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Digoxin was not associated with increased all-cause mortality, survival free of admission due to any cause, or admission due to cardiovascular causes, regardless of underlying heart failure.
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Chronic heart failure is a common condition with a poor prognosis, usually associated with poor exercise tolerance and debilitating symptoms despite optimal modern therapy. Standard therapy includes diuretics, digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and beta-blockers. Despite this, many patients remain symptomatic, and interest is high as to whether the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) would offer further advantage to a patient already receiving quadruple therapy. In addition, some patients are intolerant of ACEIs, and for this group the ARBs seem a logical choice. This article reviews the evidence for the use of ARBs as a class in heart failure concentrating on clinical recommendations and clinical needs and evidence rather than purely on statistical issues of significance in trials. The trials to date have demonstrated clearly similar hemodynamic effects to those seen with ACEIs and variety of ancillary benefits such as improvements in endothelial function, anti-thrombotic effects, and effects on neurohormonal inhibition. There is consistent evidence of a preservation of exercise tolerance when patients with heart failure are crossed over from stable ACEI therapy, and when added to ACEIs exercise tolerance appears to increase with ARBs. In terms of major outcomes, the two largest trials, Elite-II and Val-Heft, demonstrate that angiotensin receptor blockers probably have a clinical role in improving mortality and morbidity as an alternative to ACEIs in those patients unable to tolerate these agents, which remain, however, the first choice in unselected patients with heart failure. There is a worrying suggestion of a negative interaction when ARBs are added to beta-blockers, which is a reason for caution in using the ARBs, not a reason not to use beta-blockers.
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Formation of inclusion bodies is a major limiting factor for secretory production of an antidigoxin single-chain antibody (SCA) fragment from Bacillus subtilis. To address this problem, three new strains with enhanced production of molecular chaperones were constructed. WB600BHM constitutively produces the major intracellular molecular chaperones in an appropriate ratio without any heat shock treatment. This strain reduced the formation of insoluble SCA by 45% and increased the secretory production yield by 60%. The second strain, WB600B[pEPP], overproduces an extracytoplasmic molecular chaperone, PrsA. An increase in the total yield of SCA was observed. The third strain, WB600BHM[pEPP], coproduces both intracellular and extracytoplasmic molecular chaperones. This led to a further reduction in inclusion body formation and a 2.5-fold increase in the secretory production yield. SCA fragments secreted by this strain were biologically active and showed affinity to digoxin comparable to the affinity of those secreted by strains without overproduction of molecular chaperones. Interestingly, accumulation of a pool of periplasmic SCA was observed in the PrsA-overproducing strains. This pool is suggested to represent the secreted folding intermediates in the process of achieving their final configuration.
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Subjects included all inpatients (n = 462) and outpatients (n = 437) receiving digoxin oral maintenance therapy for heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation with tachycardia at Kosei Hospital, Anjo, Japan. SDC and blood chemistry analysis were determined, and a 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic recording was performed when the SDC was at the presumed steady-state concentration.
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To evaluate the incremental differences of concurrent and persistent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, loop diuretics, and digoxin on the one-year, all-cause risk of hospitalization and total healthcare costs associated with treatment of HF in patients enrolled in a managed care organization within the US.
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Transesophageal atrial pacing using the constant-rate technique was performed in 26 patients presenting with spontaneous atrial flutter (atrial cycle length between 180 and 270 ms). All but one patient had been treated with one or more antiarrhythmic agents (digoxin, quinidine, procainamide, propranolol, verapamil, diltiazem, and propafenone) within the previous 12 hours. Transesophageal atrial pacing at cycle lengths between 80 and 180 ms was successful in terminating atrial flutter in 22 patients: immediate reversion to sinus rhythm in 16, following transient sinus pause in one, following a brief period of atrial fibrillation in three, and following longer periods of atrial fibrillation in another two. No post-conversion ventricular arrhythmia and no other complications were observed. All patients experienced only a mild burning discomfort during the procedure. It is concluded that atrial pacing via the esophagus is a safe and noninvasive technique of terminating spontaneous atrial flutter. The effectiveness of this technique is comparable to endocardial or epicardial atrial pacing.
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Atrial fibrillation is the cardiac arrhythmia encountered most often in clinical practice. It is triggered by many conditions such as thyroid dysfunction, cardiac disease, alcohol, and pulmonary disease. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are susceptible to many insults that can lead to an acute deterioration superimposed on chronic disease. Changes in blood gases, abnormalities in pulmonary functions, and hemodynamic changes resulting from pulmonary hypertension can lead to the development of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation and COPD frequently coexist and complicate treatment of both conditions. The treatment of COPD exacerbation may include beta-adrenergic agonist and theophylline, which can precipitate atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. Pharmacologic and electrical cardioversion may be ineffective in the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with COPD until respiratory decompensation has been corrected. This article focuses on the management of atrial fibrillation in patients with COPD.
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Twenty-two patients with severe congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV with left ventricular ejection fraction of 18 +/- 1%) and 29 healthy male volunteers participated in this study. By combining direct sampling of internal jugular venous blood via a percutaneously placed catheter with a norepinephrine and epinephrine isotope dilution method for examining neuronal transmitter release, we were able to quantify the release of central nervous system monoamine and indoleamine neurotransmitters and investigate their association with the increased efferent sympathetic outflow that is variably present in treated patients with this condition. Mean cardiac norepinephrine spillover was 145% higher in treated heart failure patients than in healthy subjects (P < .05), with norepinephrine release from the heart in 6 of 22 patients being more than the highest control value. Raised internal jugular venous spillover of epinephrine (26 +/- 12 versus 2 +/- 4 pmol/min, P < .05) and of norepinephrine and its metabolites (2740 +/- 480 versus 875 +/- 338 pmol/min, P < .05), indicative of increased central nervous system turnover of both catecholamines, occurred in cardiac failure and was quantitatively linked to the degree of activation of the cardiac sympathetic nervous outflow, as was the jugular overflow of the principal serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.
Ezetimibe is the first lipid-lowering drug that inhibits intestinal uptake of dietary and biliary cholesterol without affecting the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients. Following oral administration, ezetimibe is rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolised (>80%) to the pharmacologically active ezetimibe-glucuronide. Total ezetimibe (sum of 'parent' ezetimibe plus ezetimibe-glucuronide) concentrations reach a maximum 1-2 hours post-administration, followed by enterohepatic recycling and slow elimination. The estimated terminal half-life of ezetimibe and ezetimibe-glucuronide is approximately 22 hours. Consistent with the elimination half-life of ezetimibe, an approximate 2-fold accumulation is observed upon repeated once-daily administration. The recommended dose of ezetimibe 10 mg/day can be administered in the morning or evening without regard to food. There are no clinically significant effects of age, sex or race on ezetimibe pharmacokinetics and no dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild hepatic impairment or mild-to-severe renal insufficiency. The major metabolic pathway for ezetimibe consists of glucuronidation of the 4-hydroxyphenyl group by uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase isoenzymes to form ezetimibe-glucuronide in the intestine and liver. Approximately 78% of the dose is excreted in the faeces predominantly as ezetimibe, with the balance found in the urine mainly as ezetimibe-glucuronide. Overall, ezetimibe has a favourable drug-drug interaction profile, as evidenced by the lack of clinically relevant interactions between ezetimibe and a variety of drugs commonly used in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Ezetimibe does not have significant effects on plasma levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors commonly known as statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin), fibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil, fenofibrate), digoxin, glipizide, warfarin and triphasic oral contraceptives (ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel). Concomitant administration of food, antacids, cimetidine or statins had no significant effect on ezetimibe bioavailability. Although coadministration with gemfibrozil and fenofibrate increased the bioavailability of ezetimibe, the clinical significance is thought to be minor considering the relatively flat dose-response curve of ezetimibe and the lack of dose-related increase in adverse events. In contrast, coadministration with the bile acid binding agent colestyramine significantly decreased ezetimibe oral bioavailability (based on area under the plasma concentration-time curve of total ezetimibe). Hence, ezetimibe and colestyramine should be administered several hours apart to avoid attenuating the efficacy of ezetimibe. Finally, higher ezetimibe exposures were observed in patients receiving concomitant ciclosporin, and ezetimibe caused a small but statistically significant effect on plasma levels of ciclosporin. Because treatment experience in patients receiving ciclosporin is limited, physicians are advised to exercise caution when initiating ezetimibe in the setting of ciclosporin coadministration, and to carefully monitor ciclosporin levels.
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The low therapeutic index of digoxin necessitates careful monitoring of its serum levels. Most of digoxin immunoassays suffer from interferences with digoxin-like immunoreactive substances. Since aptamers have been shown to be highly specific for their targets, the aim of this study was to develop DNA aptamers for this widely used cardiac glycoside. Digoxin was coated onto the surface of streptavidin magnetic beads. DNA aptamers against digoxin were designed using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment method (SELEX) by 11 iterative rounds of incubation of digoxin-coated streptavidin magnetic beads with synthetic DNA library, DNA elution, electrophoresis and PCR amplification. The PCR product was cloned and sequenced. Binding affinity was determined using digoxin-BSA conjugate, coated onto ELISA plate. Inhibitory effect of anti-digoxin aptamer was conducted using isolated guinea-pig atrium. Three aptamers (D1, D2 and D3) were identified. Binding studies of fluorescein-labeled truncated (without primer binding region) D1 and D2 and full length D1 anti-digoxin aptamers were performed and their corresponding dissociation constants values were 8.2×10(-9), 44.0×10(-9) and 17.8×10(-9) M, respectively. This is comparable to what other workers have obtained for interaction of monoclonal antibodies raised against digoxin. There was little difference in binding affinity between full length and truncated anti-digoxin D1 aptamer. D1 anti-digoxin aptamer also inhibited the effects of digoxin on the isolated guinea-pig atrium. D1 anti-digoxin aptamer distinguished between digoxin and ouabain in both tissue study and binding experiments. Our finding indicated that D1 anti-digoxin aptamer can selectively bind to digoxin. Further studies might show its suitability for use in digoxin assays and as a therapeutic agent in life-threatening digoxin toxicity.
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In the total population [n = 2,739, with 97 (3.5%) Hispanics, 66.6 +/- 11.6 years, 70.9% male, 66.9% valve surgery], Hispanics were 38% less likely to develop AF (15.5% vs 24.8%, P = 0.035). However, the Hispanic patients were 11.9 years younger (P< 0.001) with 14.7% more women (P = 0.002) which reduces the risk of post-CTS AF; they also had a 12.8% higher risk of valvular surgery (P = 0.009) which is known to enhance the risk. When these factors and other important variables were matched for, a total of 485 patients (n = 97 Hispanics, 388 Caucasian) were evaluated (55.8 +/- 13.1 years, 57.3% male, 45.4% valvular surgery). Hispanic and Caucasian patients had a similar incidence of post-CTS AF (15.5% vs 18.3%, P = 0.513).
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Although ventricular cardiomyocytes express inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors, it is unclear how these Ca2+ channels contribute to the effects of Gq-coupled agonists. Endothelin-1 augmented the amplitude of pacing-evoked Ca2+ signals (positive inotropy), and caused an increasing frequency of spontaneous diastolic Ca2+-release transients. Both effects of endothelin-1 were blocked by an antagonist of phospholipase C, suggesting that Ins(1,4,5)P3 and/or diacylglycerol production was necessary. The endothelin-1-mediated spontaneous Ca2+ transients were abolished by application of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an antagonist of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. Incubation of electrically-paced ventricular myocytes with a membrane-permeant Ins(1,4,5)P3 ester provoked the occurrence of spontaneous diastolic Ca2+ transients with the same characteristics and sensitivity to 2-APB as the events stimulated by endothelin-1. In addition to evoking spontaneous Ca2+ transients, stimulation of ventricular myocytes with the Ins(1,4,5)P3 ester caused a positive inotropic effect. The effects of endothelin-1 were compared with two other stimuli, isoproterenol and digoxin, which are known to induce inotropy and spontaneous Ca2+ transients by overloading intracellular Ca2+ stores. The events evoked by isoproterenol and digoxin were dissimilar from those triggered by endothelin-1 in several ways. We propose that Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors support the development of both inotropy and spontaneous pro-arrhythmic Ca2+ signals in ventricular myocytes stimulated with a Gq-coupled agonist.
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A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 400 consecutive valve surgery patients between May 2002 and December 2012 was performed. Patients were grouped according to avoidance or insertion of temporary pacing wires, and were further subdivided according to temporary cardiac pacing need. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing.
In vitro and clinical studies were conducted to characterize the potential of avasimibe, an acyl-CoA/cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor to cause drug-drug interactions. Clinically, 3- and 6-fold increases in midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate) oral clearance were observed after 50 and 750 mg of avasimibe daily for 7 days, respectively. A 40% decrease in digoxin (P-glycoprotein substrate) area under the curve was observed with 750 mg of avasimibe daily for 10 days. In vitro studies were conducted to define the mechanisms of these interactions. Induction was observed in CYP3A4 activity and immunoreactive protein (EC50 of 200-400 nM) in primary human hepatocytes treated with avasimibe. Rifampin treatment yielded similar results. Microarray analysis revealed avasimibe (1 microM) increased CYP3A4 mRNA 20-fold, compared with a 23-fold increase with 50 microM rifampin. Avasimibe induced P-glycoprotein mRNA by about 2-fold and immunoreactive protein in a dose-dependent manner. Transient transfection assays showed that avasimibe is a potent activator of the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and more active than rifampin on an equimolar basis. Drug-drug interaction studies for CYP3A4 using pooled human hepatic microsomes and avasimibe at various concentrations, revealed IC50 values of 20.7, 1.6, and 3.1 microM using testosterone, midazolam, and felodipine as probe substrates, respectively. Our results indicate that avasimibe causes clinically significant drug-drug interactions through direct activation of hPXR and the subsequent induction of its target genes CYP3A4 and multiple drug resistance protein 1.
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The purpose of this study was to ascertain the presence of gender bias in the medical management of heart failure, and to assess its association with the specialty of the caregiver physician.
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The ability to stimulate cardiac contractility is known as positive inotropy. Endogenous hormones, such as adrenaline and several natural or synthetic compounds possess this biological property, which is invaluable in the modern cardiovascular therapy setting, especially in acute heart failure or in cardiogenic shock. A number of proteins inside the cardiac myocyte participate in the molecular pathways that translate the initial stimulus, that is, the hormone or drug, into the effect of increased contractility (positive inotropy). Genetic variations (polymorphisms) in several genes encoding these proteins have been identified and characterized in humans with potentially significant consequences on cardiac inotropic function. The present review discusses these polymorphisms and their effects on cardiac inotropy, along with the individual pharmacogenomics of the most important positive inotropic agents in clinical use today. Important areas for future investigations in the field are also highlighted.
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Anchored periplasmic expression (APEx) is a method for isolating high affinity ligand-binding proteins from large combinatorial libraries, and antibodies highly specific for soluble antigens were successfully isolated from APEx antibody libraries in combination with flow cytometric sorting (Harvey et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(25):9193-9198, 2004). However, many disease markers and drug targets are localized on the cell surface, and often, unique posttranslational modifications and/or properly folded epitopes are lost when they were expressed and isolated in soluble form. In this study, we demonstrate that Escherichia coli spheroplasts, displaying antibodies and screened by a combination of plate-panning and flow cytometric sorting, can be used for isolating antibodies specific for antigens on the human cell surface. Two rounds of plate-panning followed by one round of flow cytometric sorting resulted in 7,200-fold enrichment of antibodies specific for the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis from a large excess of spheroplasts expressing a scFv antibody to digoxin (a negative control). There is the potential to use this technique for library screening to find novel antibodies against disease cell surface antigens.
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To identify risk factors, patient characteristics, and medications associated with a higher likelihood of ADEs in adult inpatients through an overview of reviews on this topic.
These results indicate that OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are at least partly responsible for the accumulation of TR-14035 into hepatocytes, and Mrp2 principally mediates the biliary excretion of TR-14035. Furthermore, genetic polymorphisms of OATP1B1 may cause an interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of TR-14035.
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Sixty-seven adults (32 men, 35 women) with chronic heart failure or atrial fibrillation who were receiving digoxin therapy.
The contractile behavior of cardiomyocytes can be monitored by measuring their action potentials, and the analysis is essential for screening the safety of potential drugs. However, immobilizing cardiac cells on a specific electrode is considerably complicated. In this study, we demonstrate that scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can be used to analyze rapid topographic changes in beating cardiomyocytes in a standard culture dish. Various cardiomyocyte contraction parameters and oxygen consumption based on cell respiration could be determined from SECM data. We also confirmed that cellular changes induced by adding the cardiotonic agent digoxin were conveniently monitored by this SECM system. These results show that SECM can be a potentially powerful tool for use in drug development for cardiovascular diseases.
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Chronic heart failure (CHF) is common, disabling and deadly. Recent studies show that ACE inhibitors reduce morbidity and mortality in all grades of CHF and may even delay or prevent the onset of overt CHF in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. In this review, guidelines are given for how to use these drugs both in hospital and in general practice. New evidence on the benefits of digoxin is also considered, and the management of concomitant problems such as angina and arrhythmias in patients with CHF is discussed.
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The two agents beta-methyldigoxin (medixin), a Soviet medilazide, and bemecor (digicor), a foreign analogue (LEK, Yugoslavia) were comparatively evaluated. An equal high (85%) clinical efficacy of the drugs was found in 81 patients with varying stages of heart failure. A positive therapeutic effect was accompanied by lower heart rate, higher diuresis and natri-and kaliuresis, decreased systolic and diastolic pressures in the pulmonary artery. The incidence of adverse reactions and the causes of their occurrence are analyzed.
To investigate the interaction of cardiac glycosides with vasoconstrictors, we examined the effects of short term treatment with the cardiac glycoside digoxin (6 mg/kg/day, i.p., for 6 days) in rats made hypertensive by chronic infusion of norepinephrine (NE), angiotensin II (A II) or vasopressin (VP). When digoxin was administered simultaneously with NE at 1.8 mg/kg/day (i.p.) by use of osmotic minipumps in conscious rats, systolic blood pressure decreased to 120 +/- 3 mmHg on Day 1 whereas it rose to 148 +/- 2 mmHg in rats given NE alone (p less than 0.01). The antihypertensive effect of digoxin was sustained for the entire experimental period and was not associated with any change in urinary sodium excretion. When the same dose of digoxin was administered simultaneously with A II at 900 micrograms/kg/day (i.p.) in conscious rats, systolic blood pressure rose to a greater extent than in those given A II alone. The administration of digoxin had no effect on the blood pressure elevation induced by chronic infusion of VP at a rate of 7.2 U/kg/day (i.p.). It is concluded that short term treatment with digoxin has a variety of effects on blood pressure in rats; pressor, depressor, or is no effects depending upon vasoconstrictor used.
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Elevated levels of endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactivity have been reported in the body fluids of premature and full-term infants as well as in term pregnancy, in the amniotic fluid, and in human milk. Several lines of evidence suggest that these factors could also have biological properties in common with digitalis: i.e., they could represent truly endogenous digitalis-like factor(s). In recent years we succeeded in partially purifying this factor from umbilical cord blood, which represents an easily available source of this factor. The inhibitory activity of this factor on 86Rb uptake could be neutralized by antidigoxin antibodies (Fab fragments) and provided, for the first time, direct evidence of an association between digoxin-like immunoreactivity and biological digitalis-like activity. In addition, these antibodies could be used for immunoaffine chromatography as a purification step before separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. Preliminary experiments suggest that this endogenous compound has both a tissue and an isoenzyme selectivity and is not a well-known steroid (testosterone, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and estradiol).