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This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov of the National Institute of Health on 22 October 2013 (http://NCT01973010).
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Cutaneous surgery is performed by otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologic surgeons, and some primary care physicians. Practice gaps exist among cutaneous surgeons, as do differences in how different physicians approach preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative decision-making.
Dual cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase (COX/LOX) inhibitors constitute a valuable alternative to classical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. A series of 3-(5-phenyl/phenylamino-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl)-chromen-2-one and N-[5-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-[1,3,4]oxadiazol-2-yl]-benzamide derivatives were synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity. All the derivatives prepared are active in inhibiting oedema induced by carrageenan. Compound 4e was found more potent with 89% of inhibition followed by compound 4b (86%). Compounds with >70% of anti-inflammatory activity were tested for analgesic, ulcerogenic, and lipid peroxidation profile. Selected compounds were also evaluated for inhibition of COXs (COX-1 and COX-2) and LOXs (LOX-5, LOX-12, and LOX-15). Compound 4e was comparatively selective for COX-2, LOX-5, and LOX-15. Study revealed that these derivatives were more effective than ibuprofen with reduced side effects. It can be suggested that these derivatives could be used to develop more potent and safer NSAIDs.
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Only 27 boys and 18 girls were exposed to NSAIDs and most of them were also exposed to paracetamol. This makes it impossible to distinguish between exposures to NSAIDs alone and a potential mixture effect. Moreover, use of mild analgesics was self-reported up to 2 months after intake, which could have caused misclassification of exposure but is probably not associated with AGD as this was unknown to the women at time of reply to the questionnaire thereby underestimating the association. Confounding by indication may also explain our findings, as the condition for which the analgesic was taken may be associated with a reduction in AGD, rather than the use of the analgesic medication. This is the first study to report such an association in humans and further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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In neonates, paracetamol is mainly used for its analgesic action. This drug is actually preferred by neonatologists because of its broad therapeutic index. Recently, it has been demonstrated that paracetamol is also an anti-cyclooxygenase (COX) medication through its inhibitory action on the peroxidase arm of central and peripheral COX (Boutaud et al., 2002; Toussaint et al., 2010; Graham et al., 2013; Hinz et al., 2008; Hinz and Brune, 2011). As such, this drug interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins. This inhibition of peroxidase is, however, limited to a low concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) (around 2μM, in vitro) when the plasmatic concentration of paracetamol is experimentally 10μM, actually within the same range as compared to the therapeutic concentrations in vivo. This may partly explain its low anti-inflammatory effect as compared to ibuprofen and indomethacin, which exert their inhibition on COX whatever the AA concentrations are. This new well-demonstrated action of paracetamol on peripheral COX-2 of intact cells could explain recent observations making this drug a potential alternative in treating patent ductus arteriosus. However, the higher dosages that have been claimed by some authors in this indication still remain to be validated. This inhibition that paracetamol shows on the physiological synthesis of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) could also explain some long-term immune deviations because the physiological concentration of PGE2 is a well-known actor in the genesis of immune homeostasis in the submucosal area. Indeed, recent epidemiology studies have pointed out immune deviations in children repeatedly exposed to paracetamol earlier in life. Consequently, this is actually the new discovery of an old drug. From these new data on paracetamol, a more focused pharmacovigilance on the long-term effects of paracetamol repeatedly given in the early stage should be urgently initiated.
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Switzerland offers the opportunity to compare three different regions with respect to management of febrile children. This inquiry shows regional differences in symptomatic fever management and in the perceived frequency of exaggerated fear of fever. The gap between available evidence and clinical practice is more pronounced in the French and in the Italian speaking regions than in the German speaking region.
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The aim of this study is to compare the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of a pre-emptive/post-surgery 4-day regimen of oral ibuprofen 400 mg with that of lornoxicam 8 mg.
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The perception of pain by patients taking ibuprofen and acetaminophen at pre/post appliance placement was not different from patients taking placebo. No time-related differences in PGE2 level were found between the groups and no significant correlation was found between the perception of pain and PGE2 levels.
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The alpha-adrenergic antagonist tamsulosin hydrochloride has become an increasingly common adjunct in the treatment of ureteral calculi; however, its efficacy in a general emergency department (ED) population has not been investigated.
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The molecular-scale self-assembly of a 3D aluminosiloxane (Al-O-Si) hybrid gel network was successfully performed via the cocondensation of hydrolyzed alumina (AlOOH) and (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APS). It was transformed into a microspherical aerogel framework of Al-O-Si containing mesochannels with tunable hierarchically bimodal meso/macroporosities by a subcritical drying technique. Good homogeneity of AlOOH and APS brought during the synthesis guaranteed a uniform distribution of two metal oxides in a single body. A systematic characterization of the aerogel support was carried out using FTIR, SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, WAXS, SAXS, and ξ-potential measurement in order to explore the material for drug uptake and release. The drug loading and release capacity and chemical stability of an aluminosiloxane aerogel were studied using two nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, ibuprofen and aspirin. A comprehensive evaluation of the aluminosiloxane aerogel with ordered mesoporous MCM-41 was also performed. Aerogel supports showed a high drug loading capacity and a pH-responsive controlled-release property compared to MCM-41. Meanwhile, kinetic modeling studies indicate that the drug releases with a zero-order profile following the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The biocompatibility of aluminosiloxane aerogels was established via ex vivo and in vivo studies. We also outline the use of aluminosiloxane aerogel as a support for a possible 3D matrix for an osteoconductive structure for bone tissue engineering.
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Although neurodevelopmental outcomes related to the management of patent ductus arteriosus with intravenous indomethacin and ibuprofen are known, little data on the long-term effects of oral ibuprofen can be found in the literature.
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Six studies, enrolling 915 participants, are included.Compared to giving a single antipyretic alone, giving combined paracetamol and ibuprofen to febrile children can result in a lower mean temperature at one hour after treatment (MD -0.27 °Celsius, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.08, two trials, 163 participants, moderate quality evidence). If no further antipyretics are given, combined treatment probably also results in a lower mean temperature at four hours (MD -0.70 °Celsius, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.35, two trials, 196 participants, moderate quality evidence), and in fewer children remaining or becoming febrile for at least four hours after treatment (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.42, two trials, 196 participants, moderate quality evidence). Only one trial assessed a measure of child discomfort (fever associated symptoms at 24 hours and 48 hours), but did not find a significant difference in this measure between the treatment regimens (one trial, 156 participants, evidence quality not graded).In practice, caregivers are often advised to initially give a single agent (paracetamol or ibuprofen), and then give a further dose of the alternative if the child's fever fails to resolve or recurs. Giving alternating treatment in this way may result in a lower mean temperature at one hour after the second dose (MD -0.60 °Celsius, 95% CI -0.94 to -0.26, two trials, 78 participants, low quality evidence), and may also result in fewer children remaining or becoming febrile for up to three hours after it is given (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.55, two trials, 109 participants, low quality evidence). One trial assessed child discomfort (mean pain scores at 24, 48 and 72 hours), finding that these mean scores were lower, with alternating therapy, despite fewer doses of antipyretic being given overall (one trial, 480 participants, low quality evidence)Only one small trial compared alternating therapy with combined therapy. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean temperature, or the number of febrile children at one, four or six hours (one trial, 40 participants, very low quality evidence).There were no serious adverse events in the trials that were directly attributed to the medications used.
In the early drug discovery process, metabolic stability and cytochrome P450 inhibition are often used as an early selection tool to identify useful compounds for further development. The reliability of the data in this process is therefore crucial. In the present study, in vitro enzyme kinetic data were used to predict the in vivo clearance and drug-drug interaction potential of four well known CYP2C9 substrates (tolbutamide, fluvastatin, ibuprofen and diclofenac) that are frequently used as benchmark substances in screening programs. Quantitative predictions of hepatic clearance using the well stirred prediction model and CL(int) calculated from enzyme kinetic measurements were not useful. Including and excluding protein binding resulted in under- and overestimation, respectively, of in vivo clearance. The only predicted in vivo clearance that fell into the range of reported measured values was for fluvastatin when protein binding was not included. In an open, randomized, seven-armed, crossover study in healthy volunteers, tolbutamide, ibuprofen, and fluvastatin were investigated as inhibitors of the metabolism of diclofenac, and vice versa. None of the combinations was found to interact with each other in vivo. The in vitro drug-drug interaction potential was investigated by K(i) determinations of the same combinations. In contrast to clearance predictions, the interaction potential in vivo was best predicted when plasma protein binding was included in the various models used. This study points to the uncertainty in calculating in vivo kinetics from in vitro enzyme kinetic data. The in vitro metabolic screening can thus be questioned as a compound selection tool without a proven in vitro-in vivo correlation.
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A combined analysis of several high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments allowed the investigation of the structural and dynamic properties of the pure drugs and of the solid dispersions with the polymer, as well as of the degree of mixing between drug and polymer and of the chemical nature of their interaction. Such information could be related to the in vitro drug release profiles observed for the tested co-evaporates.
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Cases of nerve compression caused by a hematoma should be analyzed on the basis of the severity of the neurologic deficit and not on the underlying cause of bleeding. Conservative treatment may be indicated in cases of mild or improving neurologic deficit, but regardless of its etiology, a hematoma that results in severe or worsening neurologic symptoms must be surgically evacuated to prevent permanent nerve damage.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however, moderate and about equivalent to low dose ibuprofen. The concurrent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors greatly increases the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
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In primary care, NSAIDs represent a substantial percentage of the drugs prescribed (5.6%). Ibuprofen is the most commonly prescribed. NSAIDs are more frequently used in women between 14-45 years. Musculo-skeletal pain is the main indication for prescription. Only 14% of patients receiving these drugs had previously measured levels of serum creatinine. These values are rarely taken into account when prescribing NSAIDs. Control of renal function after NSAID prescription was unusual.
We performed this surgery in two female patients. The first patient had a low ureterovaginal fistula after abdominal hysterectomy. We performed a laparoscopic extravesical neoureterocystostomy by the refluxing technique. The second patient had a lower-third ureteral stricture. We performed a laparoscopic extravesical neoureterocystostomy with detrusorrhaphy and supported it with a psoas hitch.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of renal adverse effects caused by ibuprofen or indomethacin in order to choose the safer drug to administer to preterm infants.
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The median postnatal age at the start of pharmacological PDA treatment was 4 days. 102 infants had secondary PDA surgery. Timing of PDA treatment was not associated with risk of PDA surgery or death; adjusted HRs were 0.89 (95% CI 0.57-1.39) after an intermediate start and 1.10 (95% CI 0.53-2.28) after a late start, compared to an early start of treatment. Compared to the early start of PDA treatment, the intermediate start was not associated with any risk of BPD, while late PDA treatment was associated with a lower BPD risk; adjusted ORs were 0.83 (95% CI 0.42-1.64) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.13-0.61), respectively.
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Nine-month, multicenter (11 study centers in Poland), randomised, double-blind, phase III study, conducted in two parallel group, included 345 women between the ages of 18 and 35, suffering from primary dysmenorrhoea with presence of moderate to severe pain in each of the last 3 cycles. Patients had regular menstrual cycles and used an adequate barrier contraception method with a negative pregnancy test before randomization. Patients were given 80 mg drotaverine or 400 mg ibuprofen and asked to assess the pain intensity rated on a 4 point categorical scale (0--none, 1--mild, 2--moderate, 3--severe) at baseline and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after the first intake and evaluate the efficacy (excellent, good, fair, poor) at the end of the treatment period. They were also asked to asses the tolerance of the medication (excellent, good, fair, poor).
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The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of different skin permeability of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers.
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Each child was randomly assigned to receive a single dose of acetaminophen (10 mg/kg), ibuprofen (7.5 or 10 mg/kg), or placebo.
In the current paradigm for molecular imprinting, the imprinted binding sites exist as a consequence of the polymerization process around templates, and the properties of nonimprinted polymers (NIPs) have largely been overlooked. Thus, nothing can be affirmed a priori concerning the binding properties of NIPs. We propose an alternative view where the imprinting effect is due to the presence of a template molecule that enhances the pre-existing binding properties of a polymer. If a NIP shows no binding properties toward a target molecule, the corresponding imprinted polymer (MIP) will show a weak imprinting effect. On the other hand, if a NIP shows binding properties toward a target molecule, the corresponding MIP will show a significant imprinting effect. To verify this hypothesis, we prepared a 96-member combinatorial polymeric library in the absence of any template molecule. This library was screened for several potential ligands, and with no exceptions, the composition of the best-binding NIP produced a MIP with excellent binding properties, whereas a low-binding NIP formulation produced a MIP with comparable low binding. To validate these results, the binding properties toward naproxen and ibuprofen were measured for two combinatorial libraries of polymers prepared in the presence (MIP library) and the absence (NIP library) of the template molecule. The experiment's results showed a correlation between the apparent affinity constants measured for the NIP and MIP libraries, confirming the proposed hypothesis. Moreover, for closely related molecules, it was shown that binding selectivity is an emergent property derived from the imprinting process and not a property of NIPs.
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A prospective, multisite longitudinal cohort study in the context of a learning-collaborative model was performed in three midwestern EDs. Each site formed a multidisciplinary team charged with improving analgesic management for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Each team developed a nurse-initiated analgesic protocol for SCD patients (implemented after a baseline data collection period of 3.5 months at one site and 10 months at the other two sites). All sites prospectively enrolled adults with an acute pain crisis and SCD. All medical records for patients meeting study criteria were reviewed. Demographic, health services, and analgesic management data were abstracted, including ED visit frequency data, ED disposition, arrival and discharge pain score, and name and route of initial analgesic administered. Ten interviews per quarter per site were conducted with patients within 14 days of their ED discharge, and subjects were queried about the highest level of pain acceptable at discharge. The primary outcome variable was the time to initial analgesic administration. Variable data were described as means and standard deviations (SDs) or medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) for nonnormal data.
Ceftriaxone exerts antihyperalgesia/antinociception in both somatic and visceral inflammatory pain. Its efficacy is higher after a 7-day pretreatment than after acute administration. The two-drug combinations of ceftriaxone and the nonsteroidal analgesics/levetiracetam have synergistic interactions in both pain models. These results suggest that ceftriaxone, particularly in combinations with ibuprofen, celecoxib, paracetamol, or levetiracetam, may provide useful approach to the clinical treatment of inflammation-related pain.
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Indomethacin modifies baseline cerebral haemodynamics and metabolism, as well as vasomotor adaptive responses. However, the significance of arachidonic acid metabolites in the regulation of cerebral circulation remains unclear. A study was made of the effect of inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway on baseline cerebral haemodynamics and CO2-induced vasodilation using the more specific cyclo-oxygenase blocker ibuprofen in a neonatal pig model. Two methods were used: radiolabelled microspheres to measure cerebral blood flow and near infrared spectroscopy to calculate absolute changes in cerebral blood volume. The relationship between CO2-induced changes in these two haemodynamic parameters was evaluated. Fifteen newborn piglets <7 d old received an i.v. infusion of either ibuprofen (30 mg/kg) (IB group, n = 8) or saline (control group, n = 7). Cerebral blood flow and absolute changes in cerebral blood volume were measured while the piglets were breathing room air at baseline and 30 min after infusion of ibuprofen or saline, and 15 min and 30 min after inducing hypercarbia. Global and regional cerebral blood flow (ml/hg/min) and absolute changes in cerebral blood volume (ml/hg) did not vary between baseline and 30 min after infusion of ibuprofen or saline. During hypercarbia, global and regional cerebral blood flow and absolute changes in cerebral blood volume increased significantly in both the ibuprofen and control groups (p < 0.01). The mean percentage increases in blood flow and blood volume at each measurement were almost identical, with approximately 90% of the increase in both parameters occurring after 15 min of hypercarbia, then reaching a plateau. However, we found no agreement between cerebral blood flow changes and absolute changes in cerebral blood volume. We conclude that ibuprofen did not alter either baseline cerebral circulation or physiological CO2-induced vasodilation in newborn pigs. We speculate that hypercarbic cerebral vasodilation could be caused either by mediators other than the cyclo-oxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid or by a direct effect on vessel walls.
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In this double-blind, placebo- and active comparator-controlled, parallel-group study, patients experiencing moderate or severe pain after the surgical extraction of > or = 2 third molars, at least 1 of which was a mandibular impaction, were randomized to receive placebo, rofecoxib 50 mg, or codeine 60 mg/acetaminophen 600 mg. Patient evaluations of pain intensity, pain relief, and global assessments were recorded throughout the 24-hour period after dosing. The 2-stopwatch method was used to determine time to confirmed perceptible pain relief. The primary end point assessing overall analgesic effect was total pain relief over 6 hours (TOPAR6). Secondary end points were patient global assessment of response to therapy (PGART) at 6 hours, onset of analgesia, peak analgesic effect, and duration of analgesia.
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TMJ pain with function, pain-free, and voluntary maximum mouth opening, Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire and masticatory muscle tenderness were performed after a one week washout and at Day 90. Acetaminophen (500 mg) dispensed for breakthrough pain was counted every 30 days to Day 120.
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Stereoselective pharmacokinetic measurements of the active enantiomer, S-ibuprofen, were correlated with clinical response in 45 participants in a randomized double blinded 4 week comparison of ibuprofen, 1200 or 2400 mg/day, for treatment of hip or knee osteoarthritis. Ibuprofen dose correlated with S-ibuprofen area under the serum concentration curve (AUC), trough and average concentration, but not with clinical outcome. AUC of S-ibuprofen correlated with improvement in disability, rest pain and in the physician's global assessment (p = 0.02, 0.08, and 0.10, respectively), and negatively with the subject's weight and creatinine clearance (p = 0.09 and 0.07, respectively). Some individual variation in responsiveness to ibuprofen (and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs) may be attributed to pharmacokinetic differences.