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A 3-month-old female Arabian horse was evaluated because of fever, respiratory distress, lethargy, and decreased appetite of 5 days' duration. Pleural effusion was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonographic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic examination of pleural fluid collected via thoracocentesis revealed septic inflammation; bacteriologic culture of a sample of that fluid yielded Rhodococcus equi. A large intra-abdominal mass adjacent to the body wall was identified ultrasonographically. A specimen of the mass was collected via aspiration; the specimen was identified cytologically as purulent exudate that contained large numbers of rod-shaped bacteria, which confirmed abdominal abscess formation. Bacteriologic culture of a sample of the exudate also yielded R. equi. The foal was treated with azithromycin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 5 days then q 48 h) and rifampin (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for 8 weeks and metronidazole (15 mg/kg [6.8 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 3 weeks. Clinically, the foal responded to antimicrobial treatment within 2 weeks. At 8 weeks after the initial evaluation, ultrasonographic examination of the foal revealed resolution of the pleural effusion and abdominal abscess. In foals, R. equi infection typically results in pyogranulomatous pneumonia, and pleural effusion is an uncommon clinical sign. The combination of azithromycin and rifampin appears to be an effective treatment for R. equi infection in foals.
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Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals.
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Two case reports suggest that metronidazole treatment for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) increases tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels. The primary objective of this study was to determine the clinical significance of this potential interaction in transplant patients receiving CDI treatment. Currently, no robust literature exists to estimate a magnitude of pharmacokinetic interaction between metronidazole and TAC.
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Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.
Helicobacter pylori infection is widely prevalent especially in developing countries. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology associated with H. pylori is leading to an understanding of the mechanisms of mucosal inflammation and gastritis and how this leads to peptic ulcer disease, gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), lymphoma and gastric cancer. More accurate diagnostic testing for the infection is now possible with both endoscopic and non-endoscopic tests to identify patients most appropriate for eradication therapy. Modern treatments tend to overcome the problems of metronidazole resistance and compliance seen with two week bismuth triple therapy and widely studied is a proton pump inhibitor given with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole for one week. These achieve amongst the highest eradication rates and have also been shown to be cost effective. This paper reviews these recent advances and addresses areas of clinical interest and future directions.
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To compare the efficacy of 3 treatment options in patients with chronic blepharitis.
One hundred thirty-eight patients received OBMT and 137 OAC. Modified intent-to-treat eradication rates were 87.7% for OBMT and 83.2% for OAC (95% CI = -3.9%-12.8%; p = 0.29). OBMT eradicated 91.7% metronidazole-sensitive and 80.4% metronidazole-resistant strains (p = 0.06). OAC eradicated 92.1% clarithromycin sensitive and 21.4% clarithromycin-resistant strains (p < 0.001). Adverse events occurred in 58.5% of OBMT patients and 59.0% of OAC patients.
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Two hundred and eighty consecutive patients who failed to respond to standard triple therapy (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, rabeprazole) were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) levofloxacin 500 mg o.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.d., rabeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 10 days (LAR, n = 70); (2) levofloxacin 500 mg o.d., tinidazole 500 mg b.d., rabeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 10 days (LTR, n = 70); (3) tetracycline 500 mg q.d.s., metronidazole 500 mg t.d.s., bismuth salt 120 mg q.d.s., rabeprazole 20 mg b.d. for 7 days (7TMBR, n = 70); and (4) for 14 days (14TMBR, n = 70). Helicobacter pylori status and side-effects were assessed 6 weeks after treatment.
The drug combination and administration periods in the proton pump inhibitor group were lansoprazole 30 mg o.m., clarithromycin 200 mg b.d. and metronidazole 250 mg b.d., all given for 7 days (LCM group). The ranitidine group received ranitidine 150 mg b.d., clarithromycin 200 mg b.d. and metronidazole 250 mg b.d. also for 7 days (RCM group). The presence or absence of H. pylori was determined from gastric biopsy specimens taken from both the antrum and the body, by smear, culture and tissue section (Giemsa stain). Cure was defined as failure to find evidence of H. pylori infection 4 weeks after antimicrobial therapy had ended.
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Drug susceptibility results were available for 175 women tested between January 2002 and January 2008. In vitro, 115 of the 175 isolates demonstrated metronidazole resistance. For all isolates resistant to metronidazole, in vitro resistance to tinidazole was similar or lower. Clinical treatment outcomes were available for 72 women. Of the women receiving an alternative recommended nitroimidazole regimen, 30 (83%) of 36 were cured compared with 8 (57%) of 14 women who received a lower dose than recommended. Clinical and microbiologic success was attained in 59 (82%) of 72 women whose follow-up information was available, with some women requiring multiple treatment courses.
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Drug MICs for M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG were determined by the aerobic resazurin microplate assay (REMA) and correlated well with those obtained by the cfu assay. Metronidazole and nitrofurans showed comparable bactericidal activity in the hypoxic resazurin reduction assay (HyRRA). The HyRRA assay was noted to be superior to the cfu assay in that it distinguished between metabolically active dormant bacteria and non-viable organisms, unlike the cfu assay that could not differentiate between these two populations. The HyRRA assay performed with good concordance in both fluorimetric and visual formats to distinguish between bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of a drug.
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AP regimens were tested in simulated subjects undergoing elective abdominal surgery using relevant PK models and pathogen distributions in surgical site infections (SSIs). Predicted cumulative target attainment was the percentage of simulated subjects with free (unbound) antimicrobial plasma concentrations above the MICs for potential SSI pathogens.
Mean half-lives of metronidazole degradation in material from the contents of the ascending colon collected in the fasted state and in fecal material were 16.1 and 2.4 min, respectively (p<0.001). The corresponding numbers for olsalazine were 57.8 and 9.2 min, respectively (p<0.001). Both compounds were stable in material from the contents of ascending colon collected in the fed state.
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Addition of molgramostim to antibiotic therapy reduces the rate of infectious complications, the length of hospitalization, and costs in patients with nontraumatic abdominal sepsis.
The results of this study failed to show any advantage which was associated with the routine postoperative use of antibiotics in asymptomatic third molar surgeries.
To assess whether administration of dexamethasone in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) has an effect on the prevalence of maternal sepsis, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), perinatal mortality and neonatal sepsis in a developing country.
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Cefazolin plus metronidazole covered SSI aerobes in 70% and the Bacteroides fragilis group in 99% of subjects, whereas cefoxitin only covered aerobes and anaerobes in 63% and 27% of cases, respectively. The broad-spectrum ceftriaxone plus metronidazole covered aerobes in 82% and anaerobes in 99% of simulations, while ertapenem covered aerobes in 88% and anaerobes in 90% of cases. Clindamycin covered the B. fragilis group in only 11% of cases. For cefazolin, 2 g doses maintained target attainment in simulated subjects from 80 to 120 kg, whereas 1 g doses were associated with lower target attainment against potential Gram-negative pathogens even in those <80 kg. For gentamicin, 3 mg/kg doses were comparable to the suggested 5 mg/kg, but superior to the traditional 1.5 mg/kg.
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In this retrospective assessment of antimicrobial resistance patterns, we identified 392 Actinomyces spp. at a tertiary care centre from January 2008 to December 2014. MICs of various antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin/sulbactam, meropenem, clindamycin, metronidazole and vancomycin for anaerobic actinomycetes, were obtained by Etest. For aerobic actinomycetes, imipenem, cefotaxime, amikacin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin were tested. MIC results were interpreted based on guidelines published by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS).
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Patient groups were comparable for age, sex, smoking, occasional use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and current or past bleeding episodes. Six and seven patients in the OAC and OBMT treatment groups, respectively, were lost to follow-up. Eight patients were non-compliant. Two ulcers in the OAC group and one in the OBMT group did not heal. By intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses, ulcer healing rates were 86% (67/78) and 97% (67/69), respectively, for the OAC group, and 82% (58/71) and 98% (58/59), respectively, for the OBMT group. H. pylori eradication at 10-12 weeks after treatment was 78% (61/78) and 88% (61/69) for OAC, and 65% (46/71) and 78% (46/59) for OBMT, by ITT and PP analyses, respectively (P > 0.1). Side effects were more common with OBMT. Relapse rates of H. pylori were 3% and 2% for the first and second years, respectively. Four H. pylori-negative patients developed reflux symptoms, but only two developed erosive oesophagitis between 12 and 24 months.
Metronidazole , undoubtedly the most widely known and used member of the nitroimidazole drug class, remains not only first line therapy for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and trichomoniasis, but serves as drug of first choice. Available and used both orally and topically with high efficacy rates, especially for trichomoniasis, nevertheless numerous unanswered questions remain regarding mechanism of action. Given the extraordinary global frequency of vaginitis due to BV and trichomoniasis, especially the high recurrence rate observed in BV, it is timely to critically examine the therapeutic role of metronidazole in management decisions.
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We included studies of any design that contained the selected search words and were published during the specified time frame. We then searched the reference lists of included papers for additional papers and included these when relevant.
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Uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a common disease caused by numerous pathogens: sexually transmitted infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium), anaerobes, and other organisms from the vaginal flora. It is currently treated by oral route and most present protocols recommend ofloxacin plus metronidazole (MET). The CDC 2006 Guidelines suggested that levofloxacin (LEV) can be a substitute for ofloxacin. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LEV-MET in the treatment of uncomplicated PID.
Revascularization could be effective for managing immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis with appropriate case selection.
Non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy appears to be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated alternative to triple therapy and is less complex than sequential therapy. Therefore, this regimen appears well suited for use in settings where the efficacy of triple therapy is unacceptably low.
A 38-year-old heterosexual male presented with a 6 to 7 week history of severe diarrhoea but no other complaints. In routine faecal cultures and routine parasitological investigations no pathogenic micro-organisms were observed. Colonoscopy revealed a normal mucosa. Multiple biopsies were obtained. The histological diagnosis was invasive intestinal spirochaetosis. The immunostain for Borrelia burgdorferi cross-reacted with the spirochetes of the intestinal spirochaetosis. After two weeks of incubation under strict anaerobic conditions a spirochaete was cultured from a biopsy of the sigmoid mucosa. The 16SrDNA sequence was consistent with Brachyspira aalborgi. The HIV and syphilis results were negative. The patient was treated first with metronidazole and then by clindamycin. The diarrhoea subsided after the second course of treatment and the cause was presumed to have been the invasive intestinal spirochaetosis. Intestinal spirochaetosis is usually found coincidentally at histological examination of colon biopsies. There is no general consensus that intestinal spirochaetosis is the cause of the diarrhoea. There is however an association between the presence of symptoms and the invasivity of spirochaetes, morphological colon epithelial changes and evidence of immune response. The literature reports patients who improve symptomatically without specific treatment. Treatment may be given to patients with severe symptoms.
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The primary treatment regimen for Helicobacter pylori infection for Kuwaitis does not contain metronidazole, but that for expatriates does. There is also increasing failure of antimicrobial therapy.
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All four regimens achieved eradication rates >90% in per protocol analyses in a country with high clarithromycin resistance. There was no difference in tolerability among the four regimens.
Development and validation of novel, general liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of amoxicillin (AMOX), cefatoxime (CEF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), daptomycin (DAPTO), fluconazole (FLU), gentamicin (GEN), clindamycin (KLI), linezolid (LIN), metronidazole (MET), moxifloxacin (MOXI) in human whole blood are described. Samples were prepared on solid phase microextraction way with the use of polymeric sorption coatings with molecular imprints and analyzed using a gradient separation over an ACE C18-column (4.6mm×150mm, 3μm) with isocratic elution. Positive electrospray ionization was employed as the ionization source. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water (0.1% formic acid or 5mM ammonium acetate) at a flow 0.4ml/min. The chromatographic run time was kept less than 9min. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation across three validation runs over the entire concentration range was less than 7.3%, while the accuracy was within ±8.4%. The mean recovery of all the analytes ranged from 65.0 to 83.0%. This method was successfully applied to clinical samples from patients with clinically diagnosed bacterial infections process.
Rifabutin has been found to be effective in multi-resistant patients after various treatment cycles for Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, but it has not been analysed as a second-line treatment. Therefore, we seek to compare the effectiveness of a treatment regimen including rifabutin versus conventional quadruple therapy (QT).
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A 53-year-old obese woman with a 7-year history of urinary incontinence consented to TVT placement. Two days after discharge the patient presented with suspected cellulitis. Dicloxacillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and metronidazole were ineffective. Removal of the tape, surgical debridement, dressing changes, ceftriaxone, and clindamycin followed by levofloxacin and metronidazole, repeat wound debridement, and vacuum assisted closure were required. Frozen section revealed gangrenous soft tissue with areas of skin necrosis, but no fasciitis.