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Furosemide and KCl treatments showed significant effect on physiological and biochemical parameters, and LV histopathology of experimental rats. Proteomic analysis indicated 17 differentially expressed proteins. Among them, eight protein spots were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. In furosemide-treated group, four proteins were upregulated and two proteins were downregulated when compared to 2-DE proteomic profile of control. While in KCl-treated rats, seven proteins were found downregulated.
We used an algorithm that relies on fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) to evaluate patients with hyponatremia and present 4 illustrative cases.
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Restricted access material (RAM) column containing 25 microm C18 alkyl-diol support was integrated into the sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold and the SIA-RAM system was tested for direct determination of furosemide in serum. LiChrospher ADS column based on restricted access material is proposed to direct injection of biofluids. The integration of RAM material into SIA enabled creation of a comprehensive on-line sample clean-up technique combined with fluorescence quantitation of analyte. Centrifuged and diluted serum sample was aspirated into the system and loaded onto the column using acetonitrile-water (2:98), pH 2.7. The analyte was retained on the column while proteins contained in the sample were removed to the waste without precipitation and clogging the column. Interfering substances complicating the detection were washed out by acetonitrile-water (15:85), pH 2.7 in the next step. The extracted analyte was eluted by means of acetonitrile-water (25:75), pH 2.3 to the fluorescence detector (emission filter 385 nm). The whole procedure comprising sample pre-treatment, analyte detection and column reconditioning took 20 min. The recoveries of furosemide from serum lay between 101.4 and 103.4% for three concentrations of analyte.
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We discovered 232 cases of extravasation involving 37 agents (in order of frequency): phenytoin, parenteral nutrition, calcium gluconate, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, dopamine, dextrose solutions, epinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, nafcillin, propofol, norepinephrine, mannitol, arginine, promethazine, vancomycin, tetracycline, dobutamine, vasopressin, sodium thiopental, acyclovir, amphotericin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, metronidazole, oxacillin, penicillin, amiodarone, albumin, furosemide, lipids, lorazepam, immunoglobulin, morphine, and sodium valproate. Potential properties contributing to extravasation include the following: pH, osmolarity, diluent, vasoactive properties, and inactive ingredients. Antidotes and supportive care agents used in the management of these cases of extravasation include hyaluronidase, phentolamine, terbutaline, topical anesthetics (such as lidocaine and prilocaine cream), topical antimicrobials (such as silver sulfadiazine and chlorhexidine), topical debridement agents (collagenase ointment), topical steroids, and topical vasodilators (nitroglycerin).
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In order to study the interaction between mechanical-electrical and electrical-mechanical transductions of outer hair cells (OHCs) in vivo, we observed the acoustically induced changes in the electrically evoked otoacoustic emission (EEOAE). One pole of a bipolar electrode was placed in the round window niche and the other pole on the surface of the first cochlear turn in the gerbil. A microphone and a speaker were used to monitor the EEOAE and to deliver an acoustical tone, respectively. It was found that a high sound level acoustical tone enhanced the EEOAE fine structure at frequencies below the acoustical frequency, and suppressed the overall level of the EEOAE at frequencies above the acoustical frequency. In addition, the EEOAE at frequencies approximately one half octave lower than the acoustical frequencies were relatively more enhanced or showed relatively less suppression than at other frequencies. The amplitudes of these changes had a positive relationship with acoustical tone levels. Furosemide eliminated the acoustically caused EEOAE change indicating that the acoustically caused change in the EEOAE is a phenomenon of the normal cochlea. One possible mechanism for the results is that the electrically and acoustically evoked basilar membrane (BM) vibrations interact at the EEOAE generation site and change the local mechanical and electrical properties. The second possible mechanism is that the acoustical stimulus creates an impedance discontinuity at its characteristic frequency location leading to a change in the reflected electrically evoked traveling wave, which may enhance or suppress the EEOAE by the vector summation of two waves.
To describe pulmonary transit time (nPTT) and myocardial perfusion (nMP) normalised to heart rate in dogs with stable ACVIM stage C myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and to assess short-term effects of pimobendan on these variables. We hypothesised that nPTT and nMP would increase in dogs with MMVD compared with normal dogs. Additionally, we hypothesised that treatment with pimobendan would decrease nMP and nPTT in dogs with MMVD.
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Sensations arising from the bladder induce combined activation of sympathetic skin responses and pelvic floor activity. This coherence indicates synchronized activation and inactivation of the autonomic and somatic pathways necessary for appropriate urine storage and coordinated voiding. Our observations may introduce a new approach for objectively assessing subjective sensations arising from the urinary tract.
A 63-year-old man with a history of chronic renal impairment on a stable dosage of simvastatin developed rhabdomyolysis after the addition of ranolazine to his medication regimen.
Inner ear hair cells detect environmental signals associated with hearing, balance, and body orientation. In humans and other mammals, significant hair cell loss leads to irreversible hearing and balance deficits, whereas hair cell loss in nonmammalian vertebrates is repaired by the spontaneous generation of replacement hair cells. Research in mammalian hair cell regeneration is hampered by the lack of in vivo damage models for the adult mouse inner ear and the paucity of cell-type-specific markers for non-sensory cells within the sensory receptor epithelia. The present study delineates a protocol to drug damage the adult mouse auditory epithelium (organ of Corti) in situ and uses this protocol to investigate Sox2 and Jagged1 expression in damaged inner ear sensory epithelia. In other tissues, the transcription factor Sox2 and a ligand member of the Notch signaling pathway, Jagged1, are involved in regenerative processes. Both are involved in early inner ear development and are expressed in developing support cells, but little is known about their expressions in the adult. We describe a nonsurgical technique for inducing hair cell damage in adult mouse organ of Corti by a single high-dose injection of the aminoglycoside kanamycin followed by a single injection of the loop diuretic furosemide. This drug combination causes the rapid death of outer hair cells throughout the cochlea. Using immunocytochemical techniques, Sox2 is shown to be expressed specifically in support cells in normal adult mouse inner ear and is not affected by drug damage. Sox2 is absent from auditory hair cells, but is expressed in a subset of vestibular hair cells. Double-labeling experiments with Sox2 and calbindin suggest Sox2-positive hair cells are Type II. Jagged1 is also expressed in support cells in the adult ear and is not affected by drug damage. Sox2 and Jagged1 may be involved in the maintenance of support cells in adult mouse inner ear.
Vascular endothelial cells have been shown to contain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-sensitive Na-K-Cl cotransport system whose activity is regulated by intracellular cGMP levels. Addition of ANP to culture medium stimulated 86Rb+ uptake in bovine endothelial cells with a concomitant increase in cGMP contents. This action of ANP was mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP and completely diminished by furosemide. These results indicate that ANP selectively activates the Na-K-Cl cotransporter in vascular endothelial cells via cGMP and offer new insight into the physiological significance of endothelial ANP receptors.
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A 41-year-old man with pre-existing cardiac and renal dysfunction (for which his regular medications included furosemide) presumed secondary to a viral myocarditis developed acute sensorineural hearing loss 5 days after commencing treatment with indomethacin 25 mg tds for acute gout. His hearing loss was preceded by the development of tinnitus and failed to recover.
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Of the 2,021 long-term care residents evaluated, 498 (25%) were receiving an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Of the 498 residents receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitor therapy, 103 (20.7%) were receiving concurrent medications with anticholinergic activity. The most commonly prescribed medication with anticholinergic activity was furosemide, an agent with "possible" or low anticholinergic effects. One hundred forty-six medications with anticholinergic activity were used in these 103 residents. Overall, adjustments to the agents with anticholinergic activity were completed in 24 (16.4%) cases. The majority of medications prescribed had "possible" anticholinergic activity (62.3%) compared with those prescribed with "definite" anticholinergic activity (37.7%). No medication dose adjustments or discontinuations were frequent, regardless of whether the medication was deemed to have "definite" (29.1%) or "possible" (31.9%) anticholinergic activity. Medication changes or discontinuations occurred in 13 (23.6%) agents with "definite" and 11 (12.1%) agents with "possible" anticholinergic activity.
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Despite their risk, QT-prolonging drugs are widely prescribed to hospitalized older persons. The curriculum for both practicing physicians and medical students should be strengthened to provide more education on the appropriate use of drugs in order to improve the management of hospitalized older people.
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We herein describe a new technique for the assessment of the clinically significant obstructed renal unit. The diuretic ultrasound utilizes the noninvasive, high resolution ultrasound unit in combination with diuresis induction with furosemide to assess renal collecting system obstruction.
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Furosemide bolus injection can reduce diuresis onset time compared to furosemide infusion.
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None of the 57 dogs developed SHC during the study period. Forty-seven of 57 (82%) dogs had complete remission of lymphoma. Other adverse effects were uncommon and self-limiting; no dogs had myelosuppression, and only 5 had mild gastrointestinal effects. Incidence of SHC was significantly lower than that reported for historical control dogs that received cyclophosphamide as a single dose without furosemide (24/219) and was not significantly different from that for historical control dogs that received cyclophosphamide as a single dose with furosemide (2/139).
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We used the standard search method of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We used the following keywords: ¿ or ¿ and , limited to and limited to or . We searched Medline (1966-1998), Embase (1974-1998) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) from the Cochrane Library (1998, Issue 4). In addition, we hand searched several abstract books of national and international American and European Societies.
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One hundred consecutive patients were evaluated. The average age was 20.8 months and weight was 9.5 kg. Sixty-two patients had heart disease (HD), 29 had chronic lung disease (CLD), and 9 had other conditions. The initial dose was 1.8 +/- 0.7 mg/kg/day. Patients with CLD received a higher dose than those with HD (2 +/- 0.8 vs 1.7 +/- 0.5 mg/kg/day; p = 0.04). Sixty-six patients received furosemide and 37 received thiazides (12 received both). The average potassium concentration after initiation was 4.3 +/- 0.8 mEq/L, with higher values in patients with CLD versus HD (4.7 +/- 0.7 vs 4.2 +/- 0.7 mEq/L; p = 0.007). Twenty-six patients required potassium supplementation, including 16 with CLD and 8 with HD; no other adverse effects were noted. Average length of treatment was 16 days, with a length of stay of 38 days. Of the 92 patients surviving to discharge, 66 continued on spironolactone.
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In a model of peripherally induced inflammatory pain in rats, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 raised nociceptive thresholds above basal values, an effect referred to as "hypoalgesia". However other, non-selective, inhibitors of COX (indomethacin, piroxicam) or a selective inhibitor of COX-1 did not induce hypoalgesia in this model, implying that COX inhibition was not causally related to the hypoalgesic effect. Here, we have assessed whether other COX-2 inhibitors or other sulphonamides, apart from celecoxib could exhibit hypoalgesia in our model of inflammatory pain. Inflammation was induced in one hind paw of rats by intraplantar injection of carrageenan (250 μg). Nociceptive thresholds to mechanical stimulation were measured in the inflamed and contralateral paws for 6 h after carrageenan. Three sulphonamides, celecoxib itself, furosemide (a loop diuretic), acetazolamide (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), or a selective COX-2 inhibitor lacking the sulphonamide group, lumiracoxib, were injected s.c., 30 min before the pro-inflammatory stimulus. Naltrexone, a non-selective opioid antagonist was also administered s.c., 30 min before test drugs. Furosemide and acetazolamide dose-dependently induced hypoalgesia in the inflamed paw, as did celecoxib. However, lumiracoxib only produced anti-hyperalgesia. Pre-treatment with naltrexone completely prevented the hypoalgesia induced by the sulphonamides, but only partially prevented the anti-hyperalgesic effect of lumiracoxib. Taken together, our results suggest that the sulphonamide group in the structure of celecoxib is more critical for the development of hypoalgesia in our model than its ability to inhibit COX-2. Further, other sulphonamides lacking significant COX inhibition were also able to exhibit hypoalgesic effects, mediated by the endogenous opioid system.
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In patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), systemic vasodilation, which is mainly attributable to splanchnic vasodilation, plays a critical role in the activation of endogenous vasoconstrictor systems, resulting in renal vasoconstriction and functional renal failure. It has been suggested that the use of splanchnic (and systemic) vasoconstrictors such as terlipressin (a vasopressin analog) or alpha-1-adrenoceptor agonists (midodrine or noradrenaline) may improve renal function in patients with type 1 HRS. Six studies (with only one randomized study in a small series of patients) have shown that terlipressin improves renal function in these patients. However, there is evidence that terlipressin alone may be less effective than terlipressin combined with intravenous albumin in improving renal function. Future randomized studies should confirm this difference and evaluate the impact of terlipressin therapy (with or without intravenous albumin) on survival. Interestingly, in nonrandomized studies, the use of alpha-1 agonists combined with other therapies (octreotide and albumin for midodrine; furosemide and albumin for noradrenaline) has been shown to improve renal function in patients with type 1 HRS. The efficacy and safety of combined therapies including alpha-1 agonists should be confirmed in randomized studies. Finally, preliminary evidence suggests that vasoconstrictor administration may be a novel therapeutic approach targeting vasodilation involved in the mechanism of: (1) renal failure in type 2 HRS; (2) paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction; and (3) arterial hypotension induced by byproducts of gram-negative bacteria. Further studies are needed in all these fields.
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AA1R activity contributes substantially to renal vascular tone in ambulatory patients with chronic congestive heart failure and impaired kidney function. Blockade of these receptors vasodilates the kidney and increases GFR. The increase in GFR seems to persist several days longer than predicted by pharmacokinetics, suggesting a resetting of one or more controllers among the complex network of physical and biological processes that interact to determine the kidney function. There may be short- or long-term benefits of using AA1R antagonists to improve kidney function in patients with congestive heart failure.
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Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
To determine if indomethacin antagonizes the effect of intraluminal furosemide, superficial loop segments were microperfused from latest proximal to earliest distal tubules at 20 nl/min with 10(-5) M furosemide in rats treated with indomethacin or vehicle. Base-line loop chloride reabsorption was determined in the presence and absence of indomethacin in a third and fourth group perfused with a similar solution with furosemide omitted. Arterial pressure, whole kidney inulin clearance and urinary chloride excretion were not different among groups. Fractional loop chloride reabsorption was less (P less than .05) in vehicle-treated rats perfused with furosemide than in time control rats perfused without furosemide (30.8 +/- 2.8 vs. 50.3 +/- 2.8%). Fractional chloride reabsorption was greater (P less than .05) in furosemide-perfused loops of indomethacin-treated rats than furosemide-perfused loops of vehicle-treated rats (44.2 +/- 1.9 vs. 30.8 +/- 2.8%). Addition of 10(-4) M prostaglandin E2 to perfusate did not potentiate furosemide's effect in vehicle-treated rats but restored furosemide's potency in indomethacin-treated rats. Thus, indomethacin had no effect on base-line loop chloride uptake but attenuated furosemide's luminal effect. This response could be reversed by luminal prostaglandin E2. This study demonstrates that indomethacin antagonizes furosemide's tubular effects in the absence of furosemide-induced vasodilatation.
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Refractory ascites reduces the quality of life of liver cirrhosis patients. Albumin preparation and diuretics, such as furosemide, have been used to treat refractory ascites, but the effect was poor in many patients. In this study, we analyzed patients treated with tolvaptan (TLV) at our hospital and investigated predictors of the effect.
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Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels in the nonmaze group significantly increased after operation. In contrast, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels in the maze group did not increase, and these levels were significantly lower than in the nonmaze group. Although significantly greater doses of furosemide and dopamine were administered to the maze group than to the nonmaze group, the body fluid balance in the maze group was comparable with that in the nonmaze group in the early postoperative period. The response of atrial natriuretic peptide secretion by exercise was significantly attenuated in the maze group (n = 12) compared with the nonmaze group (n = 9) even 2 years after surgery, although there were no significant differences in heart rate or blood pressure during exercise between two groups.
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Urodynamics have been traditionally recorded in anesthetized or conscious animals implanted with a bladder catheter that is used to artificially fill the bladder while measuring intravesicular bladder pressure. Anesthesia alters the urodynamics and in the conscious state this methodology requires that the dogs be tethered/restrained, which evokes stress and limits the period of continuous urodynamic assessment. A more physiological and chronic method of evaluating pharmacological responses on urodynamics is necessary.
In order to clarify debated issues of the medical treatment of ascites in cirrhosis--the usefulness of a low sodium diet and washout period preceding diuretic administration, maximal dosage of antimineralocorticoid to be reached before the addition of a loop diuretic, identifications of factors influencing treatment efficacy--115 hospitalized patients with non-azotemic cirrhosis and ascites were recruited and randomized to receive a diet providing either 40 or 120 mmol of sodium daily. After a washout period from the outpatient diuretic regimen for 7 days (Step 1), increasing dosages of K-canrenoate (200 mg/day every 4th day up to 600 mg) were administered to patients not undergoing spontaneous diuresis (Step 2). Upon the failure of Step 2, K-canrenoate (400 mg/day) and furosemide at increasing dosage (25-50-100 mg every other day) were given (Step 3). Nine percent of patients underwent spontaneous diuresis, and 77% developed a negative sodium balance by the end of Step 2 (69% with a dosage of K-canrenoate < or = 400 mg/day) and 93% by the end of Step 3. Two patients were withdrawn from the protocol due to diuretic side-effects. Univariate analysis showed that the type of diet did not influence the response to treatment. The washout period led to a significant increase in endogenous creatinine clearance; natremia significantly rose in hyponatremic patients. Multivariate analysis showed that creatinine clearance and plasma aldosterone were independent predictive factors of the response to treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)