Fifty percent of patients with migraine were prescribed daily prophylactic medicines, reflecting a referral bias. The most commonly prescribed agents were amitriptyline (preferred for the older patients) and cyproheptadine (preferred for the younger patients). The overall positive response rates were 89% for amitriptyline and 83% for cyproheptadine during a 6-month follow-up. Headache frequencies were reduced with amitriptyline by 62% and with cyproheptadine by 55%. Long-term follow-up of this population is ongoing, and prospective studies are needed.
generic periactin 4mg
On the basis of low dose inhaled corticosteroid, orally administered Loratadine significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of asthma in patients with allergic asthma and rhinitis.
Adults with symptomatic SAR were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive desloratadine, 5 mg, or placebo for 14 days. Patient-rated SAR symptoms were recorded twice daily (morning and evening). On days 1 and 15, SAR symptoms were scored jointly (investigator and patient), nasal airflow was measured using 4-phase rhinomanometry, and QOL and the overall condition of SAR were rated. Overall treatment response was scored on day 15. Adverse events were recorded.
periactin online pharmacy
Delirium status of surgical patients was evaluated postoperatively at the time of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM-ICU) scale. Patients without delirium were assigned to the cyproheptadine or placebo group based on the simple randomization method. Patients received cyproheptadine or placebo tablet at a dose of 4 mg 3 times per day for 7 days. Patients were monitored daily for incidence of delirium.
periactin 2 mg
Breastfeeding women may suffer from migraine. While we have many drugs for its treatment and prophylaxis, the majority are poorly studied in breastfeeding women. We conducted a review of the most common anti-migraine drugs (AMDs) and we determined their lactation risk.
periactin pills online
A patient with active Cushing's disease who became pregnant following treatment with cyproheptadine is described. Despite stopping the cyproheptadine treatment at 3 mth gestation, the previous amelioration of the clinical and biochemical features of the adrenal hyperfunction was maintained and the pregnancy progressed satisfactorily. Moreover, serial evaluation of maternal glucose tolerance proved to be normal and it is suggested that this matabolic aspect is an important determinant in the outcome of pregnancies occurring in patients with Cushing's syndrome.
periactin drug interactions
This double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, 2-phase, multicenter study was designed primarily to compare the therapeutic responses to loratadine and fexofenadine in patients who failed initial therapy with the other drug.
periactin 150 mg
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two serotonergic receptor antagonists on the contractile responses mediated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in isolated canine coronary arteries. After removing the endothelium and blocking neuronal uptake with cocaine, the coronary artery contracted when exposed to nanomolar concentrations of 5-HT; at micromolar concentrations the amine caused relaxation. A relatively high concentration of the selective S2-serotonergic antagonist, ketanserin (10(-6) M), attenuated peak contractions caused by 5-HT by an average of only 52% and caused no significant change in sensitivity to the amine. In contrast, the antagonist behaved competitively in the canine femoral artery. Cyproheptadine (10(-6) M) also was a noncompetitive serotonergic antagonist in the coronary artery. The relatively nonselective S1- and S2-serotonergic receptor antagonist, methiothepin, competitively antagonized coronary contractions caused by 5-HT with an estimated pA2 of 8.0. The rightward shifts of coronary serotonergic contractions caused by methiothepin were not significantly different whether or not ketanserin (10(-6) M) was present in the assay to block S2-serotonergic receptors. Unlike ketanserin, methiothepin (10(-6) M) nearly abolished coronary artery contractions caused by aggregating platelets. These results indicate that serotonergic coronary contractions are resistant to S2-serotonergic blockade, and suggest that they are mediated at least in part by receptors which are different from the S2-serotonergic subtype.
In 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 25 new molecular entities (NMEs), 23 of which are for therapeutic use and two are diagnostic agents. Eleven of the NMEs for therapeutic use, as well a new biological agent intended for therapeutic use, were both approved and marketed in the United States in 1993. In addition, 11 other NMEs that the FDA approved before 1993 (most in late 1992) were marketed during the year. Thus, a total of 23 therapeutic agents reached the U.S. market for the first time in 1993, a considerably lower number than the 30 new therapeutic agents marketed in 1992 and the record number 31 new agents marketed in 1991. Many of the 13 therapeutic agents approved in 1993 but not marketed before the end of the year have become available in early 1994. Of the 23 new therapeutic agents first marketed in 1993, 22 are considered in this series. The one agent not reviewed is flosequinan, which was withdrawn from the market after being available only several months because of a concern about toxicity. This review considers the new agents' most important properties and, when possible, compares them with other available agents with similar properties. When additional information is needed, more comprehensive references and the product literature should be consulted.
periactin 4 mg
The effect of intracisternal injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on small intestinal transit of a charcoal bolus was investigated in 14-, 21-, 28- and 35-day-old and adult rats. Intracisternal TRH (15 micrograms in 2 microliters) was administered, and transit (distance traveled by the charcoal) was measured 120 min later. In all age groups, intracisternal TRH increased charcoal transit significantly (P less than 0.05) as compared to saline-treated controls. This increase in transit was not mimicked by intravascular TRH, and it was blocked in all age groups by prior intraperitoneal injection of atropine (2 micrograms/g body weight). Vagotomy blocked TRH-induced increases in small intestine transit in rats of 28 days and older. Prior intraperitoneal injection of the antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine (1 microgram/g body weight) reduced TRH-induced increases in small intestine transit in all age groups. These results demonstrate that centrally administered TRH stimulates small intestine transit through both cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms in rats as early as 14 days of age.
periactin buy uk
periactin 2mg tablets
The symptoms of allergic rhinitis vary in severity over the course of the day and often are worse in the morning. This review focuses on data from clinical studies of the antihistamine desloratadine to establish whether it effectively controls the morning symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Studies of desloratadine in patients with allergic rhinitis that used instantaneous scoring to assess the severity of morning symptoms were selected for inclusion from published literature (peer-reviewed articles and abstracts presented at professional meetings). When administered once daily, desloratadine is effective in alleviating the morning symptoms of allergic rhinitis, including nasal congestion. Its action is sustained over the 24-hour dosing interval. A comparison of morning and evening dosing of desloratadine revealed equivalent relief of morning symptoms, illustrating that the effect of desloratadine is independent of the time of dosing. Clinical studies indicate that desloratadine is nonsedating and well tolerated, with no evidence of adverse cardiac effects. For many patients with allergic rhinitis, symptoms are most severe in the morning. To maximize the benefits for patients, pharmacologic agents used in the management of allergic rhinitis should be effective in controlling these peak morning symptoms. The sustained 24-hour action of desloratadine and its effective control of morning symptoms make it a valuable tool for improving the quality of life of patients with allergic rhinitis.
periactin vita tablets
The Pp.Cr on application (0.01-5.0 mg/ml) to isolated rabbit jejunum preparation exhibited relaxation through decrease in magnitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The Pp.Cr also exerted a relaxant (0.01-5.0 mg/ml) effect on K+ (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations and caused shifting of the Ca2+ curves (1.0-3.0 mg/ml) toward right in a manner similar to that of verapamil (3 μM), possibly suggesting presence of Ca2+ channel blocking activity. Subsequently, Pp.Cr in a concentration-dependent fashion (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) caused relaxation of CCh (1 μM) and K+ (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit tracheal preparations in a manner comparable to that of dicyclomine, suggesting that the observed relaxant effect is likely to be mediated through antimuscarinic and/or Ca2+ channel blocking activities. Moreover, when evaluated against isolated rabbit aortic preparations, the Pp.Cr in concentrations up to 10 mg/ml exhibited a contractile response that was found to be abolished subsequent to pretreatment of isolated tissue preparation with cyproheptadine (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), and losartan (1 μM), suggesting that Pp.Cr may have some α-adrenergic, muscarinic, serotonergic, and angiotensin II activities.
periactin liquid medication
Rats were trained to discriminate intraperitoneally administered mescaline from saline in a two-lever operant chamber for food reinforcement. Reward was contingent upon responses made greater than 15 sec apart (DRL-15) on the appropriate lever paired with either drug or saline administration. Following the establishment of discriminative response control by mescaline, the animals were tested for stimulus generalization produced by mescaline after: (a) blockade of periphreral and central serotonin (5-HT) receptors with cinanserin, methysergide, or cyproheptadine; (b) blockade of peripheral 5-HT receptors with xylamidine tosylate; and (c) depletion of brain 5-HT with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). The results show that all three central 5-HT antagonists greatly reduced the discriminability of mescaline while the peripheral antagonist, xylamidine tosylate, was without effect. Furthermore, these agents at the doses employed did not effect the discriminability of saline. Depletion of 5-HT with PCPA potentiated the effects of a sub-threshold dose of mescaline and slightly reduced the discriminability of saline. The results indicate that mescaline produces its discriminative stimulus properties by directly stimulating central serotonergic receptors.
periactin overdose symptoms
Thus, our study shows that the biogenic amines play a significant role in C. procera latex-induced inflammation and antihistaminic drugs could be effectively used to inhibit inflammatory response elicited by exposure to latex.
periactin buy online
A series of compounds with actions on the central nervous system was tested for antagonism of clonidine-induced sleep in chicks and clonidine-induced mydriasis in rats for the purpose of evaluating these methods as tests for demonstrating an in vivo alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking effect of a novel compound. Clonidine-induced mydriasis was found to be the most selective method. The order of potency for compounds fully antagonizing clonidine-induced mydriasis was MSD 26 greater than physostigmine = idazoxan greater than aptazapine greater than piperoxan greater than yohimbine greater than mianserin greater than tolazoline. Partial antagonism was found for quipazine and sulpiride. Misleading results can arise from the involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the control of the pupil diameter. The order of potency for compounds antagonizing clonidine-induced sleep in chicks was apomorphine greater than yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than aptazapine = MSD 26 greater than quipazine greater than methysergide greater than piperoxan = mianserin = bepridil = metergoline = cyproheptadine = desipramine greater than tolazoline greater than dexchlorpheniramine, although antagonism was not complete for all of these compounds. Misleading results can arise from effects on arousal of the chicks but cholinergic mechanisms do not play a disturbing role so that the method with chicks can be a useful supplement to the mydriasis method. The enantiomers of mianserin and of a compound related to mianserin, Org 3770, were tested in the 2 methods and the alpha 2-blocking effect of these compounds was found to be residing in the S(+)-enantiomers.
periactin overdose treatment
The data presented show that along with acid-peptic aggression an important role in pathogenesis of stress ulceration in the stomach and duodenum belongs to energy and immune deficiency which makes the correction of these alterations necessary. The timely and valuable conservative therapy including histamine H2-receptor blocking agents in addition to antacids and endoscopic electrocoagulation in case of profuse bleeding from stress ulcers allows to obtain hemostasis and healing of the ulcers more than in 90% of cases. When choosing the surgical method of treatment the preference should be given to atraumatic organ-preserving operations.
Studies by the method of splenic exocolonies with serotonin receptor blockers methysergide and cyproheptadine showed that S2 receptors are involved in the stimulatory effect of serotonin on hemopoietic bone marrow stem cells.
periactin 12 mg
A 14.7 year-old boy had almost complete suppression of growth as a result of mild pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. There was complete clinical remission during treatment with cyproheptadine (12 mg/day) and this was maintained when treatment was stopped after 18 months.
periactin drug class
The guinea-pig ileum longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparation, preincubated with 3H-choline or 3H-noradrenaline, was mounted in an organ bath and superfused with Tyrode's solution. Alaproclate (2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl 2-aminopropanoate) (0.01-0.5 mmol/l) reduced (IC50 = 0.1 mmol/l) and at about 0.5 mmol/l completely blocked the electrically evoked 3H-acetylcholine secretion. The depressing effect of alaproclate (0.2 mmol/l) was not counteracted by atropine (0.01, 1 or 10 mumol/l), hexamethonium (0.1 mmol/l), phentolamine (1 mumol/l) yohimbine (1 mumol/l), haloperidol (1 mumol/l), 8-phenyltheophylline (10 mumol/l), cyproheptadine (1 mumol/l), metitepine (1 mumol/l), bicuculline (10 mumol/l), picrotoxinin (0.1 mmol/l), forskolin (25 mumol/l), 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (5 mmol/l), nifedipine (1 mumol/l), verapamil (1 mumol/l), dilitiazem (1 mumol/l), high calcium (6 mmol/l), high potassium (10 or 15 mmol/l), tetraethylammonium (2 mmol/l), 4-aminopyridine (0.5 mmol/l), apamin (0.5 mumol/l), barium (0.5 mmol/l) or quinine (0.1 mmol/l). Among the potassium channel blockers tested only quinine (at 0.5 or 1 mmol/l), in the same manner as lidocaine, reduced the evoked secretion of 3H-acetylcholine. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the effect of alaproclate on the evoked 3H-acetylcholine secretion is not mediated by a neurotransmitter receptor, or a potassium channel sensitive to tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine, apamin, or barium or quinine, but is due to a local anaesthetic effect. In contrast to the evoked secretion, the spontaneous release of 3H-acetylcholine was enhanced by high concentrations of alaproclate (0.4-1 mmol/l). The mechanism underlying the effect of alaproclate on the spontaneous release remains to be established. Alaproclate (0.25 or 0.5 mmol/l) also enhanced the spontaneous release and reduced the electrically evoked 3H-noradrenaline secretion.
Nonsedating antihistamines (nsAHs) are recommended as first-line therapeutics for the treatment of mast cell-driven disorders, including allergic rhinitis and urticaria. However, their superiority over first-generation AHs (fgAHs) has recently been called into question, mainly because of the lack of supporting head-to-head therapeutic studies.
This was a retrospective open-label study conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cyproheptadine in children with refractory upper gastrointestinal symptoms (eg, nausea, early satiety, vomiting, retching after fundoplication, abdominal pain). Response was graded as resolution if symptoms resolved and medication was discontinued, as significant improvement if symptoms resolved with no further interventions, and as failure with any other outcome.
Fenfluramine, an anorectic used in the treatment of obesity, in a final concentration of 1 mM strongly inhibited both phases of insulin release by the perfused rat pancreas. Insulin secretion resumed promptly after cessation of the drug infusion. This concentration of the drug markedly increased glucagon output. The blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors and the use of antiserotonin agents did not alter the inhibitory effect of fenfluramine on insulin secretion. It is concluded that in the perfused rat pancreas 1 mM fenfluramine acutely inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion and potentiates glucagon output. The direct effect of fenfluramine on insulin secretion is not related to alpha-adrenergic activity, nor is it mediated by serotonin.
The effect of intestinal anaphylaxis on goblet cell mucus release was tested in rats immunized with small doses of egg albumin and alum and challenged intraduodenally with antigen. The alteration in vascular and mucosal permeability which accompanies intestinal anaphylaxis was reflected by increased retention of 125I-labelled rat serum albumin in gut wall segments and increased amounts of protein-bound radioactivity in the intestinal secretion from the segments. Intestinal goblet cell mucus was labelled in vivo with 35S. Infusion of antigen, into the duodenum of actively immunized rats led to the appearance of 35S-labelled high molecular weight glycoprotein, presumably of goblet cell origin, in the intestinal secretions. Goblet cell mucus release was dependent on the dose of antigen infused, was antigen-specific and was inhibited by pretreatment of rats with cyproheptidine. Enhanced release of goblet cell mucus was observed in normal rats prepared by intravenous injection of rat antiserum rich in IgE anti-egg albumin antibodies and challenged by intraduodenal infusion of antigen. Prior heating of the antiserum inhibited passive transfer of the reaction; this finding is consistent with the heat lability of IgE antibodies. The latter class of antibodies are presumed to be responsible for intestinal anaphylaxis and its associated mucus release in the model system examined.
A rapid HPLC procedure for analytical quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing the antihistaminic drug substance loratadine and/or its analog desloratadine (which is also an active metabolite of loratadine) was developed using a microemulsion as the eluent. The separation was performed on a column packed with cyanopropyl bonded stationary phase adopting UV detection at 247 nm using a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The optimized microemulsion mobile phase consisted of 0.1M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 1% octanol, 10% n-propanol and 0.3% triethylamine in 0.02 M phosphoric acid, pH 3.0. The developed method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, lower limit of quantification, lower limit of detection, precision and accuracy. With the proposed method satisfactory resolution between loratadine and desloratadine (resolution factor=3.85). The method requires a minimum of sample handling and is rapid (10 min), and reproducible (R.S.D.<2.0%). The mean recoveries of the analytes in pharmaceutical preparations were in agreement with those obtained from a reference method, as revealed by statistical analysis of the obtained results using the Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test. Pseudoephedrine, the co-formulated drug substance, did not interference with the assay and was successfully separated using the developed HPLC method.
Mizolastine is a nonsedating H1 histamine receptor antagonist with additional antiallergic properties currently marketed in Europe for the treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) and urticaria.