MAP30 is an antiviral protein from bitter melon (Momordica charantia). The enhancement of weak HIV antagonists, dexamethasone and indomethacin, by MAP30 has been examined by measuring the reduction in p24 expression in acutely infected MT-4 lymphocytes. In the presence of 1.5 nM MAP30 the IC50 dose of dexamethasone and indomethacin has been lowered, without concurrent cytotoxicity, at least a thousand-fold to 10(-7) M and 10(-8) M, respectively. This observation indicates that MAP30, a multifunctional antiviral plant protein capable of topological inactivation of viral DNA and specific cleavage of 28 S ribosomal RNA, may regulate HIV replication in concert with steroid and non-steroidal inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis. The results suggest that use of MAP30 in combination with low pharmacological doses of dexamethasone and indomethacin may improve the efficacy of anti-HIV therapy.
We observed remarkable decreases in the fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR index, serum lipid levels, and cell sizes of epididymal adipose tissues in the BMP and PGT groups after 8 weeks. BMP could significantly improve the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and local endotoxin levels compared to the HFD group (p<0.05). BMP suppressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by inhibiting inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) degradation and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/ p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK/p38 MAPKs) in adipose tissue. Sequencing results illustrated that BMP treatment markedly decreased the proportion of the endotoxin-producing opportunistic pathogens and increased butyrate producers.
Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA.
The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which bitter melon seed (BMS) alleviates the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome and elucidate the mechanism by which BMS exerts beneficial effects. Three-month-old female Zucker rats were assigned to following groups: lean control (L-Ctrl), obese control (O-Ctrl), and obese + BMS (O-BMS). The control groups were fed AIN-93M purified rodent diet, and the O-BMS group was fed AIN-93M diet modified to contain 3.0% (wt/wt) ground BMS for 100 days. After 100 days of treatment, BMS supplementation in the obese rats lowered the total serum cholesterol by 38% and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by about 52% and increased the ratio of serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol to total cholesterol compared to the O-Ctrl group. The percentage of total liver lipids was about 32% lower and serum triglyceride levels were 71% higher in the O-BMS group compared to the O-Ctrl group. Serum glucose levels were significantly lowered partly because of the increase in the serum insulin levels in the BMS-based diet groups. BMS supplementation increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in the white adipose tissue of the obese rats significantly (P < .05) and down-regulated the expression of PPAR-γ, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and interferon-γ mRNA in heart tissue of the obese rats. The findings of this study suggest that BMS improves the serum and liver lipid profiles and serum glucose levels by modulating PPAR-γ gene expression. To our knowledge, this study for the first time shows that BMS exerts cardioprotective effects by down-regulating the NF-κB inflammatory pathway.
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Opportunistic infections in AIDs patients is the leading cause of death in among them. HIV infection was reported as causes of increasing oxidative stress which may lead to progress of many syndrome. Thus medicinal plants as demonstrated antimicrobial and antioxidant activities would be therapeutic values to treat opportunistic infections of AIDs patients.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the cell reparative effects of Mormordical Charantia Linn. boiling water extract (MCE) on the HIT-T15 Hamster Pancreatic beta-cells. Furthermore, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of MCE was determined. 0.02% MCE (w/v) achieved the highest cell proliferation rate of 45.6% (p<0.01) on alloxan damaged HIT-T15 cells while 0.2% MCE increased the proliferation of the normal cells by 35.4% (p<0.05). The high molecular weight fraction of MCE (MHMF, MW>3 kDa) showed the stronger effects in repairing alloxan damaged cells (cell proliferation rate=32.1%, p<0.05) than that of the low molecular weight fraction (MLMF, MW< or =3 kDa), while the latter showed the higher activity on increasing insulin secretion of normal or damaged cells. 2%MCE and MLMF showed the highest SOD activities, 19.74 NU/mL and 19.84 NU/mL, but they failed to improve the proliferation rate of alloxan damaged cells. These results indicated MCE has significant repairing effects on HIT-T15 cells against superoxide anion radicals, which did not correlate to MCEfs SOD activity. It was hypothesized that the different fractions of MCE may make different contributions to MCE's cell repairing activity and its ability of stimulating insulin secretion.
We have previously reported that a crude aqueous extract of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia) has both cytostatic and cytotoxic activities, and is a competitive inhibitor of guanylate cyclase activity. This crude preparation kills human leukemic lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner while not affecting the viability of normal human lymphocytes at these same doses. In this report we describe the purification and characterization of one of these cytostatic factors which also exhibits anti-viral activity. The partially purified factor was both cytostatic to BHK-21 cells and inhibitory to VSV plaque formation in a dose-dependent manner. This preparation was inhibitory to both viral and host cell RNA and protein synthesis as early as 30 min after addition to these samples. As determined by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), this purified factor is a single component with a molecular weight corresponding to 40,000 daltons. The factor is sensitive to boiling and to pre-treatments with trypsin, but not ribonuclease (RNAse), or deoxyribonuclease (DNAse). As determined by radioactive precursor uptake and incorporation studies, the purified factor inhibits both RNA and protein synthesis in intact tissue culture cells and inhibits protein synthesis in a cell-free wheat germ system. DNA synthesis was slightly stimulated. The purified factor is cytostatic for both BHK-21 and for the IM9 leukemic cell lines for at least 120 h. The cytostatic component had no effect on cellular cyclic GMP metabolism.
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Freeze-dried fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fruit were extracted sequentially using non-polar to polar solvents, with further separation carried out on polar extracts by molecular weight cut off dialysis. The fenugreek ethyl acetate crude extract (FGE3) demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity, in terms of Trolox Equivalents (TE), for both the DPPH (35.338±0.908 mg TE/g) and FRAP (77.352±0.627 mg TE/g) assays. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content, in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE) (106.316±0.377 mg GAE/g). Despite having considerably lower antioxidant activity than fenugreek, the highest antioxidant activities for bitter fruit were observed in the hexane (BME1) and methanol hydrophilic<3.5 kDa dialysed (BME4<3.5 kDa) extracts, while the highest phenolic content was found in the methanol hydrophilic>3.5 kDa (BME4>3.5 kDa) dialysed extract. UPLC-MS was used to quantify 18 phenolic compounds from fenugreek and 13 from bitter melon in active crude extracts. The flavonoids apigenin-7-O-glycoside (1955.55 ng/mg) and luteolin-7-O-glycoside (725.50 ng/mg) were the most abundant compounds in FGE3, while bitter melon extracts contained only small amounts of mainly phenolic acids. A further 5 fenugreek and 1 bitter melon compounds were identified in trace amounts from the same extracts, respectively.
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This study evaluates the radical-scavenging activity of five plants used as food and medicines in the northeastern region of Brazil.
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To evaluate and synthesize the evidence on the effect of Ayurvedic therapies for diabetes mellitus.
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A Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) column was used. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-H2O (64:36), the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the UV detection wavelength was set 203 nm.
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Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) has been widely used as an traditional medicine treatment for diabetic patients in Asia. In vitro and animal studies suggested its hypoglycemic activity, but limited human studies are available to support its use.
Two abortifacient proteins, alpha- and beta-momorcharin, have been purified from the seeds of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia). It was found that non-cytotoxic concentrations of these plant proteins can significantly inhibit the mitogenic responses of mouse splenocytes to concanavalin A, phytohaemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the alloantigen-induced lymphoproliferation and the in vitro generation of a primary cytotoxic lymphocyte response were severely suppressed in the presence of these proteins. In contrast, the cytolytic activity of cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells was unimpaired by in vitro exposure to momorcharin. On the other hand, a clear decrease in the functional capacity of macrophages, such as the cytostatic and phagocytic activities, was observed under similar conditions. In vivo studies have shown that single injections of nontoxic microgram amounts of momorcharin into mice resulted in a significant depression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response as well as the humoral antibody formation to sheep red blood cells. Similarly, the thioglycollate-induced in vivo migration of macrophages was also suppressed. Interestingly, the in vivo activation of natural killer cells was not appreciably affected. Our data suggests that the observed potent immunosuppressive effect of alpha- and beta-momorcharin is unlikely to be due to direct lymphocytotoxicity or due to a shift in the kinetic parameter of the immune response.
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.
The use of medicinal plants in treatment of infectious processes have an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.
The association constants for the binding of a series of ligands with a galactose-specific lectin from Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been determined through the ligand-induced quenching of protein fluorescence. Analysis of the iodide quenching suggested that there is a slight increase in the accessibility of tryptophan residues of the lectin on binding lactose.
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Based on the available evidence, several natural products in common use can lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Commonly used natural products often have a long history of traditional use, and pharmacists who have a stronger understanding of these products are better positioned to counsel patients on their appropriate use.
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Inhibition of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) is a major cause of adverse drug-drug interactions. Alternatively, inhibition of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) may increase harmful effects of electrophilic compounds or metabolites. In the present study, aqueous extracts of seven Ghanaian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory potential towards recombinant human CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Effects of these extracts on recombinant human GSTA1-1, GSTM1-1, GSTP1-1, human and rat cytosolic GSTs were also investigated. Seven extracts, including Phyllanthus amarus whole plant, leaf, stem and root, Cassia siamea and Momordica charantia, inhibited CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 with IC50 values ranging between 28.3-134.3microg/ml and between 63.4-425.9microg/ml, respectively. Similarly, both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were inhibited by five extracts including Phyllanthus amarus whole plant, leaf, stem and root and Cassia alata, with IC50 values ranging between 45.8-182.0microg/ml and between 79.2-158.8microg/ml respectively. Human and rat liver cytosolic GSTs were inhibited with IC50 values ranging between 25.2-95.5microg/ml and between 8.5-139.4microg/ml, respectively. GSTM1-1 was most susceptible to the inhibition by the extracts, with IC50 values ranging between 3.6-50.0microg/ml, whilst IC50 values of 8.9-159.0microg/ml and 68.6-157.0microg/ml were obtained for GSTA1-1 and GSTP1-1, respectively. These findings show a significant potential both for CYP- and GST-mediated herb-drug interactions of the Ghanaian medicinal plants investigated.
The effects of cactus, alove veral and momorcica charantia on reducing the blood glucose level of mice were observed. The diabetic model with no symptom in mice was established by injection of streptozotocin(STZ) 80 mg/kg BW into abdominal cavity for 11 days. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: STZ diabetic model, diet A, diet B, cactus, alove veral, momordica charantia and glyburide groups. Cactus (60 g/kg BW), alove veral (60 g/kg BW), and momordica charantia (30 g/kg BW) were administrated orally each day to the diabetic mice for another 21 days. Serum glucose of mice fasting for 12 hours and 2 hours after meal was determined with the method of glucose-oxidase at the 21th day of the experiment. The results showed that serum glucose levels of diabetic mice were significantly higher than the normal control group (P < 0.01). After giving diet A, cactus, alove veral and momorcica charantia juice for 21 days, the serum glucose concentration of these diabetic mice were significantly lower than STZ diabetic model group (P < 0.01) but still higher than the normal control group.
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A study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxygenic activity of bitter gourd pulp and seed powders as well as their various solvent extracts using different methods and to minimise the oxidative deterioration of lipids by natural antioxidants.
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Four hundred skin patients complaining of 'sense of heat' (in short S 0 H) were thoroughly studied regarding their constitution, temperament. disease, degree of S 0 H, eating habits, etc. Eighty consecutive patients attending the skin OPD were taken up to see the incidence of S 0 H in the skin patients. Two series of 400 and 90 patients were studied for their dietary habits. Non sattvic food habits and those with worrying, brooding nature are more iron to S 0 H and skin allergies. Sattvic food usually consists of simple, wholesome, fresh, non-pungent foods like milk, butter, fresh fruits, barley, bananas, almonds and vegetables like torai, parwal, karela and green dal. Pathogenesis, etiology and therapeutic approach are discussed.
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This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Momordica charantia L. (MC) in tibial and sural nerve transection (TST)-induced neuropathic pain in rats.
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Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in wound healing. Delayed wound healing is a consequence of diabetes, leading to high morbidity and poor quality of life. Momordica charantia (MC) fruit possesses anti-diabetic and wound healing properties. This study aimed to explore the changes in TGF-β expression in diabetic wounds treated with topical MC fruit extract.
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Momordica charantia (karela) is commonly used as an antidiabetic and antihyperglycemic agent in Asian, Oriental and Latin American countries. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of long term feeding (10 weeks) of M. charantia fruit extract on blood plasma and tissue lipid profiles in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. The results show that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in plasma non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in STZ-induced diabetic rats, accompanied by a decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. A moderate increase in plasma (LPO) product, malonedialdehyde (MDA), and about two-fold increase in kidney LPO was also observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The treatment of diabetic rats with M. charantia fruit extract over a 10-week period returned these levels close to normal. In addition, karela juice also exhibited an inhibitory effect on membrane LPO under in vitro conditions. These results suggest that M. charantia fruit extract exhibits hypolipidemic as well as hypoglycemic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic rat.
Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a common vegetable grown in Okinawa that has also been used recently in medicine for the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Among Bitter melon extracts compounds, we focused on an extract known as momordin in the present study, to examine its effect on peroxisome-proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR) delta (also called PPARdelta in rodents) expression and promoter activity of the human PPARdelta gene.
Single crystals of ribonuclease Mc, a new class of plant ribonuclease from the seeds of the bitter gourd, were obtained from solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 by the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell dimensions a = 67.28 A, b = 75.21 A, c = 38.54 A. The assumption of one monomer per asymmetric unit gives rise to a Vm value of 2.29 A3/Da. The crystals diffract beyond 2.0 A resolution and are suitable for high resolution X-ray structure analysis.
TST led to significant development of cold allodynia, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS and TNF-alpha. Administration of MC (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TST-induced behavioural and biochemical changes. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) abolished the protective effect of MC in TST-induced neuropathic pain.