofoxifene, a new-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is currently in Phase III development for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. This compound selectively binds to both of the estrogen receptors with a high affinity and a median inhibitory concentration that is similar to that seen with estradiol and > or = 10-fold higher than those reported for other SERMs (raloxifene and tamoxifen). Lasofoxifene has a remarkably improved oral bioavailability with respect to other SERMs due to increased resistance to intestinal wall glucuronidation. In both preclinical and short-term studies, the compound showed a favourable safety profile and demonstrated a proven efficacy in preventing bone loss and lowering cholesterol levels. Dose modelling from Phase II studies allowed the selection of lasofoxifene 0.25 mg/day as the lowest fully effective dose.

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An increase in blood pressure after menopause has been documented. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure and in the pathophysiology of hypertension. This study investigated the effects of raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, on components of the RAAS and blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive osteoporotic postmenopausal women.

evista alternative medicine

Antiestrogens such as tamoxifen are one of the most effective methods of treating estrogen receptor (ERalpha) positive breast cancers; however, the effectiveness of this therapy is limited by the almost universal development of resistance to the drug. If antiestrogens are recognized differently by the cell as it has been suggested, then in disease conditions where tamoxifen fails to function effectively, a mechanistically different antiestrogen might yield successful results. Although many antiestrogens have been developed, a direct comparison of their mechanisms of action is lacking, thus limiting their utility. Therefore, to determine if there are mechanistic differences among available antiestrogens, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms of action of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (40HT), idoxifene, raloxifene, GW7604, and ICI 182,780. Using a novel set of peptides that recognize different surfaces on ERalpha, we have found that following binding to ERalpha, each ligand induces a distinct ERalpha-ligand conformation. Furthermore, transcriptional assays indicate that each ERalpha-ligand complex is recognized distinctly by the transcription machinery, and consequently, antiestrogens vary in their ability to inhibit estradiol- and 40HT-mediated activities. Relative binding assays have shown that the affinity of these ligands for ERalpha is not always representative of their inhibitory activity. Using this assay, we have also shown that the pharmacology of each antiestrogen is influenced differently by hormone binding proteins. Furthermore, GW7604, like ICI 182,780, but unlike the other antiestrogens evaluated, decreases the stability of the receptor. Overall, our results indicate that there are clear mechanistic distinctions among each of the antiestrogens studied. However, GW7604 and ICI 182,780 differ more significantly from tamoxifen than idoxifene and raloxifene. These data, which reveal differences among antiestrogens, should assist in the selection of compounds for the clinical regulation of ERalpha function.

120 mg evista

Double-blind, randomised controlled trial of six-month duration.

evista dosage forms

Forty women, 54-59 years of age, in physiological menopause for 6 months to 4 years, were enrolled in the study and treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day for 6 months. All had blood pressure less than 130/85 mm Hg at the start of the study. The women were divided into two groups: the first (group A; 20 women) with normal blood pressure and the second (group B; 20 women) with previous high blood pressure treated with antihypertensive drugs, not angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers.

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Until recently, calcium supplementation with vitamin D and hormone replacement therapy were the mainstays of treating osteoporosis associated with the menopause. Hormone replacement therapy, indeed, was (and is) effective in preventing fracture, but is no longer to be considered to be a primary indication for this purpose. Thus, while continuing with calcium and vitamin D, drug therapy now consists of the antiresorptive agents: raloxifene, calcitonin, and the bisphosphonates. These drugs reduce bone turnover, and do prevent fractures, but are limited to halting further deterioration of skeletal microarchitecture. The newest agent against osteoporosis is teriparatide, an amino terminal fragment parathyroid hormone containing 34 amino acids. PTH(1-34), or teriparatide, exhibits many of the classical actions of the whole molecule. It is anabolic with respect to bone when used according to well-defined protocols. Bone microarchitecture is restored with increases in cortical thickness and in connectivity. This paper describes the activities as known at present of the bisphosphonates and of teriparatide and reviews studies of their use alone and in combination with each other.

evista reviews

Major advancements in the treatment of osteoporosis have occurred over the last decade. Therapies including the anti-resorptive drugs such as alendronate and risedronate have been shown in randomized placebo-controlled trials to increase bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk. Anabolic therapy in the form of parathyroid hormone has been introduced as the first treatment to build bone mass. However, gaps in our knowledge about specific management issues that arise frequently among primary care providers persist. In this paper, three common clinical scenarios are discussed: a postmenopausal woman with only slightly reduced bone mineral density; an osteoporotic woman on anti-resorptive therapy for more than 5 years; and a woman who continues to fracture despite treatment. Evidence gaps in each treatment scenario are presented, and rational approaches to management are suggested.

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Raloxifene hydrochloride (R-HCl), a BCS class II drug, remains a mainstay in the prevention and pharmacologic therapy of osteoporosis. Its absolute bioavailability, however, is 2% due to poor solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. The present study describes two simultaneous approaches to improve its bioavailability, complexation of R-HCl with cyclodextrin(s), and formulation of mucoadhesive microspheres of the complex using different proportions of carbopol and HPMC. Microspheres were pale yellow in color, free-flowing, spherical, and porous in outline. The particle size ranged between 3 and 15 μm, and entrapment efficiency was found to be within 81.63% to 87.73%. A significant improvement in the solubility of R-HCl was observed, and it differed with the combination of excipients used. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that enhancement in drug solubility was resulted due to a change in its crystallinity within the formulation. Microspheres possessed remarkable mucoadhesion and offered controlled drug release, lasting up to 24 h. They produced a sharp plasma concentration-time profile of R-HCl within 30 min post-administration to Wistar rats. [AUC](0-24 h) was found to be 1,722.34 ng h/ml, and it differed significantly to that of pure drug powder (318.28 ng h/ml). More than fivefold increase in AUC and more than twofold increase in MRT were observed. FT-IR studies evidenced no interaction among drug and excipients. The results of this study showed that mucoadhesive microspheres could be a viable approach to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of R-HCl.

evista 40 mg

Forty-nine patients with cirrhotic ESLD (26 men, 23 women; median age 54 years) had dual energy x-ray absorptiometry preformed at baseline and 4 and 12 months after OLT. Immunosuppression therapy after OLT included a standard transplant protocol of daily tacrolimus to maintain plasma levels between 0.2 to 0.5 ng/mL and daily oral prednisone tapered over 4 months. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L-BMD) and left hip (hip BMD) and reported as raw density (g/cm2) and T score (standard deviations from gender-matched young healthy subjects). Results represent total hip measurements. Two-sided paired t test and analysis of variance methods were used for statistical comparisons.

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Evidence from this study supports screening for breast cancer risk in all postmenopausal women by use of risk factors and breast density and considering chemoprevention for those found to be at high risk. Several lifestyle changes with the potential to prevent breast cancer should be recommended regardless of risk.

evista medicine

Raloxifene is a polyaromatic compound which has been reported to form radicals when incubated with horseradish peroxidase resulting in formation of a homo-dimer product. Polyaromatic phenols have also been reported to undergo oxidation by P450 enzymes to form reactive intermediates, presumably through the formation of phenoxy radical species. Recently, we observed that a raloxifene homo-dimer was formed in vitro when incubated with CYP3A4. In response to this finding, a series of experiments were designed to determine whether the observed raloxifene homo-dimer was formed via solution phase chemistry similar to that previously documented with horseradish peroxidase or if generation of the homo-dimer occurred within the P450 active site. To this end, a series of experiments were carried out to determine the structure of the CYP3A4 generated raloxifene homo-dimer using analytical techniques including: high resolution MS, NMR and H/D exchange. In addition, a variety of in vitro techniques were applied to characterize the mechanism responsible for formation of the raloxifene homo-dimer. Collectively, the results of these experiments suggest that unlike the homo-dimer formed by peroxidase enzymes, raloxifene homo-dimer formation mediated by CYP3A4 is a consequence of two raloxifene molecules binding simultaneously within the active site of a catalytically competent P450 enzyme.

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Lumbar spine BMD changed from baseline to 36 months as follows: placebo (mean percentage change + SE), -1. 32% +0.22%; raloxifene, 30 mg, 0.71% +0.23%; raloxifene, 60 mg, 1. 28% +0.23%; and raloxifene, 150 mg, 1.20% +0.24%. Comparable BMD changes were observed in the hip and total body. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were suppressed by raloxifene to normal premenopausal ranges through 3 years. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was reduced 7% to 12% below baseline through 3 years. Study withdrawals due to any reason (37%) and withdrawals due to adverse events (14%) were not different among groups. The only significant adverse effect of therapy was hot flashes (25% in the 60-mg raloxifene group vs 18% in the placebo group); hot flashes were typically reported as mild and were not associated with study withdrawal (1.7% for 60-mg raloxifene vs 2.4% for placebo).

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The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, raloxifene by solid dispersion (SD) nanoparticles using the spray-drying technique. These spray-dried SD nanoparticles were prepared with raloxifene (RXF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tween 20 in water. Reconstitution of optimized RXF-loaded SD nanoparticles in pH 1.2 medium showed a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that RXF existed in an amorphous form within spray-dried nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed an enhanced dissolution rate of RXF at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and distilled water as compared to pure RXF powder. The improved dissolution of raloxifene from spray-dried SD nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced oral bioavailability of raloxifene in rats. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the spray-dried SD nanoparticles showed increased AUC(0-∞) and C(max) of RXF by approximately 3.3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the preparation of RXF-SD nanoparticles using the spray drying technique without organic solvents might be a promising approach for improving the oral bioavailability of RXF.

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Healthy postmenopausal osteoporotic women (N = 7,492; mean age, 66.4 years) were randomized to daily doses of bazedoxifene 20 or 40 mg, raloxifene 60 mg, or placebo for 3 years. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse event (AE) reporting and routine physical, gynecologic, and breast examination.

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a randomized double-blind study was conducted in 33 ovulatory premenopausal women with fibroadenoma. Patients were divided into two groups: Placebo, (n=18) and Raloxifene 60 mg, (n=15). The medication was used for 22 days, beginning on the first day of the menstrual cycle. An excisional biopsy was carried out on the 23rd day of the menstrual cycle and a sample of normal breast tissue adjacent to the fibroadenoma was collected and submitted to immunohistochemical study using anti-Bax polyclonal antibody to evaluate the expression of Bax protein. Immunoreaction for Bax was evaluated taking into consideration intensity and fraction of stained cells, whose combination resulted in a final score ranging from 0 to 6. Cases with a final score >3 were classified as positive for Bax. The c2 test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05).

evista osteoporosis reviews

The recognition of selective estrogen receptor modulation in the laboratory has resulted in the development of two selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen and raloxifene, for clinical application in healthy women. SERMs are antiestrogenic in the breast but estrogen-like in the bones and reduce circulating cholesterol levels. SERMs also have different degrees of estrogenicity in the uterus. Tamoxifen is used specifically to reduce the incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women at risk for the disease. In contrast, raloxifene is used specifically to reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women at high risk for osteoporosis. The study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (STAR) trial is currently comparing the ability of these SERMs to reduce breast cancer incidence in high-risk postmenopausal women. There is intense interest in understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of action of SERMs at target sites in a woman's body. An understanding of the targeted actions of this novel drug group will potentially result in the introduction of new multifunctional medicines with applications as preventive agents or treatments of breast cancer and endometrial cancer, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis.

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Abstract Raloxifene and low-dose simvastatin can each reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without affecting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides. The objective of this double-blind, 12-week study is to determine whether raloxifene and simvastatin coadministration gives added benefit beyond either monotherapy in affecting fasting lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. Ninety-five postmenopausal women with moderately elevated LDL cholesterol (mean, 146 mg/dL) were randomized to placebo, raloxifene 60 mg/d, simvastatin 10 mg/d, or raloxifene 60 mg/d coadministered with simvastatin 10 mg/d. Raloxifene, simvastatin, and coadministration therapy reduced mean LDL cholesterol by 10.5%, 23.3%, and 31.0% from baseline, respectively ( P < .003 vs baseline; P < .02 vs placebo), and mean apolipoprotein B by 10.4%, 24.2%, and 30.0% from baseline, respectively ( P < .003 vs baseline; P < .02 vs placebo). Each active treatment decreased non-HDL cholesterol compared with placebo ( P < .01). Coadministration treatment was more effective than either monotherapy in reducing LDL cholesterol ( P < .05). Coadministration treatment reduced mean apolipoprotein B ( P < .001) and non-HDL cholesterol ( P < .001) when compared with raloxifene, but was not significantly different when compared with simvastatin. Coadministration therapy increased HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels compared with placebo ( P < .02). No significant effect on triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lipoprotein (a) occurred with any active treatment. Raloxifene, simvastatin, and the coadministration therapy were generally well tolerated with clinical adverse effects similar to placebo. No woman had clinically significant elevated liver function tests requiring drug discontinuation. Further data on safety and lipid-lowering effects are needed before raloxifene and statin coadministration may be considered as therapeutic interventions for treating postmenopausal women to achieve National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III treatment guidelines.

evista medication guide

The primary end point was the intrasubject percent change in BMD at 1 yr measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

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Based on their perceived risk of breast cancer, the women had higher value scores for the raloxifene risk profile than for both HRT (p = .002) and no therapy (p = .003), with similar results for analyses based on population risks and from utility scores. Regression analysis showed that the risk of breast cancer (p < .001) was the only disease risk that was statistically significantly associated with women's preferences.

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Raloxifene therapy significantly decreases cardiovascular risk markers LDL, total triglyceride and cholesterol. No abnormal change in breast density and in endometrial thickness indicate good safety profile of this agent.

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The results of the present study suggest that tamoxifen and raloxifene may have the potential to produce CTA in breast cancer patients receiving chemoprevention care.

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evista overdose 2017-04-09

Raloxifene reduced the vascular effects of isometric muscle buy evista contraction by modulating the vasomotor tone of peripheral vessels in relation to exercise.

evista buy 2016-04-20

We examined new users of osteoporosis drugs among seniors in Pennsylvania and found no evidence of healthy adherer bias on observed associations between buy evista adherence to treatment and non-vertebral fracture risk; we document fracture reduction with better adherence to bisphosphonates, yet no fracture reduction with better adherence to calcitonin or raloxifene.

evista medicine 2017-11-01

Among the novel potential candidate drugs, aromatase inhibitors and raloxifene should be considered for treatment of postmenopausal women with endometriosis. Notable observations have emerged from studies of immunomodulators and antiinflammatory agents in animal models of disease. These findings must be confirmed in women. The histogenesis of ovarian endometriomas is still unclear, thus limiting new experimental approaches to this form of disease. Given the low but established risk for malignant transformation of endometriosis, efforts should be directed toward identification of susceptibility buy evista loci for the disease and its potential transformation into cancer.

evista tablet 2015-04-14

The increase in lumbar spine BMD in response to Raloxifene (RLX), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is smaller in magnitude compared to the response to treatment with estradiol (E2). The reasons for this observation are unclear. Estrogen has a potent effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines which support osteoclastogenic and bone resorption. Therefore the different response to RLX may relate buy evista , at least in part, to a difference in the ability of RLX to modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines which are abundant in the red marrow of the vertebrae. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of RLX and E2 both in vitro and ex vivo on the production of the pro-resorptive cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and its antagonist, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). We obtained samples of peripheral blood from (a) 10 untreated postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ages 53 to 72 years, mean 61 years), (b) 15 postmenopausal women (ages 52 to 72 years, mean 63 years) at baseline and after 6 months of RLX therapy (60 mg/day) and (c) 10 postmenopausal women (ages 60 to 75 years, mean 64 years) at baseline and 6 months after a single E2 implant (25 mg). Cultures of whole blood from the untreated women were incubated with RLX or 17beta-E2 at 1 pM, 100 pM, 10 nM and 1 microM concentrations. LPS-stimulated whole blood cultures from the raloxifene- and estradiol-treated women were prepared at baseline and at 6 months. IL-1beta and IL-1ra were measured by ELISA in the conditioned media. In vitro there was a significant dose-dependent decrease in IL-1beta and IL-1ra in response to 17beta-E2 (both P<0.0001) which was not apparent in response to RLX (both P>0.05). In ex vivo cultures from women receiving 6 months treatment with E2 implants, there was a significant decrease in IL-1beta (-36+/-8%, P=0.01) but no significant change in IL-1ra (+29+/-20%, P=0.3). There was no significant change in either IL-1beta or IL-1ra after 6 months RLX therapy (+20+/-14% and +12+/-10%, both P>0.05). We conclude that treatment with RLX, unlike estradiol does not modulate the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-1ra using in vitro or ex vivo whole blood culture methods. This may account, at least in part for the reduced efficacy of RLX therapy compared to estrogen which has been observed in vivo on bone mineral density, bone turnover and reduction in fracture risk.

evista and alcohol 2016-04-26

In Western countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women but available interventions can reduce risk. The aim of the paper was to review the available evidence regarding breast cancer chemoprevention trials. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify all full‑scale, randomized prospective chemoprevention trials as well as similarly conducted randomized trials with breast cancer as the primary monitoring endpoint. In full‑scale, randomized chemoprevention trials, the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), tamoxifen buy evista and raloxifene, reduce breast cancer incidence. In a direct comparison, tamoxifen resulted in greater breast cancer reduction than raloxifene but with greater endometrial cancer risk. The aromatase inhibitors, exemestane and anastrozole, also reduce breast cancer incidence in breast cancer prevention trials. In the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials, in postmenopausal women with no prior hysterectomy, estrogen plus progestin increased breast cancer incidence and deaths from breast cancer, while estrogen alone, in women with prior hysterectomy, reduced breast cancer incidence and reduced deaths from breast cancer. For premenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk, tamoxifen is a proven option with favorable side effect profile. For postmenopausal women, while no direct comparison of SERMs and aromatase inhibitors for chemoprevention are available, cross‑study comparisons suggest greater efficacy and more favorable side effect profile for aromatase inhibitor use, especially for older women. The opposite effects of estrogen plus progestin compared with estrogen alone on breast cancer incidence and outcome should factor into risk‑benefit consideration when these agents are considered for climacteric symptom management.

evista medication guide 2015-12-21

To evaluate the change in body and uterine weights of rats in persistent estrus, a model developed to mimic polycystic ovary syndrome treated with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs buy evista ) tamoxifen and raloxifene.

evista medication uses 2016-08-05

This survey covered 60 post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. The patients were divided into three equal groups, and each group was treated with one of the three so-called anti-resorptive drugs, namely alendronate (10 mg/day) risedronate (5 mg/day) and raloxifene (60 mg/day) for 12 months. The Elisa technique was used to measure circulating IL-18 and MMP-9. Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) levels were determined by using dexa mineralometry (Lunar DPX) at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. The results showed comparable responses of the patients treated with alendronate or risedronate, being a significant increase in BMD, an increase in circulating IL-18, and only slight modifications in circulating MMP-9 levels. After 12 months of treatment with raloxifene, there were minimal, non-significant increases in BMD, slight modifications in IL-18 levels, and a significant reduction in circulating MMP-9 levels. The conclusions can be drawn that all three drugs, albeit through different mechanisms, can be considered valid treatments for post-menopausal osteoporosis. Although measurements of circulating IL-8 and MMP-9 levels allowed us buy evista to differentiate the effects of the three drugs used, as of today, they have no real role in the diagnosis and/or follow-up of osteoporosis.

evista generic raloxifene 2015-10-30

A pathophysiological concept of osteoporosis therapy buy evista - antiresorptive treatment of high-turnover osteoporosis (e. g. bisphosphonates, raloxifen) and osteoanabolic treatment of low-turnover osteoporosis (e. g. parathyroid hormone) - is clinically and economically reasonable to enable physicians to decide who will benefit most from which drug. Biochemical bone markers in serum and urine are frequently used for the diagnosis of high- or low-turnover osteoporosis. We investigated whether bone marker levels reflect the histologically diagnosed high- or low-turnover state of osteoporosis.

evista generic price 2016-05-22

Women with low bone mass (N = 3829) had a twofold higher incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer than those with osteoporosis (N = 3836) (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.03). The incidence of all invasive breast cancers did not differ significantly between the bone mass groups. The incidences of invasive and invasive ER-positive breast cancers were 65-78% lower in women assigned raloxifene versus placebo in both the low buy evista bone mass and osteoporosis groups (p < 0.05).

evista cost 2015-08-24

We studied the effects of 120 mg daily of raloxifene, a non-steroidal benzothiophene, on progressive desmoid tumors and mesenteric fibromatosis by evaluation of lesion size and symptoms in 13 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, selected on the basis of intra-abdominal localization of the lesion, on refractoriness buy evista to other medical treatments, and on estrogen receptor-alpha expression.

evista brand name 2016-08-04

Forty-eight male, adult Wistar Albino rats were divided into 4 groups for this study: A (only laminectomy), B (trauma; laminectomy + spinal trauma), C (raloxifene group; laminectomy + spinal trauma + raloxifene treated) and D (vehicle group; laminectomy + spinal trauma + vehicle treated). SCI was achieved by compression of the spinal cord horizontally and extradurally for 1 minute with an aneurysm clip (Sugita no: buy evista 07-934-11, closing pressure of 1.37-1.72 N). Spinal cords were extirpated at T7-T12 level, and tissue samples of the spinal cord samples were gathered for tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/protein and interleukin (IL)-1β/protein measurements at first and sixth hours. Spinal cords harvested at sixth hour were evaluated for ultrastructural changes.

evista user reviews 2015-05-15

Raloxifene (Evista) is a second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used in the treatment of osteoporosis and for chemoprevention of breast cancer. It is bioactivated to reactive intermediates, which covalently bind to proteins and form GSH conjugates upon incubation with NADPH and GSH-supplemented human and rat liver microsomes. Despite these in vitro findings, no major raloxifene-related toxic events have been reported upon its oral administration to humans. This disconnect between safety of raloxifene and its in vitro bioactivation is attributed to its presystemic metabolism via glucuronidation. Current studies investigated the effect of hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation in modulating hepatic availability of raloxifene and its subsequent bioactivation, in vitro. The study design involved preincubation of raloxifene with intestinal microsomes followed by a sequential incubation with liver microsomes. The degree of bioactivation of raloxifene was assessed from the percentage of GSH conjugate formed in liver microsomal incubations or the amount of covalent binding of raloxifene-related material to liver microsomal proteins. The results indicated that human intestinal glucuronidation limited the hepatic exposure of raloxifene that underwent bioactivation in the liver. Similar experiments with rat microsomal preparations showed very little effect of intestinal glucuronidation. This effect of intestinal glucuronidation and the observed species difference were explained by comparing the efficiency (Cl(int)) of glucuronidation and oxidation in the two species. These findings suggested that even though the rate of bioactivation in the two species was similar, the Cl(int) of buy evista glucuronidation was 7.5-fold higher in the human intestine as compared to rats. These results support the hypothesis that intestinal glucuronidation modulates the amount of raloxifene undergoing bioactivation by liver and corroborate the importance of assessing other competitive metabolic pathways and species differences in metabolism prior to extrapolation of bioactivation results from rats to humans.

low cost evista 2017-10-08

Estrogens modulate the buy evista expression of preproenkephalin (PPE) in the hypothalamus but little is known for other brain regions. The present study investigated the effect of hormonal withdrawal and replacement therapy on PPE expression in the striatum, nucleus accumbens and cortex. Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 2 weeks with estradiol, a specific ligand for estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN), or the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) tamoxifen and raloxifene. Brain PPE mRNA levels, measured by in situ hybridization, were high in the striatum and nucleus accumbens compared to the low expression in the cortex. Ovariectomy decreased uterine weights compared to intact uterus, which was corrected by estradiol and PPT. Tamoxifen and raloxifene partially stimulated uterine weights while DPN left it unchanged. In the anterior, median and posterior striatum and in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, ovariectomy decreased PPE mRNA levels compared to intact rats, this was corrected by estradiol treatment except for the posterior striatum. PPT, DPN, tamoxifen and raloxifene reproduced the estradiol effect. In the prefrontal and cingulate cortices, neither ovariectomy nor treatments changed PPE mRNA levels. These results show for the first time that estradiol increases PPE mRNA in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. This effect is observed also with estrogen receptor agonists for the ERalpha and ERbeta as well as with SERMs.

evista medication generic 2015-12-24

Postmenopausal women, age 46-74, with BCRAT 5-year risk ≥ 1.66% and no prior history of breast cancer were randomized to one of three study arms:intervention (n=690), Time 1 control (n=160), or 3-month control (n=162). Intervention participants viewed GtD prior to completing a post-test and 3 month follow-up assessment. Controls did buy evista not. We assessed the impact of GtD on women's decisional conflict levels and treatment decision behavior at post-test and at 3 months, respectively.

evista tabs 2015-10-09

Raloxifene and alendronate are anti-resorptive therapies approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene is also indicated to reduce the risk of invasive Levitra Generic Canada breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in postmenopausal women at high risk of invasive breast cancer. A definitive study comparing the fracture effectiveness and rate of breast cancer for raloxifene and alendronate has not been published. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate fracture and breast cancer rates among patients treated with raloxifene or alendronate.

evista 70 mg 2016-08-28

The major risk factors for osteoporosis in men and women Risperdal Medication Uses are known, and case finding by dual X-ray absorptiometry and treatment with effective medications are subsidized by the commonwealth government. At the menopause, symptomatic women considering oestrogen replacement should assess their individual risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular events and breast cancer. Men also develop osteoporosis and this should be on the health agenda along with cardiovascular disease, prostate and colon cancer, and diabetes. Treatment should include supplemental calcium and occasionally vitamin D. There is strong evidence for the benefits of bisphosphonates, the selective oestrogen receptor modulators and oestrogen replacement.

evista tab 60mg 2017-02-12

Forty-two postmenopausal osteoporotic women, who were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg or estradiol 1 mg/norethisterone acetate 0.5 mg daily for 1 year, were studied. All women received calcium 600 mg/day and vitamin D 400 IU/day. BMD and markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline and at 12 Nexium Online months.

generic evista osteoporosis 2017-05-08

We studied 1515 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis under treatment with anti-resorbing agents (alendronate, risedronate, raloxifene) for 13.1 months with an adherence > 75%. The patients were classified as vitamin D deficient (N = 514 Viagra Online Sales ) or vitamin D repleted (N = 1001) according to risk factors (N = 1062) or the level of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] above or below 50 nmol/l (N = 453).

evista medication cost 2017-05-14

The effects of raloxifene and 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on intimal thickening in response to balloon injury were tested in male and ovariectomized female rats. In male rats, oral raloxifene and EE2, administered either by gavage or in the diet, inhibited arterial intimal thickening in response to balloon injury to a maximum of approximately 60 and 50%, respectively. The effect of oral raloxifene to decrease cholesterol was observed at doses (> or = 3 mg/kg/day) higher than those required to inhibit intimal thickening (> or = 0.03 mg/kg/day). Coadministration of the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 (5 mg/kg/day, s.c.), blocked the inhibition of balloon injury by raloxifene and EE2. Direct adventitial delivery of raloxifene (0.03 mg/kg/day) and EE2 (0.001 mg/kg/day) to the vascular wall inhibited intimal thickening by 63 and 53%, respectively. In ovariectomized female rats, oral raloxifene (0.01-3.0 mg/kg/day) and EE2 (0.08 mg/kg/day) inhibited intimal thickening to a maximum of Zithromax 1 Dose 32 and 60%, respectively. Together, these data suggest that raloxifene and EE2, inhibit balloon arterial injury in the rat through direct effects on the vascular wall that involve the estrogen receptor and are at least partially independent of serum cholesterol.

evista generic name 2017-07-30

To determine the effect of raloxifene therapy on risk of vertebral Prograf 3 Mg and nonvertebral fractures.

evista generic alternative 2016-02-20

Many developments occurred in the realm of bone healing in recent years. Genetic discoveries, new proteins affecting bone health, and new treatments have steered our treatment of traumatic and iatrogenic fractures in new directions. Osteoporosis strikes many subsets of the world population, including: women, the elderly, and those suffering from arthritis, autoimmune diseases, HIV, and the immunocompromised. This disease predisposes people to an increased risk of low trauma and fragility fractures. The baby boomer generation and an increasing lifespan may burden the economy by creating such a large group susceptible to such a potentially devastating disease. The novel treatments and coping with the potentially challenging Zantac 40 Mg surgical implications will aide the podiatric physician in both medical and surgical management of osteoporosis.

evista generic medication 2015-12-07

Overall, RLX did not increase or decrease mammographic breast density. This article provides a review of the various methods used to determine breast density in these RLX studies and offers a potential explanation as to why the studies failed to show an effect on mammographic density.

evista osteoporosis reviews 2016-10-07

Fourteen nonpregnant ovariectomized ewes were instrumented to measure mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and uterine and mammary blood flows. Compounds were administered intravenously on separate days, and responses were monitored up to 4 hours. Compounds that were studied included estradiol-17beta (1 microg/kg), conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 and 1.25 mg), tibolone (2.5 and 5 mg), raloxifene (10 microg/kg), and tamoxifen (300 microg/kg).

evista pill identification 2016-08-31

To determine the optimal method of transition from postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) to raloxifene (RLX) therapy in order to minimize hot flashes and night sweats.

evista 30 mg 2016-07-11

Long-term usage of the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen has been associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. One potential mechanism of tamoxifen-induced carcinogenesis involves metabolism to reactive intermediates, such as an o-quinone, quinone methide, and carbocations. We have previously shown that the benzothiophene SERMs, raloxifene and desmethylated arzoxifene (DMA), can also be bioactivated to electrophilic quinoids by rat/human liver microsomes and rat hepatocytes [(2006) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19, 1125-1137]. Because the uterus is a major target tissue of estrogens and antiestrogens, it was of interest to determine if quinoids could be formed from SERMs in uterine tissue potentially producing cytotoxic effects. Incubations with rat uterine microsomes showed that both raloxifene and DMA could be oxidized to electrophilic diquinone methides that were trapped as the corresponding GSH conjugates. A new raloxifene GSH-dependent conjugate was identified as raloxifene Cys-Gly that was formed from the hydrolysis of 7-glutathinyl raloxifene by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Interestingly, the metabolism of raloxifene and DMA in rat uterine microsomes was not NADPH-dependent and could be inhibited by cyanide and NADPH or enhanced by H2O2. In addition, coincubations with the peroxidase substrates guaiacol or o-phenlyenediamine inhibited diquinone methide GSH conjugate formation from both SERMs. Incubations of raloxifene and DMA with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were studied as models of the interaction between benzothiophene SERMs and peroxidase. The results showed that HRP could directly oxidize raloxifene and DMA to the corresponding dimers via the formation of phenoxyl radicals in the absence of exogenous hydrogen peroxide. In addition, GSH appears to be involved in multiple peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative metabolic pathways of benzothiophene SERMs. Finally, COATag (covert oxidatively activated tag) methodology, which involves the utilization of biotin-conjugated raloxifene and DMA, was used to identify target proteins by affinity chromatography. Incubations of raloxifene and DMA COATags with rat uterine microsomes showed several modified proteins by Western blot analysis. The protein modification could be enhanced by the addition of H2O2 and decreased by the addition of NADPH, suggesting that unlike liver metabolism the formation of quinoids in the uterus could be mediated by uterine peroxidases.

evista generic 2015-05-09

The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A enzymes are involved in the phase II metabolism of many important endogenous and exogenous compounds. The nine UGT1A isoforms exhibit high interindividual differences in expression, but their epigenetic regulation is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine microRNA (miRNA) regulation of hepatic UGT1A enzymes and determine whether or not that regulation impacts enzymatic activity. In silico analysis identified miRNA 491-3p (miR-491-3p) as a potential regulator of the UGT1A gene family via binding to the shared UGT1A 3'-untranslated region common to all UGT1A enzymes. Transfection of miR-491-3p mimic into HuH-7 cells significantly repressed UGT1A1 (P < 0.001), UGT1A3 (P < 0.05), and UGT1A6 (P < 0.05) mRNA levels. For UGT1A1, this repression correlated with significantly reduced metabolism of raloxifene into raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-gluc; P < 0.01) and raloxifene-4'-glucuronide (ral-4'-gluc; P < 0.01). In HuH-7 cells with repressed miR-491-3p expression, there was a significant increase (~80%; P < 0.01) in UGT1A1 mRNA and a corresponding increase in glucuronidation of raloxifene into ral-6-gluc (50%; P < 0.05) and ral-4'-gluc (22%; P < 0.01). Knockdown of endogenous miR-491-3p in HepG2 cells did not significantly alter UGT1A1 mRNA levels but did increase the formation of ral-6-gluc (50%; P < 0.05) and ral-4'-gluc (34%; P < 0.001). A significant inverse correlation between miR-491-3p expression and both UGT1A3 (P < 0.05) and UGT1A6 (P < 0.01) mRNA levels was observed in a panel of normal human liver specimens, with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in UGT1A3 and UGT1A6 mRNA levels observed in miR-491-3p nonexpressing versus expressing liver specimens. These results suggest that miR-491-3p is an important factor in regulating the expression of UGT1A enzymes in vivo.

evista drug 2015-04-08

The long-term effects of the selective estrogen-receptor modulator raloxifene hydrochloride on glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.