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Motilium

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

Other names for this medication:

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Description

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

Generic Motilium works by blocking the action of a chemical messenger in the brain which causes the feeling of nausea and vomiting, as well as increasing the movement or contractions of the stomach and intestines, allowing food to move more easily through the stomach.

Motilium is also known as Domperidone, Dombax, Vivadone, Motinorm, Costi.

Generic name of Generic Motilium is Domperidone.

Brand name of Generic Motilium is Motilium.

Dosage

The usual dose in adults is one tablet three to four times a day, best taken 15 to 30 minutes before meals or food, and if necessary at bedtime.

Sometimes your doctor may increase the dose to two tablets three to four times a day after you have taken Generic Motilium for 2 weeks.

You should not take more than a total of eight tablets in a single day.

Generic Motilium can be taken for up to 6 months.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Motilium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Do not store in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Motilium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are allergic to Generic Motilium components.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Motilium can harm your baby.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you have a tumour of the pituitary gland called prolactinoma; an increase in stomach or bowel contractions can harm you. For example, if you have had bleeding, a blockage or puncture in your gastrointestinal tract.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient such as ketoconazole, fluconazole or voriconazole which is used to treat fungal infections.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking an antibiotic containing the active ingredient erythromycin, clarithromycin or telithromycin.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient amiodarone, which is used to treat fast heart rate.

Do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

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In the present studies we investigated the mechanism of action of prostaglandin E2 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce emesis and defecation and/or tenesmus in the ferret. The emesis was antagonized significantly (P<0.05) by ondansetron (0.3 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and (+)-(2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzylamino)-2-phenlypiperidine hydrochloride (CP-99,994; 10 mg/kg, i.p.), but neither compound reduced defecations and/or tenesmus, with ondansetron (0.3 mg/kg) actually producing a slight increase (P<0.05). Droperidol (1 and 3 mg/kg), metoclopramide (0.3 and 3 mg/kg), domperidone (0.3 and 3 mg/kg), promethazine (0.3 and 3 mg/kg) and scopolamine (0.3 and 3 mg/kg) failed to reduce prostaglandin E2 induced emesis. However, droperidol (1 and 3 mg/kg) and scopolamine (0.3 and 3 mg/kg) reduced significantly the defecatory and/or tenesmus response (P<0.05). Bilateral abdominal vagotomy was ineffective to reduce emesis and defecations and/or tenesmus. The data suggests that 5-HT3 receptor and NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonists could be useful in the clinic to prevent emesis but not defecations induced by prostaglandin E2.

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Domperidone has been used as a gastrokinetic and anti-emetic drug within the frames of an intensive care programme in 57 patients with a history of 3-4 days of acute myocardial infarction. According to the observations, Motilium prevents the development of gastroduodenal complaints and nausea, vomiting in a period following the first days of acute therapy and promotes the start of bowel movement and defecation. It has no cardiac or other toxic effects and does not influence the action of other drugs.

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1. An intracellular recording study was performed to elucidate the mechanism underlying D1 and D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of neuronal activities of dopaminergic neurones in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) using slice preparations of the rat brain. 2. VTA neurones were classified into type I and type II neurones according to the shape of the action potential, which correspond to dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurones, respectively. 3. Addition of dopamine (10 microM) and quinpirole (1-100 microM) to the bath hyperpolarized the membrane of the type I neurones concomitantly with an increase in membrane conductance and an inhibition of action potentials which occurred spontaneously and were elicited by depolarizing pulses applied to the cell. However, quinpirole (10 microM) had no effect on the threshold for action potentials induced by a depolarizing pulse. 4. These quinpirole (10 microM)-induced effects were antagonized by simultaneous application of domperidone (5 microM), a D2 receptor antagonist. 5. The amplitude of quinpirole (10 microM)-induced hyperpolarization was decreased by increasing the potassium concentration in the perfusing fluid or simultaneous application of tetraethylammonium (10 microM). 6. SKF 38393 (10 or 100 microM), a D1 receptor agonist, had no effect on the resting membrane potential or action potential firing induced by a depolarizing pulse applied to the cell. However, when SKF 38393 (10 microM) was applied simultaneously with quinpirole (10 microM), the threshold for action potential generation was elevated by 5-6 mV, although there was no enhancement of hyperpolarization induced by quinpirole. 7. The elevation of the threshold for action potentials induced by SKF 38393 in the presence of quinpirole was antagonized by simultaneous application of SCH 23390 (5 microM), a D1 receptor antagonist.8. Dopamine (10 microM), quinpirole (10 or 100 microM) and SKF 38393 (10 or 100 microM) had no effect on the resting membrane potential or spontaneously occurring action potentials in type II neurones.9. These findings suggest that activation of dopamine D2 receptors of dopaminergic neurones in the VTA increases potassium conductance, thereby hyperpolarizing the membrane and eventually inhibiting neuronal activities. They also suggest that simultaneous activation of both D1 and D2 receptors enhances the D2 receptor-mediated inhibitory effects by elevation of the threshold for action potential generation.

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The focus was on haloperidol (central dopamine antagonist)-stomach lesion, a longly described suitable counterpart of dopamine blocker cysteamine-duodenal lesion. In this, the contribution of blockade of central/peripheral dopamine receptors and prostaglandins synthesis, along with influence of antiulcer agents was evaluated in mice. Male NMRI Hannnover mice were sacrificed 24 h after haloperidol (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p., given alone or with saline (haloperidol+saline) (i) or in combination (ii,iii)). Supporting central dopamine predominance for haloperidol stomach lesion induction, co-administration of peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone (5 mg/kg i.p.) (haloperidol+ domperidone) (ii), or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) (haloperidol+ indomethacin) (iii) did not aggravate this lesion. (i) In haloperidol+saline challenged mice the lesions were inhibited by co-administration (/kg i.p.) of a gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GlyGluProProProGlyLysProAlaAspAspAlaGlyLeuVal, M.W. 1419 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg, but not 1 pg, 100 fg, 10 fg), bromocriptine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg, 100 mg, but not 1 mg). Atropine (10, 100, 200 mg), pirenzepine (10, 100, 200 mg), misoprostol (10, 100, 200 microg), pantoprazole (1, 10, 100 mg), lansoprazole (0.1, 1, 10 mg), cimetidine (10, 100, 200 mg) and ranitidine (10, 100, 200 mg) were not effective. (ii) Dopamine peripheral blockade influence: in haloperidol+domperidone mice, previously effective bromocriptine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg) or omeprazole (10 mg) did not attenuate stomach lesions. (iii) Prostaglandins synthesis blockade effect: in haloperidol+indomethacin mice, previously effective agents, bromocriptine or omeprazole were not active, while BPC 157 effect was only lessened.

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Agonists of dopamine receptors can lower blood pressure by vasodilation through action on dopamine1 receptors, inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity by action on dopamine2 receptors, or actions in the central nervous system. Fenoldopam, a selective dopamine1 agonist, piribedil, a selective dopamine2 agonist, and dipropyl dopamine, a mixed dopamine1 and dopamine2 agonist, were injected intravenously in pentobarbital-anesthetized, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The mechanism for the antihypertensive effect was evaluated by administration of the selective dopamine1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the selective dopamine2 antagonist domperidone. While SCH 23390 only antagonized the hypotensive effects of fenoldopam, domperidone abolished the fall in blood pressure produced by dipropyl dopamine and piribedil but not by fenoldopam. Increments in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels accompanied the hypotensive effects of fenoldopam. The increase in heart rate was abolished by a dose of SCH 23390 sufficient to completely block the hypotensive effects and was significantly attenuated by the ganglionic blocking agent hexamethonium, which suggests that the increase in heart rate was due to a baroreceptor reflex. Fenoldopam does not cross the blood-brain barrier, which suggests that its hypotensive effect was mediated by peripheral dopamine1 receptors. Since domperidone does not cross the blood-brain barrier and significantly antagonized the hypotensive and bradycardic effects of dipropyl dopamine and piribedil, these effects were mediated primarily by peripheral dopamine2 receptors. These results indicate that SCH 23390 and domperidone are useful agents to identify the receptor subtype mediating the action of dopamine agonists in SHR.

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Several dopamine agonists, administered i.m., produced persistent, excessive and non-localized scratching in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Studies were conducted with a series of drugs to determine the pharmacological mechanisms responsible for this effect. All of the dopamine D2 agonists studied produced dose-related increases in scratching, whereas several dopamine D1 receptor agonists, indirect dopamine agonists and drugs acting on other receptors failed to produce dose-related increases in scratching. The scratching produced by D2 agonists was stereospecific; (-)-NPA produced scratching whereas its (+)-enantiomer was inactive up to doses 300-fold higher. Scratching induced by quinpirole was attenuated by both D2 and D1 antagonists, and this antagonism was stereospecific, with the D2 antagonist (-)-eticlopride, but not its enantiomer, active. Sensitivity developed to the effects of D2 agonists with the quinpirole dose-effect curve shifting to the left by a factor of approximately 64. Two partial D2 receptor agonists (SDZ 208-911 and SDZ 208-912) had limited efficacy in producing scratching, however, one partial D2 receptor agonist (terguride) was fully efficacious, suggesting that there are spare receptors for this effect. The peripherally active dopamine antagonist domperidone and the histamine antagonist diphenhydramine also reduced the scratching induced by D2 agonists, but not to the same extent as centrally acting D2 antagonists. Scratching in squirrel monkeys is an effect that appears to be due to agonist actions at D2 receptors, and may be mediated by a release of histamine. This behavioral activity may be useful as an in vivo indication of D2 receptor activity in primates.

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Topical administration of B-HT 920 (50 micrograms) to the eyes of normal unanesthetized cats produced decreases in intraocular pressure and pupil diameter. The ocular hypotensive effect of B-HT 920 was eliminated by sympathectomy and pretreatment with sulpiride (2 mg/kg, s.c.). B-HT 920 also produced dose-related inhibition of contractions of the cat nictitans elicited by stimulating the pre- and postganglionic sympathetic trunks. B-HT 920-induced suppression of the contracting nictitans was antagonized more effectively by relatively selective DA2 antagonists, sulpiride and domperidone, than by rauwolscine, a relatively selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. These data suggest that B-HT 920 produces ocular hypotension in the cat by interacting predominantly with DA2 receptor on peripheral sympathetic nerves.

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Five patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease with severe response fluctuations were selected for a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, concerning the clinical effects of subcutaneous apomorphine and its assessment in 'off'-periods. The study was designed as five n = 1 studies, in which every patient was his own control. The effect of apomorphine was studied by using the Columbia rating scale and quantitative assessments, using tapping, walking and pinboard. There was a significant positive effect of apomorphine, in a mean optimal dose of 2.7 mg, with a mean latency of onset of 7.3 min and a mean duration of response of 96 min. After pretreatment with domperidone, no significant adverse effects were observed. Tapping showed the highest correlation with rigidity and bradykinesia. Walking showed a high correlation with stability and gait. Pinboard testing did not give additional information. The first conclusion was that apomorphine proved to be a significantly effective dopamine agonist, proven now also by a double blind placebo-controlled study. Secondly it was concluded that assessment of clinical effect in parkinsonian patients can be performed best by combining the Columbia item tremor with tapping and walking scores.

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The effect of domperidone, a peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist, has been studied in the aspirin, phenylbutazone and reserpine induced gastric ulcers in rats. The gastric anti-ulcer activity of domperidone was evident following a single dose as well as a 5-day pretreatment against all the three ulcerogenic drugs. However, the protection in the five-day pretreatment group was greater than in the single dose pretreatment group. It appears that the gastrokinetic properties of domperidone play a significant role in producing this anti-ulcer effect. The study substantiates the results of the clinical observations on the healing of gastric ulcers and provides a rationale for further clinical studies in that direction. The possible mechanisms of action of this agent are discussed.

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The incidence and consequences of the nausea and vomiting induced by many cancer chemotherapeutic regimes are explored and the emetogenic potential of the commonly used cytotoxic drugs evaluated. The physiology and pharmacology of chemotherapy-induced vomiting is largely unresolved but the postulated mechanisms are described and related to known properties of anti-emetic agents. The difficulties associated with the design and evaluation of trials assessing the effectiveness of single agent or combination therapy for this indication are discussed. After identifying general principles of anti-emetic prophylaxis, a critical evaluation is made of the effectiveness of the following drugs or classes of drugs, based on the available data: antihistamines, anticholinergics, phenothiazines, butyrophenones, domperidone, metoclopramide, cannabinoids, corticosteroids and benzodiazepines. Although there are still insufficient data to allow absolute recommendations to be made regarding the choice of anti-emetic therapy, considerations which should govern drug choice are listed and an algorithm presented as an aid to decision making. The contributions that can be made by a pharmacist in this area of drug use are noted.

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The effect of the intravenous administration of dihydroergotoxine (6 micrograms/kg) on arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (the deaminated dopamine metabolite) was studied in 20 subjects with essential hypertension (8 men and 12 women aged 32-68 years old, World Health Organization Class I-II). In supine resting subjects, dihydroergotoxine significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (from 175 +/- 5 to 156 +/- 4 mm Hg; p less than 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (from 109 +/- 4 to 95 +/- 3 mm Hg; p less than 0.001), and heart rate (from 71 +/- 2 to 63 +/- 2 beats/min; p less than 0.001) as compared with the results of placebo treatment. Moreover, dihydroergotoxine reduced plasma levels of norepinephrine (from 368 +/- 39 to 238 +/- 33 pg/ml; p less than 0.001) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (from 1.57 +/- 0.21 to 1.22 +/- 0.13 ng/ml; p less than 0.01). The time course of the blood pressure decrease paralleled that of plasma norepinephrine concentration. Dihydroergotoxine did not suppress the cardiovascular and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Dihydroergotoxine did not suppress the cardiovascular and plasma norepinephrine response to standing. The effect of domperidone, a peripheral presynaptic dopamine receptor antagonist, on dihydroergotoxine response was studied in six of the 20 subjects (3 men and 3 women 48-64 years old). The intravenous administration of domperidone (0.3 mg/kg) prevented the dihydroergotoxine-induced reduction in blood pressure and heart rate and the fall in plasma norepinephrine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels. Domperidone administered alone failed to significantly modify any measured variables.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Natriuresis was studied during water immersion in eight normal subjects either in the absence or in the presence of dopamine blockade by domperidone. Creatinine clearance showed no significant changes; urine flow remained significantly above control values during water immersion, implying persistent suppression of antidiuretic hormone. The marked natriuresis seen during water immersion alone was significantly blunted (P less than 0.05) but not abolished during water immersion plus domperidone. Suppression of the renin-aldosterone system by water immersion alone was not significantly different from that obtained during water immersion plus dopamine blockade. On the contrary, plasma prolactin levels, previously suppressed during water immersion alone, were significantly stimulated during water immersion plus domperidone, thus indirectly suggesting a role of dopamine in mediating the blunted natriuresis seen during water immersion.

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Binding of dopamine receptor ligands to human D2 and D3 receptors was characterized in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist [125I] iodosulpiride. Only limited binding selectivity was observed for known dopamine D2 receptor antagonists from a variety of chemical classes, which included haloperidol, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, pimozide and cis flupenthixol. The most selective compound from this group were (+)butaclamol and domperidone which showed 5-fold D3 selectivity. A number of high affinity dopamine receptor agonists, including apomorphine and bromocriptine, also failed to demonstrate selectivity. In contrast, the natural ligand dopamine and the efficacious synthetic agonists quinpirole, (+)4-propyl-9-hydroxynapthoxazine (PHNO), 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (6,7-ADTN), 7-OH DPAT and N-0434 showed marked apparent human dopamine D3 (hD3) receptor selectivity. In the aminotetralin series, this selectivity was observed preferentially with analogs of the 6,7-rotamer compared with compounds from the 5,6-rotamer series. Functional coupling of the hD3 receptor was investigated in a number of cell lines in which the hD3 receptor was stably expressed, including CHO cells, the neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 and a rat 1 fibroblast cell line. There was no evidence of functional coupling of the hD3 receptor to adenylate cyclase, arachidonic acid release, phospholipase C activation, K+ currents or calcium mobilization in any of the cell lines examined. Furthermore, guanine nucleotides failed to inhibit the binding of [3H] N-0437 to hD3 receptors in any of the three cell lines. There may be a number of explanations for these results. These cell lines may not have the appropriate G-protein or secondary messenger systems that are coupled to the hD3 receptor in situ. Alternatively, this receptor may couple by a mechanism that is as yet undefined. The finding that a wide range of structurally diverse human dopamine D2 (hD2) receptor agonists have an apparent hD3 selectivity may imply that the hD3 receptor exists predominantly in a high affinity state.

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This interaction may have clinical significance when domperidone is co-administered with rifampicin in chronic treatment conditions, such as tuberculosis, leprosy and other infections of joints, bones, etc.

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The interactions of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists with 3H-antagonist labeled D1 dopamine receptors of rat striatum have been characterized. [3H]Flupentixol has been found to selectively label D1 dopamine receptors when its binding to D2 dopamine receptors is blocked by the inclusion of D2 selective concentrations of unlabeled spiroperidol or domperidone. Antagonist/3H-antagonist competition curves are of uniformly steep slope (nH = 1.0) suggesting the presence of a single D1 dopamine receptor. Agonist/3H-antagonist competition curves are extremely shallow (nH less than or equal to 0.5) for agonists of high relative efficacy, suggesting the presence of heterogeneous populations of agonist-binding states of the D1 dopamine receptor. Computer-modeling techniques were used to estimate affinities and relative site densities for these heterogeneous binding states. This analysis indicates that the ratio of agonist affinities for low and high affinity agonist-binding states is correlated with agonist relative efficacies in activating adenylate cyclase in membrane homogenates. Under the assay conditions employed, the addition of saturating concentrations of guanine nucleotides reduced, but did not abolish, the relative density of high affinity agonist-binding sites. These binding data can, at least in part, be explained by postulating two states of the D1 dopamine receptor, inducible by agonists but not by antagonists and modulated by guanine nucleotides.

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The rats that were subjected to short-term hyperprolactinemia exhibited a decrease in leukocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, cellularity decrease in femoral marrow lavage fluid, a lower percentage of mucus, and an increase in lung IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ expression.

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Male rats showed maternal behaviour within 72 h after the onset of continuous exposure to newborn rat pups. The latency of the behavioural response could be reduced by daily treatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone (2 X 2.5 mg/rat), which increased serum prolactin concentrations (241.4 +/- 26.5 (S.E.M.) micrograms/l) above those of vehicle-treated males exposed to pups (25.3 +/- 11.7 micrograms/l). Male rats did not respond to exposure to pups by secreting prolactin; keeping endogenous prolactin concentrations at a minimum (2.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/l) by daily treatment with the dopamine receptor agonist bromocriptine (0.5 mg/rat) did not affect the behavioural response of male rats to newborn pups. Neither exposure to pups nor the modest hyperprolactinaemia induced by daily domperidone treatment affected the display of male sexual behaviour by male rats.

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The efficiency of Ovaprim™ salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and dopamine antagonist on the induction of spawning and spermiation in Prochilodus lineatus in comparison with the commonly used method using pituitary extract (PE) was evaluated. Females received PE at 0.5 + 5.0 mg/kg and Ovaprim™ at 0.05 + 0.45 ml/kg or at 0.125 + 0.375 ml/kg. All males received a first dose of PE at 0.4 mg/kg and then PE at 4.0 mg/kg or Ovaprim™ at 0.25 ml/kg. Oocyte, egg, larvae and sperm quality were evaluated. All females spawned and oocyte, egg and larvae quality were similar between Ovaprim™-treated (both doses) and PE-treated females. Data from females were pooled and the mean values were: 242 g ova weight, 15% ova index, 1209 oocytes/g ova, 284,539 oocytes/female, 183 oocytes/g body weight, 1.18 mm oocyte diameter, 49% fertilization rate, 43% hatching rate and 89% normal larvae. Sperm quality was similar between Ovaprim™-treated and PE-treated males. Data from males were pooled and the mean values of semen were: volume of 3.0 ml, 14.9 × 109 sperm/ml, osmolality of 283 mOsm/kg, pH of 7.4, 71% motile sperm, 217 μm/s curvilinear velocity, 102 μm/s straight-line velocity and 189 μm/s average path velocity. Ovaprim™ treatment can be used for commercial reproduction of P. lineatus, without any loss of gamete quality in comparison with PE treatment.

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The effects of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine were investigated on the duration of the action potential of embryonic chick sensory neurones in vitro. All three amines, like gamma-aminobutyric acid, decreased the duration of the action potential evoked by current injection. The onset of the noradrenaline-induced decrease in action potential duration was fast (less than 1s) and the recovery phase was dependent upon the dose of noradrenaline applied. Rapid washout of the noradrenaline revealed a minimum 30s recovery time which was independent of the initial noradrenaline concentration. Dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine could mimic the effects of noradrenaline on action potential duration. The ED50 for all three amines was approximately 1 microM. At a saturating concentration of 10 microM, noradrenaline was more potent than dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Saturating doses of noradrenaline and dopamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine were not additive. Responses to all three amines were affected similarly by antagonists: they were antagonized by yohimbine, phentolamine, haloperidol and mianserin but not by propranolol, prazosin, domperidone, spiperone or methysergide. Clonidine and xylazine (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists) were also without effect. In contrast to the amines, saturating concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid were additive with those of noradrenaline. Responses to GABA were not antagonized by the amine receptor antagonists. The evidence described here suggests that the amines and gamma-aminobutyric acid acid decrease sensory neurone action potential duration via pharmacologically-distinct membrane receptors. In addition, it is likely that the amines are acting via a single class of receptor whose pharmacology is different from classical adrenoceptors, dopamine receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors.

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Periodic breathing (PB) is an instability of the respiratory control system believed to be mediated principally by the peripheral chemoreceptors. We hypothesised that domperidone, a dopamine D(2)-receptor antagonist that increases carotid body sensitivity to O(2) and CO(2), would promote PB through an increase in the loop gain (LG) of the respiratory control system. Domperidone significantly increased controller gain for oxygen (p<0.05) and gave rise, following post-hyperventilation apnea, to an increased incidence of PB (14% vs. 86%), an increased PB epoch duration, and a decrease in duty ratio of PB (p<0.001); these changes are consistent with domperidone increasing LG. Although domperidone increased controller gain for CO(2) (p<0.05), the contribution of Pa(CO)(2) oscillations to the genesis of PB in the lamb remained small. We conclude that domperidone increases LG in the lamb via an increase in controller gain for oxygen. Our study demonstrates that a quantitative understanding of the factors that determine LG provides insight into the cause of PB.

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Gastroparesis is a disorder of gastric motility that results in delayed gastric emptying. Common symptoms include early satiety, postprandial fullness, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. The underlying etiologies of gastroparesis are many and include diabetes, prior gastric surgery, collagen vascular disorders, and a previous viral illness. Up to one third of cases are classified as idiopathic. Treatment typically consists of a change in diet to small volume, frequent meals and the use of the prokinetic agents metoclopramide, cisapride, erythromycin, or domperidone. Botulinum toxin has recently been shown to be effective in treating disorders of smooth muscle hypertonicity in the GI tract. This case report describes three patients with severe gastroparesis whose symptoms persisted despite dietary changes and the use of high dose prokinetic agents. All three were treated with intrasphincteric injection of the pylorus with botulinum toxin and all had significant symptomatic improvement afterwards. Possible mechanisms of action of botulinum toxin on the pylorus and its effects in patients with gastroparesis are discussed.

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Domperidone (prokinetic agent) is frequently co-administered with pioglitazone (anitidiabetic) or ondansetron (antiemetic) in gastroparesis management. These drugs are metabolized via cytochome P-450 (CYP) 3A4, raising the possibility of interaction and adverse reactions. The concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of pioglitazone and ondansetron on domperidone hydroxylation was monitored in pooled human liver microsomes (HLM). Pioglitazone was further assessed as a mechanism-based inhibitor. Microsomal binding was evaluated in our assessment. In HLM, Vmax/Km estimates for monohydroxy domperidone formation decreased in presence of pioglitazone. Diagnostic plots indicated that pioglitazone inhibited domperidone in a partial mixed-type manner. The in vitro Ki was 1.52 µM. Predicted in vivo AUCi/AUC ratio was 1.98. Pioglitazone also exerted time-dependent inhibition on the metabolism of domperidone and the average remaining enzymatic activity decreased significantly upon preincubation with pioglitazone over 0-40 min. Diagnostic plots showed no inhibitory effect of ondansetron on domperidone hydroxylation. 6. In conclusion, pioglitazone inhibited domperidone metabolism in vitro through different complex mechanisms. Our in vitro data predict that the co-administration of these drugs can potentially trigger an in vivo drug-drug interaction.

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To assess the effect of medication given for at least seven days to mothers of preterm infants whose breastmilk is insufficient for their infants' needs on the outcomes of expressed milk volume and duration of breastfeeding.

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Apomorphine antagonistic effects of a range of dopamine (DA) antagonists were studied after intracerebral and after peripheral injection. Inhibitory activity was found selectively within the ventral striatum with a D-1 antagonist (SCH 23390), D-2 antagonists (benzamides, butyrophenones) and mixed D-1/D-2 antagonists (thioxanthenes, phenothiazines), whereas alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, muscarinic- and serotonin S2-antagonists were ineffective. Great differences in absolute potencies and in peripheral versus intrastriatal potency ratios were observed. High peripheral versus central selectivity ratios and high intrastriatal potencies were found with the hydrophilic compounds (-)-sulpiride, veralipride and domperidone which do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier. High intrastriatal potency was also observed for the benzamide, YM 09151-2, haloperidol and spiroperidol although these compounds had lower peripheral versus intrastriatal selectivity ratios. Neuroleptic potency after intracerebral administration did not depend solely on DA receptor affinity but additionally on physicochemical properties. On the basis of the peripheral vs. intrastriatal potency ratios, it is concluded that only few of the neuroleptics tested in this study are suited for topographical studies of DA receptor function using intracerebral injection but that (-)-sulpiride is one example combining high potency, high central selectivity, high DA D-2 receptor specificity, stereoselectivity and long duration of action. The site-selectivity of apomorphine-antagonistic effects was further studied using (-)-sulpiride as a model compound. Inhibitory activity against oral stereotypy was preferentially found after injection into the ventral striatum, whereas the low-component patterns of apomorphine stereotypy (sniffing, rearing, motility) were blocked equally well in the ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

motilium syrup children

Obstructive sleep apnea; oximetry; sleepiness; domperidone; pseudoephedrine; pharmacotherapy; desaturation; treatment

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motilium drug interactions 2015-02-22

Lisuride is a soluble ergolene derivative with endocrine effects similar to but more potent than those of bromocriptine. In nine subjects with idiopathic, postencephalitic, or drug-induced parkinsonism, lisuride buy motilium at a dosage of 0.05 to 0.15 mg intravenously caused an immediate improvement in tremor, rigidity, akinesia, and postural deformity, but also caused chorea and orofacial dyskinesia. Improvement lasted 2 to 3 hours. Lisuride had little or no effect in a single patient with progressively supranuclear palsy. Oral lisuride therapy, 0.8 to 4.8 mg daily, had similar effects but occasionally caused reduced awareness and hallucinations.

medicine motilium m 2017-12-12

Apomorphine in combination with a buy motilium peripheral dopamine receptor blocker (domeperidone) was administered to four parkinsonian patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. The therapeutic efficacy of apomorphine was not reduced by domperidone, while nausea, drowsiness, sedation, and arterial hypotension were prevented. Combination of domperidone with dopamine agonists may result in more effective treatment of Parkinson's disease.

motilium 10mg dosage 2017-08-06

Key essential medicines for buy motilium children were less available in public hospitals than in private and ROS pharmacies. This deprives children from access to effective and safe medicines more in the public hospitals than in the private sector or ROS.

motilium medication use 2017-03-01

Seven studies were included in the review, involving 542 participants with FD (212 buy motilium males and 330 females). These studies generally had an unclear risk of bias based on inadequate descriptions of allocation concealment and a high risk of bias based on lack of blinding. None of the studies reported on outcomes of the Functional Digestive Disorder Quality of Life questionnaire (FDDQL), the Satisfaction With Dyspepsia Related Health scale (SODA), the Digestive Health Status Instrument (DHSI), or effective/inefficient rate and symptom recurrence six months from completion of acupuncture treatment.Four RCTs of acupuncture versus medications (cisapride, domperidone, and itopride) were included in the review. No statistically significant difference was noted in the reduction in FD symptom scores and the frequency of FD attack by manual acupuncture, manual-electroacupuncture, or electroacupuncture compared with medications. In three trials of acupuncture versus sham acupuncture, all descriptive or quantitative analysis results implied that acupuncture could improve FD symptom scores and scores on the Neck Disability Index (NDI), the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) more or as significantly as sham acupuncture. With regard to adverse effects, acupuncture was superior to cisapride treatment (one study; all minor events), but no statistically significant difference was reported between acupuncture and sham acupuncture. No adverse effects data were reported in studies examining manual acupuncture versus domperidone, manual-electroacupuncture versus domperidone, or electroacupuncture versus itopride.Nevertheless, all evidence was of low or very low quality. The body of evidence identified cannot yet permit a robust conclusion regarding the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for FD.

motilium pills 2017-06-11

To establish pentagastrin cytoprotection, the effectiveness of various doses of pentagastrin on ethanol induced gastric mucosal lesions buy motilium was investigated in Wistar rats. Significant protection was obtained only after parenteral pretreatment with the exception of the lowest dose (1 microgram/kg b.w.). Pentagastrin cytoprotection is not mediated either by a dopamine, muscarinic or gastrin/CCK receptor or by prostaglandin synthesis. However, the protective effect of pentagastrin is abolished by prior vagotomy, although this procedure alone or sham operation is ineffective to influencing control-ethanol lesions. In secretory studies pentagastrin increased both the volume of gastric juice and total acid output. Unlike cytoprotection, these were reversed by vagotomy, but also with atropine and problumide, whereas domperidone and indomethacin were ineffective.

motilium m dosage 2015-02-15

The therapeutic effect of turtle probing the buy motilium cave needling method on diabetic gastroparesis is significantly better than that of Mutilium.

motilium 30 mg 2016-10-23

In catastrophe situations ether is an important alternative to the usual anaesthetics being easy to manage buy motilium and economical. We wanted to study the effects of the new antiemetic Domperidone on vomiting after either anesthesia. Two groups of patients were anaesthetized for general surgical procedures by means of the EMO (Epstein-Macintosh-Oxford) Vaporizer. Half an hour before the end of the operation one group received 0.2 mg/kg domperidone while the randomized control group received no prophylactic antiemetic medication. The domperidone group showed better, statistically significant, results (p less than 0.05). Domperidone proved to have a good prophylactic antiemetic effect which does not cause side effects or circulatory alterations. In preparation for catastrophe situations ether anesthesia under improved conditions was again included in the regular training programme.

motilium order 2017-08-08

Rats subjected to activity-stress developed gastric lesions and showed excessive running activity with an increase of light/dark ratio. Daily treatment with centrally acting dopamine antagonists, SCH23390 [(R)-(+)-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3- benzazepin-7-ol] (0.1-10 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.1-10 mg/kg), sulpiride (32-320 mg buy motilium /kg), clozapine (1-100 mg/kg) and metoclopramide (1-100 mg/kg) suppressed the lesion formation: ID50 values were 0.9, 0.4, 53, 8.9 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. On the other hand, domperidone (1-100 mg/kg), a peripherally acting dopamine antagonist, failed to suppress the lesion formation and FR64822 [N-(4-pyridylcarbamoyl)amino 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine] (1-32 mg/kg), a central dopamine enhancer, aggravated it. The excessive running activity was reversed dose-dependently by treatment with haloperidol, a specific dopamine D2 antagonist, but not by SCH23390, a specific dopamine D1 antagonist. Conversely, the increased light/dark ratio was attenuated dose-dependently by SCH23390, but not by haloperidol. Neither antisecretory agents nor 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonists were effective against the lesion formation. These results suggest that an activation of central dopamine D1 and D2 receptors is responsible for the increased light/dark ratio and enhanced running activity, respectively, and that both of the changes are involved in the etiology of activity-stress induced lesions.

motilium m tab 2016-03-16

Electrical stimulation is delivered via an implanted system that consists of a neurostimulator and 2 leads. The surgical procedure can be performed via either an open or laparoscopic approach. An external programmer used by the physician can deliver instructions to the GES, i.e., adjust the rate and amplitude of stimulation (Figure 1). GES may be turned off by the physician at any time or may be removed. The battery life is approximately 4-5 years For treatment of GP, the GES leads are secured in the muscle of the lower stomach, 10 cm proximal to the pylorus (the opening from the stomach to the intestine), 1 cm apart and connected to an implantable battery-powered neurostimulator which is placed in a small pocket in the abdominal wall For treatment of morbid obesity, GES leads are implanted along buy motilium the lesser curvature of the stomach where the vagal nerve branches spread, approximately 8 cm proximal to the pylorus. However, the implant positioning of the leads has been variably reported in the literature.

buy motilium instants 2017-09-07

The diabetogenic effect of prolactin observed in patients with pathological hyperprolactinaemia was verified in healthy subjects. Plasma prolactin buy motilium elevation was induced by administration of a dopamine antagonist drug domperidone (Motilium 10 mg orally, 9 subjects) and 2 h later the oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The influence of dopamine receptor stimulation on glucose homeostasis was tested by dopamine infusion (0.3 mg in saline or 20% glucose, 1 g/min for 60 min, 11 subjects). After the blockade of dopamine receptors, a significant and prolonged increase of prolactin concentration was found. However, the levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide either before or after the glucose load were not different from control ones. The decreased number of insulin receptors (1.97 +/- 0.41 vs 0.51 +/- 0.14 pmol per 2.10(9) red blood cells) was compensated by increased affinity (0.51 +/- 0.17 vs 1.00 +/- 0.22 Ke 10(8) mol.-1 per l]) of insulin receptors. The stimulation of dopamine receptors showed a negligible effect on glucose regulation. It may be suggested that an endogenous increase of prolactin concentration in the physiological range does not participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects.

medicine motilium 10mg 2016-11-10

In this systematic review we present information relating to the buy motilium effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: domperidone, feed thickeners in infants, H(2) antagonists, head elevated sleep positioning, left lateral or prone sleep positioning, metoclopramide, proton pump inhibitors, sodium alginate, surgery, soy formula with added fibre, and weight loss.

motilium uk buy 2017-10-28

Compound azintamide greatly improved the symptoms of upper buy motilium abdominal distention, upper abdominal pain or discomfort and anorexia. All symptoms scores were significantly decreased after 2 weeks of compound azintamide (P < 0.01). The effective rate of each symptom and total symptoms score were more than 84.9% and 92.5%. One patient reported mild rash at the fourteenth days, which disappeared 3 days later.

motilium liquid dosage 2017-04-17

If domperidone causes significant changes to the nutrient content of breast milk, buy motilium an alteration in feeding practices for preterm infants may need to be made in order to optimize growth, nutrition and neurodevelopment outcomes.

buy motilium online 2015-07-10

Two dopamine receptors are present on the renal vasculature: post-synaptic D1-receptors and neuronal D2-receptors. The existence of postsynaptic vascular D2-receptors is now under discussion. The aim of this study was to characterize in vitro the renal vascular response to bromocriptine, a D2 preferential agonist. Bromocriptine (10(-7) to 3.10(-5) M) induced a concentration dependent relaxation (EC50 = 1.4 +/- 0.1 x 10(-6) M, m +/- SEM, n = 5) on the isolated perfused rat kidney whose vascular tone had been previously increased by 25% with prostaglandin F2 alpha and adrenoceptors blocked (phenoxybenzamine 10(-5) M, sotalol 10(-5) M). Response to bromocriptine was comparable to that induced by dopamine on terms of EC50 and Emax (87 +/- 3% reversion of the increase in renal vascular resistance induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha). Nevertheless, unlike response to dopamine, bromocriptine-induced relaxation was not antagonized by the selective D1-receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (3 x 10(-9) M) but was inhibited by selective D2-receptor antagonists, domperidone (10(-8) M) and DO 710 (3 x 10(-8) M). To account for renal vasodilatation, an interaction of bromocriptine with 5-HT receptors was excluded. Indeed, neither 8-OHDPAT, 5-methoxytryptamine nor 5-HT were able to induce any renal vasodilatation on the isolated perfused rat kidney and domperidone is devoid of antagonist activity on 5-HT receptors. The present results suggest that bromocriptine-induced vasodilatation on the rat renal vascular bed was linked to an Prograf Cost Price interaction with vascular postsynaptic D2-receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

motilium janssen syrup 2015-06-11

A subgroup of Chinese FD patients show overt nocturnal dyspeptic symptoms, which may be correlated with the excessive nocturnal duodenogastric bile reflux. Domperidone therapy can alleviate these symptoms Geodon Overdose Death .

motilium and alcohol 2017-10-11

The total effective Imitrex Drug Ingredients rate was 93.3% in the needling method group and 73.3% in the medication group, with a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). The needling method group in improvement of epigastric distention and pain, eructation, nausea and vomiting was better than the medication group.

motilium 500 mg 2015-12-05

Gastroesophageal reflux is very common in childhood. If conservative procedures fail to relieve it, the use of a potent antiemetic agent that facilitates gastric motility and emptying, such as domperidone, is justified. We report a 4-month-old child Naprosyn 125 Mg who presented with QT interval prolongation after the oral use of domperidone, which normalized after the drug was discontinued.

motilium medicine dosage 2017-09-03

Quantitative autoradiography was used to evaluate the pharmacological profile of dopamine D2-like receptors labeled by [125I]iodosulpiride. Caudate/putamen, a brain region associated primarily with dopamine D2 receptor mRNA, was used as a prototypical D2 tissue; cerebellar lobule X (D3 mRNA associated), as a D3 tissue. 7-OH-DPAT ((+/-)-2-dipropylamino-7-hydroxy-1, Flomax Daily Dosage 2,3,4- tetrahydronaphthalene) exhibited selectively for cerebellar receptors (24-fold), followed by quinpirole (6-fold). Haloperidol and domperidone were 4- and 18-fold more potent at striatal receptors, respectively. These data are in close agreement with that derived from dopamine D2 and D3 receptor-expressing cell lines.

motilium 10mg dose 2016-12-07

(+)-PHNO and the fluorinated analogs inhibited binding of Zantac Otc Dose [(3)H]domperidone and [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO to the high- and low-affinity states of dopamine D2 receptors, consistent with D2 agonist behavior. The average dissociation constant at the high-affinity state of D2, K(i)(High), was 0.4 nM for F-PHNO and proved to be equipotent with (+)-PHNO (0.7 nM). All other fluorinated derivatives were significantly less potent (K(i)(High)=2-102 nM). The most promising candidate, F-PHNO, was labeled with fluorine-18 in 5% uncorrected radiochemical yield, with respect to starting fluoride. Ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography studies in rodents revealed that [(18)F]F-PHNO rapidly enters the rodent brain. However, this radiotracer does not reveal specific binding in the brain and is rapidly cleared.

motilium alcohol 2016-09-30

Pergolide, a dopamine agonist effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan paw edema assay in rats at p.o. doses greater than or equal to 0.3 mg/kg. Studies were done to investigate the mechanism of action and to determine the pharmacologic significance of this finding. Because pergolide elevates circulating glucocorticoids, the effect of pergolide on carrageenan-induced paw swelling was assessed in adrenalectomized rats. Pergolide retained its anti-inflammatory activity in adrenalectomized carrageenan-injected rats, thus eliminating corticosterone induction as a possible mechanism of action. Pergolide treatment also did not decrease thromboxane B2, prostaglandin E2 or leukotriene B4 production, ruling out direct effects on arachnoid acid inflammatory mediators. Interactions with the autonomic nervous system were suggested, in that an alpha adrenergic agonist (clonidine) mimicked the activity of pergolide in the carrageenan assay, and an alpha adrenergic antagonist (phenoxybenzamine) blocked the anti-inflammatory activity of pergolide in this assay. Dopamine receptor antagonists (haloperidol or sulpiride) partially inhibited the effect of pergolide in the carrageenan model. However, the peripherally restricted dopamine antagonist, domperidone, was ineffective, suggesting that a central dopamine receptor was involved in the effect. Experiments in chronic inflammation models such as lipoidal-amine induced arthritis in rats and picryl chloride-induced delayed type hypersensitivity in mice also revealed an anti-inflammatory effect of pergolide. Activity in Tricor 48mg Tab the carrageenan system and the lipoidalamine model demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effects of pergolide were separable from potential immunosuppressive effects. Multiple dose studies indicated that tolerance might develop to the anti-inflammatory effect of pergolide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

90 mg motilium 2016-06-18

Subcutaneous apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, was given Zithromax Uses Medication by continuous infusion during the day or by repeated injections to 19 patients with Parkinson's disease disabled by severe on-off fluctuations. All patients were also given domperidone. The 11 patients treated by infusion showed marked and sustained improvement, and their mean duration of daily off periods over a period of 15 months fell by 6.3 h; similar results were obtained in 8 patients with less severe disabilities who were given repeated apomorphine injections. The therapeutic response to apomorphine was similar to that seen with intravenous levodopa; in patients treated by infusion the mean daily levodopa dose was reduced by 209 mg. These results confirm that during off periods dopamine receptors remain responsive to stimulation and provide evidence of a new, effective, and well-tolerated treatment for the most disabling complication of long-term levodopa therapy.

motilium 60 mg 2017-06-11

It was observed that from hydrophilic polymers the drug release was found to be faster compared to (F5 and F6 & F3 and F4) combination of hydrophilic and lipophilic polymers used in the study. Patches containing HPMC and Sodium CMC (F5 and F6) showed faster release as the patches showed maximum percentage amount moisture absorption. The in vitro release data was treated with kinetic equations and it followed Higuchi's diffusion Amoxil Drug Literature mechanism. The in vivo bioavailability study was performed in rats and observed that, drug reached to the peak in approximately 60 min (16%) after oral route of administration. However, approximately same amount of drug was found in the serum from transdermal formulation in 6 h and further increase in the amount of drug in the serum, indicated that the drug 5 bioavailability could be better and hence the hepatic metabolism can be avoided, as it is evident from the data. Further, the decrease in the amount of drug present in the serum 45 min after oral administration also indicated that major amount of drug might have got metabolized and the bioavailability is reduced. However, the transdermal patch released further amount of drug (33%) at the end of 24 h.

motilium domperidone dosage 2017-03-22

A sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic method coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of ambroxol in human plasma. Domperidone was used as internal standard, with plasma samples extracted using diethyl ether under basic condition. A centrifuged upper layer was then evaporated and reconstituted with 200 microl methanol. The reconstituted samples were injected into a C(18) XTerra MS column (2.1 x 30 mm) with 3.5 microm particle size. The analytical column lasted for at least 600 injections. The mobile phase was composed of 20 mM ammonium acetate in 90% acetonitrile (pH 8.8), with flow rate at 250 microl/min. The mass spectrometer was operated in positive ion mode using turbo electrospray ionization. Nitrogen was used as the nebulizer, curtain, collision, and auxiliary gases. Using MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, ambroxol was detected without severe interferences from plasma matrix. Ambroxol produced a protonated precursor ion ([M+H](+)) at m/z 379 and a corresponding product ion at m/z 264. And internal standard (domperidone) produced a protonated precursor ion ([M+H](+)) at m/z 426 and a corresponding product ion Arcoxia 750 Mg at m/z 174. Detection of ambroxol in human plasma was accurate and precise, with quantification limit at 0.2 ng/ml. This method has been successfully applied to a study of ambroxol in human specimens.

motilium suspension 2015-08-12

Domperidone and metoclopramide effectively Propecia Dosage Forms reduce the symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis; CNS side effects are more pronounced with metoclopramide.

motilium 10mg tablets 2017-12-23

Available evidence on the practice of acute pharmacological challenge tests in parkinsonian patients was reviewed by a committee of experts, which achieved a general consensus. The published data deal mainly with the acute administration of levodopa and apomorphine in Parkinson's disease. Such challenge may serve different purposes, e.g., research, diagnosis, or tailoring of treatment. Unique protocols describing the clinical setting and practice parameters are not available. The present paper describes the scientific background and supplies practical guidelines, whenever possible, to perform and evaluate acute challenge tests in parkinsonian syndromes. With the appropriate indication and setting, acute challenge tests are useful in diagnosis and therapy of Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

motilium buy canada 2016-10-31

Dopamine receptor modulation of noradrenaline release from renal sympathetic nerves was investigated. Human kidney slices were incubated with 3H-noradrenaline, placed into superfusion chambers between two platinum electrodes and field-stimulated at 5 Hz. The slices accumulated radioactivity. Pretreatment of the kidney slices with 6-hydroxy-dopamine (1.2 mM) prior to the 3H-noradrenaline incubation reduced the accumulation of radioactivity. The stimulation induced (S-I) outflow of radioactivity was mainly composed of intact 3H-noradrenaline. The sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 microM), 6-hydroxy-dopamine pretreatment and omission of calcium from the superfusion solution abolished S-I outflow of radioactivity. The DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam (SKF 82526; 0.01 and 0.1 microM) did not alter but fenoldopam (1 microM) increased S-I outflow of radioactivity. However, in the presence of either the non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (1 microM) or the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan (1 microM) fenoldopam (1 microM) had no effect. The DA2-receptor agonist quinpirole (LY 171555; 1 microM) inhibited S-I outflow of radioactivity, an effect blocked by the selective DA2-receptor antagonists S(-)-sulpiride (10 microM) and domperidone (0.3 microM) but unaltered either by the DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 microM) or by phentolamine (1 microM). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist UK 14304 (0.1 microM) inhibited S-I outflow of radioactivity, and this effect was blocked by phentolamine (1 microM) and idazoxan (1 microM) but unaltered by S(-)-sulpiride (10 microM). Phentolamine and idazoxan, in contrast to S(-)-sulpiride, domperidone and SCH 23390, enhanced S-I outflow of radioactivity by themselves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

order motilium online 2017-03-10

The major hypothalamic control over prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is inhibitory by means of dopamine released from tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurones. We have previously shown a dissociation between activity of TIDA neurones and prolactin secretion during late pregnancy, suggesting involvement of additional regulatory factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of dopamine and the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the pituitary in the regulation of prolactin secretion during late pregnancy. To determine whether dopamine maintains inhibition of prolactin during late pregnancy, the D(2) receptor antagonist domperidone was administered at 12.00 h on days 18 and 21 of pregnancy. These times are characterized by high and low TIDA neuronal activity, respectively, and low prolactin secretion. Domperidone produced an immediate increase in plasma prolactin compared to vehicle-treated controls on both days 18 and 21. Thus, dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin secretion is maintained despite reduced TIDA neuronal activity at the end of pregnancy. The contribution of NIL-derived dopamine in regulating prolactin secretion was then examined by investigating the effect of surgical removal of the NIL. NIL removal produced significantly increased basal prolactin concentrations, indicating that dopamine from the NIL contributes to the suppression of prolactin before the antepartum prolactin surge. Furthermore, NIL removal also completely prevented the antepartum prolactin surge compared to sham-operated controls, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the NIL supplies a prolactin-releasing factor to the anterior pituitary to induce the antepartum prolactin surge.

motilium recommended dosage 2017-04-12

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupressure, acupuncture, antihistamines, corticosteroids, corticotrophins, diazepam, dietary interventions other than ginger, domperidone, ginger, metoclopramide, ondansetron, phenothiazines, and pyridoxine (vitamin B6).