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Persantine (Dipyridamole)

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Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants. Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Other names for this medication:

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Argatroban, Plavix, Salagen, Arixtra


Also known as:  Dipyridamole.


Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants.

Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Persantine is also known as Dipyridamole.

Generic name of Generic Persantine is Dipyridamole.

Brand name of Generic Persantine is Persantine.


You can take Generic Persantine with or without food.

The recommended Generic Persantine dose is 75-100 mg four times daily.

Try to take this Generic Persantine at the same time each day.

Do not store in the bathroom.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Persantine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Persantine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Persantine overdosage: warm feeling, flushes, sweating, restlessness, weakness, dizziness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Persantine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Persantine if you are allergic to Generic Persantine components.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have unstable angina.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have had recently sustained myocardial infarction or hypotension.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you use anticoagulants ("blood thinners"), aspirin, valproic acid.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Persantine taking suddenly.

persantine medication classification

Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was used to assess the peak filling rate (PFR) in 20 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Dipyridamole RNV was used in 5 normal subjects and 10 patients with CAD with the view to evaluating PFR increase. Significant difference in PFR values was established between normal subjects and CAD patients. Decreased value of PFR was found in 78% CAD patients, and 72% of them had normal ejection fraction (EF). During dipyridamole RNV increase of PFR was not significantly different between normals and CAD patients. The peak filling rate is a very sensitive indicator of LV dysfunction in CAD patients, and is useful in early detection of abnormalities in diastolic function in CAD patients.

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A different rate and timing of subacute stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention was reported with various peri-interventional antithrombotic regimens. Next to platelet activation, coagulation triggered by tissue factor (TF) may play a key role in this process. Thirty-one consecutive patients with stable and unstable angina undergoing coronary stenting were randomly assigned to adjunct oral anticoagulation/anti-platelet therapy (coumadin, dipyridamole, aspirin and heparin; n = 16) or adjunct anti-platelet therapy with thienopyridin (ticlopidine, aspirin and heparin; n = 15). Antigen levels of plasma TF, total tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and TFPI/ activated factor X (TFPI/FXa) complex were determined before and for up to 6 days after intervention by immunoassay. At baseline, significantly higher levels of plasma TF and TFPI/FXa were found in patients with unstable angina [TF, 161 pg/ml (126-191 pg/ml); TFPI/FXa, 7.8 ng/ml (6.1-9.6 ng/ml)] compared with stable angina [TF, 62 pg/ml (46-82 pg/ml), P < 0.0001; TFPI/FXa, 4.5 ng/ml (3-7.6 ng/ml), P= 0.003]. One hour after intervention, an increase of plasma TF and TFPI/FXa was seen in both treatment groups. In unstable angina patients, plasma levels of TF, TFPI and TFPI/FXa were more efficiently reduced by adjunct ticlopidine therapy compared with adjunct coumadin/dipyridamole. These data suggest reduced release of circulating TF by combined anti-platelet therapy with ticlopidine and aspirin after coronary artery stenting, which may-contribute to the lower incidence of subacute stent thrombosis previously observed.

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This study demonstrates that preserved synchronous ventricular activation with RVOT pacing prevents the long-term deleterious effects of RVA pacing on myocardial perfusion and function in patients implanted with a permanent pacemaker.

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Labelled adenine, noradrenaline (NA), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were taken up by the transversely cut hippocampal slice. [3H]NA and [14C]GABA were retained as such, [3H]- (or [14C]-) adenine mainly as adenine nucleotides. There was a spontaneous overflow of all three types of compounds ranging from 0.1 (GABA) to 0.21 (NA) %/min. The rate of [3H]NA overflow increased rapidly during electrical field stimulation. The release rate was well maintained over a 15-min period. The rate of [14C]GABA release also increased rapidly but it was not maintained over a 15-min period even if uptake and/or metabolism was inhibited by nipecotic acid (1 mM) and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, 0.1 mM). The bulk of the purines was released after the stimulation period. For all compounds the amounts released were frequency- and calcium-dependent. At a frequency of 3 Hz a 10 V stimulation was sufficient to cause a maximal [3H]NA release and 20 V to cause maximal [14C]GABA release, but 14C-purine release was increased further by increasing the voltage to 40 V. The evoked purine release was inhibited by a nucleoside uptake inhibitor (dipyridamole). On stimulation of [3H]NA-labelled slices the released radioactivity was composed of greater than 95% unchanged NA. The specific activities of NA in the slice and in the superfusate were practically identical. In [3H]adenine-labelled slices the released radioactivity was composed of adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine, but the activity in the slice of ATP, ADP, and AMP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The Persantine Aspirin Trial is a double-blind multi-centered cooperative study focusing primarily on the question of whether the administration of the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole (Persantine) will result in a greater reduction of cerebral or retinal infarction or death than the administration of aspirin alone. Fifteen centers in the United States and Canada are participating. More than 750 individuals with a history of recent carotid territory transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) have been admitted over the past four years and randomly allocated to either aspirin (325 mg) plus placebo four times daily or aspirin (325 mg) plus Persantine (75 mg) four times daily. It is anticipated that the study will continue through 1983. Analysis and publication of results are planned for 1984.

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The effect of dipyridamole on proteinuria was studied in 60 children with various renal diseases. A significant decrease in 24-hour urine protein excretion was observed within a few months after treatment in 32 (53%) of the patients with minimal or moderate mesangial proliferation. The effect was reproducible and parallelled by a reduction in plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin. Renal function in patients significantly improved with the therapeutical effect. The appropriate dosage was 4-10 mg/kg daily and no serious toxicity was seen despite large dosage and even in long-term application. The data suggest that dipyridamole treatment appears safe and has a beneficial effect on proteinuria dependent on its effect on platelets in renal disease.

persantine drug classification

With platelet activation, there is modulation of platelet surface molecule expression. In flow cytometric analyses of in vivo platelet activation, results are often confounded by activation induced in vitro by the preparative procedures. It is particularly important therefore to prevent or retard platelet activation as soon as possible after withdrawal of the blood sample. Taking blood into paraformaldehyde, or fixing the cells with paraformaldehyde as soon as possible after withdrawal, has been employed to prevent platelet activation in vitro, but paraformaldehyde-fixed platelets cannot be further used in functional studies. We investigated the efficacy of Diatube-H, a commercially available combination of platelet antagonists (theophylline, adenosine, and dipyridamole), in preventing or retarding platelet activation in vitro, along with its effects on modulation of platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) and adhesion molecules. In contrast to blood taken into EDTA, blood taken into Diatube-H vacutainer tubes could be stored at room temperature for up to 4 hr prior to paraformaldehyde fixation without significant in vitro platelet activation, as measured by CD62P, CD63 and modulation of GPIb and GPIIbIIIa surface expression. Hence, paraformaldehyde fixation could be deferred for several hours, permitting transport of samples from distant sites. Studies of thrombin-induced platelet activation indicated that platelets taken into Diatube-H remained functional i.e. were able to be activated. Expression of the CD29, CD49b and CD31 adhesion molecules on the platelet surface was unaffected by storage in Diatube-H. The results suggest that Diatube-H may be a useful reagent for flow cytometric studies of platelets when the samples cannot be processed immediately.

persantine 25 mg

The first patient was a 17-year-old boy with septic arthritis; the second patient was a 12-year-old boy with a liver abscess. Both had hemocultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus. The diagnosis of DIC was defined by clinical signs of septicemia with fever, tachypnea, peripheral vasoconstriction, and low platelet counts (67,000/mm3 and 47,000/mm3, respectively). The second patient also presented with acute ischemia of the fingers and toes. General care was provided in the intensive care unit, and high doses of antibiotics were provided continuously (metronidazole and oxacillin or ceftriaxone). A 5% glucose solution containing dipyridamole (Persantine; Istituto De Angeli/Boheringer Ingelheim, Reggello, Italy) was administered by continuous intravenous infusion (20 mg/24 hours). In addition, regular heparin (Liquemin; Roche, Indianapolis, IN, USA) was administered at a dosage of 250 microg/kg per hour or 25 IU/kg per hour (6 mg/kg per 24 hours). These heparin doses are not able to promote complete blood anticoagulation. Treatment with heparin and dipyridamole was maintained for 10 days in the first patient and for 18 days in the second.

persantine oral dose

Although off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been recognized less invasive than conventional CABG on cardiopulmonary bypass, off-pump CABG may be partly invasive especially to the coronary endothelium. The present study was designed to evaluate the adverse effects of coronary snaring with looped sutures and gas insufflation on the coronary endothelium. The protective efficacies on the coronary endothelium of coronary snaring with elastic sutures or humidified gas insufflation with/without heparin and dipyridamole-added were also tested.

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The influence of blood withdrawal (vacuum or slow aspiration) and anticoagulants (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]; heparin; citrate; a mixture of citrate, theophylline, adenosine, and dipyridamole [CTAD]; and D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone [PPACK]) on clotting activity, hematologic data, and rheologic measurements (whole blood and plasma viscosity, red cell filtration in one study) were investigated. No difference was found between the two blood withdrawal techniques on the basis of the affected measurements. EDTA appeared to be the best anticoagulant with regard to blood cell preservation and showed the lowest whole blood viscosity over a wide range of shear rates (0.1 to 87.0 sec-1). PPACK was the most potent inhibitor of clotting activity as monitored by fibrinopeptide A concentration. The results suggest that EDTA is probably a reasonable choice for rheologic studies of whole blood and should be combined with PPACK when plasma properties are studied.

persantine 75 mg

Two hundred and thirty-six consecutive patients had GMPS at rest and post-stress. The summed stress and rest scores and the summed difference score (SDS) were calculated using a 17-segment model analysis of GMPS. An SDS >3 indicated significant ischaemia. The REF and SEF were automatically generated and the DEF (SEF-REF) was calculated.

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To determine the prognostic value of the high-dose (0.84 mg/kg over a 10-minute period) dipyridamole echocardiography test (DET) after a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in comparison with clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and angiographic variables, follow-up data over an average period of 16 months were obtained in 93 consecutive patients. There were 41 total cardiac events (TCE): one death, two reinfarctions, 13 postinfarction anginas, five percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures, and 20 coronary artery bypass graft procedures. TCE without revascularization procedures were considered adverse cardiac events (ACE). The DET result was positive in 28 of 41 patients with TCE and in only 4 of 52 patients without TCE (p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positive DET in predicting TCE were 68%, 92%, and 82%, respectively. According to Cox's proportional regression model the best predictor of TCE was positivity of DET (p = 0.002, relative risk ratio 4.3), followed by multivessel coronary artery disease (p = 0.018, relative risk ratio 2.9) and patent infarct-related artery (p = 0.042, relative risk ratio 2.9). DET was positive in 12 of 16 patients with ACE and 20 of 77 patients without ACE (p = 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of DET in predicting ACE were 75%, 74%, and 74%, respectively. According to Cox's proportional regression model significant predictors of ACE were positivity of DET (p = 0.002, relative risk ratio 29.4) and ejection fraction < or = 40% at the time of DET (p = 0.017, relative risk ratio 22.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The assay of residual adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity was used as a sensitive measure of the transport of deoxycoformycin (dCF) into human erythrocytes. Contrary to prior reports from this laboratory, the inactivation of intraerythrocytic ADA by dCF was linear rather than log-linear, with time. Linear inactivation rates were also seen when erythrocytes were preloaded with a 5-fold excess of calf intestinal ADA. The uptake of tritium-labeled dCF molecules and the rate of inactivation of ADA molecules showed an approximate 1:1 stoichiometry. The nucleoside transport inhibitors, 6-[(4-nitrobenzyl)thio]-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine (NBMPR) and dipyridamole, and the permeant, uridine, inhibited dCF transport with Ki values of 35 nM, 45 nM, and 340 microM respectively. The affinity of dCF for the nucleoside transporter was low with a Ki of approximately 10 mM for the inhibition of adenosine influx.

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The myocardial uptake kinetics of 14(R,S)-[18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) were evaluated in humans with PET. The relationship between human myocardial FTHA uptake kinetics and the rate-pressure product (RPP) as an index of myocardial oxygen consumption was investigated in seven normal subjects under fasting conditions.

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The scintigraphic studies showed perfusion defects in 13 patients (87 percent) after dipyridamole and in 15 patients (100 percent) after adenosine. 201Tl uptake and clearance were quantitated in nine myocardial segments and in four extracardiac segments in each patient. 201Tl uptake was not significantly different between adenosine and dipyridamole studies in most cardiac regions. Extracardiac 201Tl uptake was significantly less in the liver and splanchnic regions following adenosine compared with dipyridamole. 201Tl clearance was not significantly different following adenosine and dipyridamole except in the anterolateral region in the anterior view. Hemodynamic changes following administration of intravenous adenosine and oral dipyridamole were not significantly different. Adverse effects were more common with adenosine than with dipyridamole. Adverse effects with adenosine were transient; however, adverse effects with dipyridamole were prolonged and required reversal with aminophylline in 2 patients. No patients required termination of the adenosine infusion or administration of aminophylline.

persantine dose

Adenosine or its synthetic analogues were topically applied to the intestinal jejunum while steady-state blood flow was calculated in submucosal arterioles using video microscopy. Blood flow increased (220 or 130% of control) with the serosal application of 10(-6) M N-ethyl carboxamido adenosine (NECA, A2-selective agonist) or 2-chloro adenosine (2CA, nonselective agonist) but not with cyclohexyl adenosine (CHA, A1-selective agonist). The nonselective competitive antagonist, 8-phenyl theophylline, attenuated the response evoked by NECA. The mucosal application of 10(-6) M CHA caused blood flow decreases (81% of control), but neither NECA nor 2CA evoked a response. These observations suggest a mucosal diffusion barrier, so the concentrations of the analogues were raised one hundredfold. Serosal 10(-4) M CHA or NECA caused blood flow increases, but the effects were negligible with mucosal application, suggesting that the mucosa was indeed impermeable to these compounds. The responses evoked by 10(-4) M 2CA were similar on the serosa or mucosa (200-220% of control), submaximal (maximum = 400% of control at 10(-3) M), and not antagonized by 8-phenyl theophylline or by the cellular uptake inhibitor, nitrobenzyl-6-thio guanosine. In context with earlier studies, greater than 10(-6) M 2CA probably evokes vasodilation that is not entirely mediated by extracellular receptors. Serosal adenosine (10(-4) M) caused submaximal blood flow increases (200% of control) that were not potentiated by nitrobenzyl-6-thio guanosine or another transport inhibitor, dipyridamole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Pharmacological stress echo is feasible even very early after acute myocardial infarction via a useful approach based on low-dose dobutamine to assess myocardial viability, and high-dose dipyridamole to assess ischemia. For risk stratification purposes, stress-induced myocardial ischemia outperforms resting function and myocardial viability, and it is independent of angiographic data. Revascularization procedures do not seem to be effective when only viability is present.

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Twenty-four patients (17 males, 7 females; mean age 57+/-11 years) with IDC were consecutively enrolled. After obtaining clinical and hemodynamic stabilization, transthoracic echocardiography was performed including CFR measurement and carvedilol therapy was initiated with 3.125 mg twice daily and titrated to a target dose of 25 mg twice daily. Twenty-three patients reached the target dose in a mean of 11+/-3 weeks. The mean duration of carvedilol therapy was 19+/-3 weeks, after which echocardiography was repeated and findings were recorded at baseline and after dipyridamole infusion. Clinical and echocardiographic findings were compared with those of 23 age- and sex-matched patients (13 males, 10 females; mean age 55+/-4 years) with atypical chest pain.

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The relative performance of alternative stressors for stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well established.

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Twenty-one patients with angiographic evidence of significant coronary artery disease, and positive dipyridamole echocardiographic test results at basal condition and after 7 days of placebo treatment were prospectively studied to see whether beta blockade modifies the effects of dipyridamole echocardiographic testing on regional myocardial contractility. Patients were randomized to propranolol (120 mg/day) or placebo treatment in 3 divided doses for 7 days, after which each patient crossed over to the alternate regimen. Dipyridamole-echocardiographic testing was repeated at the end of each treatment. Propranolol abolished new mechanical signs of transient dipyridamole-induced ischemia (new wall motion abnormalities or an increase in degree of basal asynergies, or both) in 13 of 21 patients. The remaining 8 patients had positive results on dipyridamole echocardiographic testing after the propranolol treatment period. At basal conditions both heart rate and rate-pressure product were significantly reduced with propranolol; there was also a significant decrease in these parameters at peak dipyridamole infusion. At peak dipyridamole infusion heart rate and rate-pressure product were significantly lower in patients with negative than in those with positive echocardiographic test results after propranolol. Our data show that administration of beta blockade significantly reduces the development of transient dipyridamole-induced myocardial asynergies, the earliest markers of acute myocardial ischemia, detected with 2-dimensional echocardiography.

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Thirty eight patients (34 males, 4 females, mean age 59 +/- 2 years), with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting for a total of 42 mammary artery grafts, were studied by means of color Doppler echocardiography at baseline and after vasodilation with dipyridamole infusion (0.56 mg/kg i.v. over 4 min). The evaluated echocardiographic parameters included: systolic (SPV) and diastolic peak velocities (DPV), systolic (SVI) and diastolic velocity-time integrals (DVI), and the DPV/SPV and DVI/SVI ratios. We also calculated the dipyridamole infusion to baseline ratio of the diastolic peak velocities (DPVdip/DPVbaseline), the index of internal mammary artery graft blood flow reserve and the percent DPV increment as an index of graft stenosis.

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Ninety patients with old myocardial infarction were studied to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous dipyridamole 201Tl imaging for the detection of myocardial ischaemia in post-infarction patients, and to compare the prevalence of ischaemia in 63 patients with post-infarction angina (group I) and 27 patients without angina (group II). Thirty-four of the patients in group I and 15 of the patients in group II received coronary arteriography (CAG) for comparison; these were labelled groups IA and IIA, respectively. On 201Tl imaging, the incidence of scar with ischaemia in the infarct zone and scar with ischaemia at a distance were 72% and 42% in all patients, 89% and 52% in group I vs 33% and 19% in group II (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). On CAG testing, the rates of infarct-related recanalization vessel and multi-vessel disease were 76% and 68% in group IA vs 40% and 40% in group IIA (P < 0.05 and P > 0.05, respectively). Thus, dipyridamole 201Tl imaging is a useful modality and post-infarction angina a proper indicator in the detection of myocardial ischaemia in post-infarction patients

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The ability to continuously monitor the delicate balance between blood flow and oxygen consumption would be a great asset in the study of myocardial ischemia. The present study was performed, in anesthetized dogs, to validate the use of encased polargraphic oxygen electrodes in the study of myocardial ischemia. Polargraphic oxygen electrodes were placed in the area to be rendered ischemic at fixed tissue depths of 3 mm (epicardium) and 9 mm (endocardium). Endocardial and epicardial oxygen tensions as well as the ratio of endocardial to epicardial oxygen tension and left circumflex coronary flow were monitored. Ischemia was induced by decreasing left circumflex coronary flow by 50%. Upon completion of a 20-min poststenotic period, endocardial pO2, endocardial/epicardial ratio, and coronary flow were significantly decreased (59 +/- 7, 52 +/- 7, and 55 +/- 4%, respectively) whereas epicardial pO2 was slightly decreased. Nitroglycerin (10 micrograms/kg, i.v.) markedly increased endocardial pO2 and endocardial/epicardial ratio above poststenotic control (13 +/- 5 mmHg and 64 +/- 10%, respectively) whereas epicardial pO2 was not significantly decreased. The increases in endocardial pO2 occurred at a point where coronary flow and mean arterial pressure were not significantly changed. Conversely, dipyridamole (125 micrograms/kg, i.v.) significantly increased coronary flow (26 +/- 2 ml/min/100 g) although it did not appreciably alter endocardial or epicardial pO2. It is concluded that encased polargraphic oxygen electrodes provide a quantitative method for determination of oxygen tension in the ischemic myocardium.

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A review of the literature disclosed 106 pregnancies (preg.) in 57 women with essential thrombocythemia (ET). The success rate (baby alive) was 57% (60 live births/106 preg.), the rate of miscarriage 43% (46 miscarriages/106 preg.). The most frequent complication was spontaneous abortion during the first trimester in 36% (38 abortions/106 preg.). Other complications such as intrauterine death and stillbirth after the 28th week, which occurred in 5% (7/106), premature delivery in 8% (8/106), pre-eclampsia in 4% (4/106), and fetal growth retardation in 4% (4/106) were rarer events. Placental infarction due to thrombosis seems to be the most consistent pathological event as far as the fetus is concerned. Maternal hemorrhage occurred in 4% (3 minor and 1 major bleeding) and only 2 minor maternal thrombotic episodes have been observed. Interestingly, a decline in platelet count has been observed in 14 women and was associated with a successful preg, in 13/14 cases (93%). Aspirin (ASS) was the most frequently used drug in 47 of 93 recorded cases (51%). In 16 evaluable women treated with ASS the live birth rate was higher (12/16 preg., 75%) than for 21 untreated women (9/21 preg., 43%). In 5 cases interferon alpha (IFN) has been used successfully. In summary, 57% of women with ET had a live birth, maternal complications happened in 6%. Promising treatment modalities might be ASS and IFN. However, no definitive answer can be given on the ideal management for women with ET during pregnancy. A European register should be set up.

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Pharmacologic stress testing with 0.56 mg/kg of intravenous dipyridamole is frequently used to noninvasively detect coronary artery disease (CAD). However, high-dose dipyridamole (0.80 mg/kg) or the combination of standard-dose dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) with the isometric handgrip maneuver might evoke a greater coronary hyperemic response.

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persantine cost 2016-08-04

Serum dipyridamole levels were measured in 27 patients undergoing planar thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy after receiving a 300 mg oral dose. Mean serum dipyridamole level was 2.9 +/- 1.6 mcg/ml (range 0.2-5.7). No correlation was found between serum level and symptoms, heart rate or blood pressure response, peak heart to lung thallium activity ratio, peak heart to buy persantine liver thallium activity ratio, or peak myocardial thallium washout. Serum level following a single oral dose of dipyridamole is unpredictable and patients with low drug levels cannot be easily identified at the time of study.

persantine tablets 2016-07-13

The diagnostic significance of dipyridamole-provoked chest pain was studied in 17 children with severe coronary arterial stenotic lesions (CAL) complicated with Kawasaki disease. Although dipyridamole induced chest pain in seven patients (symptomatic group), 10 reported no pain (asymptomatic group). In the asymptomatic group, seven children had one vessel disease (1 VD) of right coronary artery (RCA) and the other three had two vessel disease (2 VD) involving the RCA and left anterior descending artery (LAD). Four multivessel disease patients, one three vessel disease (3VD) and three 2VD of LAD and RCA, and three 1VD of LAD, were symptomatic. In the thallium scans, all patients, except two of the asymptomatic group, showed perfusion abnormalities. In addition, the extent score of the symptomatic group was significantly worse than that of the asymptomatic group (P = 0.01). While only one in six of the asymptomatic group showed abnormal ST depression on treadmill exercise electrocardiography, all patients in the symptomatic group (P = 0.02) showed ischemic ST depression. These findings suggest that the occurrence of chest pain after medication with dipyridamole buy persantine closely correlates with the severity of CAL in children.

persantine 50 mg 2016-12-09

Heat-sensitive immunoliposomes are capable of releasing the entrapped content at the target cell surface upon a brief heating to the phase transition temperature of the liposome membrane. In this study we have examined the delivery efficiency of drugs entrapped in heat-sensitive immunoliposomes. Immunoliposomes composed of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine with entrapped [3H]uridine were incubated with target cells at 4 degrees C. The cell-liposome mixture was then heated to 41 degrees C and the uptake of [3H]uridine into the intracellular buy persantine pool of phosphorylated uridine-containing molecules was measured. The immunoliposomes showed maximal release of the uridine at 41 degrees C, the phase transition temperature of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine liposomes. The largest accumulation of [3H]uridine in the target cells also took place at 41 degrees C. The initial level of uptake of [3H]uridine released from immunoliposomes by heating was greatly enhanced over that observed for free [3H]uridine and [3H]uridine released from liposomes without attached antibody. The nucleoside uptake inhibitors nitrothiobenzylinosine, dipyridamole, and unlabeled uridine were able to inhibit uptake of [3H]uridine released from immunoliposomes. This supports the hypothesis that the enhanced uptake is due to a heat-induced release of [3H]uridine at the cell surface followed by transport and phosphorylation of [3H]uridine by the target cells. These results indicate the feasibility of using the heat-sensitive immunoliposomes as a target-specific drug delivery system.

persantine dose calculation 2016-07-21

A summary is given of buy persantine the properties of dipyridamole and of the trials at the time this article was written that indicate its potential efficacy in the therapy of glomerulonephritides.

persantine generic name 2016-09-16

We analyzed myocardial flow reserve (MFR) in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without symptoms buy persantine and signs of ischemia.

persantine 75 mg 2017-05-01

Dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is often performed in patients unable to exercise because of peripheral vascular disease. Many of these patients are taking pentoxifylline (Trental), a methylxanthine derivative which may improve intermittent claudication. Whether pentoxifylline inhibits dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia like other methylxanthines such as theophylline and should be stopped prior to dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the hyperemic response to dipyridamole buy persantine in seven open-chest anesthetized dogs after pretreatment with either pentoxifylline (0, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg i.v.) or theophylline (3 mg/kg i.v.). Baseline circumflex coronary blood flows did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Dipyridamole significantly increased coronary blood flow before and after 7.5 or 15 mm/kg i.v. pentoxifylline (p less than 0.002). Neither dose of pentoxifylline significantly decreased the dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, while peak coronary blood flow was significantly lower after theophylline (p less than 0.01). We conclude that pentoxyifylline does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia even at high doses.

persantine drugs 2015-08-16

A new method for the determination of dipyridamole in serum for concentrations between 10 and 100 ng ml-1 by means of matrix isopotential synchronous fluorescence spectrometry and derivative techniques is proposed. This new method is useful for the determination of compounds in samples with unknown background fluorescence, such as dipyridamole in serum, without the need for tedious preseparation. The determination was performed in an ethanol/water medium (15% v/v) at a pH value of 10.0, provided by adding an ammonium chloride/ammonia buffer solution. Since dipyridamole is a stimulant which is very much used like a doping substance in sport, the method was successfully applied to the determination of dipyridamole in serum. Better sensitivity and repeatability are achieved for these matrices than with the fluorometric ones described in the literature. An exhaustive statistical analysis has been developed for all calibration graphs. This treatment includes robust regression such as least median of squares which also detects outliers and leverage points. The overall least-squares regression has been applied to find the buy persantine more exact straight line which fits the experimental data. The error propagation has been considered to calculate the detection limit, determination limit, and the repeatability of the method.

persantine generic 2016-10-03

Ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound derived from garlic, synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin and dypiridamole. For collagen-induced platelet aggregation in human PRP, the ID50 for ajoene is 95 +/- 5 microM. However, in the presence of the antiaggregatory drugs mentioned above, the ID50 for ajoene decreases more than what would be predicted on the basis of simple additive effects. Similarly, the ID50 for prostacyclin decreases from 1 nM to 0.15 nM in the presence of 80 microM ajoene. Isobolic curves for the various combinations of ajoene with prostacyclin or indomethacin exhibit departure from linearity, as predicted for a potentiated synergism buy persantine between ajoene and these drugs. Dypiridamole, which in PRP has very little effect on the dose-response curve for ajoene, when assayed in whole blood decreases the ID50 for ajoene by a factor of four. These results demonstrate that the antithrombotic potential of ajoene is substantially increased in the presence of physiologically and pharmacologically active antiplatelet agents.

persantine drug class 2017-01-02

We studied the 1455 patients with ischemic stroke in the Glycine Antagonist (Gavestinel) in Neuroprotection (GAIN buy persantine ) International Trial. BP management was at the discretion of investigators and was measured at 0, 0.5, 4, 12, 12.25, 60, and 60.25 hours. Outcome was assessed by mortality, Barthel Index (dead or 0 to 55 versus 60 to 90 versus > or =95), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (dead or > or =2), and Rankin Scale (dead or > or =2). Cox proportional-hazards and stepwise logistic regression modeling corrected for demography, medical history, stroke severity, and clinical subtype.

persantine 25 mg 2017-09-11

Analysis of high-frequency QRS complex envelope has been suggested as a method that could detect myocardial ischemia but the characteristics buy persantine of the turbulence spectral from an spectral-temporal mapping into the QRS complex has not been studied yet. This is a prospective study of phase I for the validation of a new diagnostic test.

persantine brand name 2016-09-07

Aggrenox (Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany), a novel combination of low-dose aspirin with dipyridamole, represents a safe and promising combination alternative for mild but sustained platelet inhibition, and reduction of both arterial and venous thrombi occurrences. In a large, well-controlled randomized trial (ESPS-2 ) evaluating antiplatelet agents for stroke prevention, Aggrenox was twice as effective as monotherapy with either aspirin or dipyridamole. There is an increasing body of evidence that a delicate strategy with Aggrenox provides modest inhibition of platelet activity, especially in a chronic, long-term setting. Mild platelet inhibition beyond conventional aggregation may represent a substantial advantage over aggressive antiplatelet regimens for the treatment, and especially for secondary prevention, of cerebrovascular ischemic events. Although there is no doubt that the concept of inhibiting platelets is vital for the treatment of vascular ischemic disease in general and ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack ( buy persantine TIA) in particular, the optimal degree of such inhibition still remains an unsolved mystery. It seems that the concepts of "the more, the better" and "one size fits all" may no longer be valid for ideal antiplatelet protection in such high-risk populations. Without routine individual laboratory assessment of platelet function, mild regimens have the advantage of being more suitable for the majority of patients and will contribute substantially to the success of dipyridamole. Conversely, if we can determine baseline platelet status and intelligently apply therapy based on platelet activity in each particular patient, clinical outcomes may be better. Avoiding excessive bleeding risks after aggressive strategies in patients with normal or already decreased platelet function, but targeting those who exhibit activated platelets, may improve risk stratification and save lives. Therefore, Aggrenox should be considered a drug of choice to prevent the second stroke. Eliminating, or at least minimizing, the most frequent side effect, namely transitory headaches at the beginning of therapy with Aggrenox, will benefit patients and increase the use of this agent. Should the PRoFESS (Prevention Regimen For Effectively avoiding Second Strokes) trial show an advantage in event reduction with Aggrenox over clopidogrel, the increase will be especially dramatic. In short, based on current evidence most guidelines include Aggrenox as a first-line option for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke or TIA, and some recent versions suggest it may be preferable in other clinical scenarios.

persantine 25mg tabs 2017-11-07

A total of 12,351 patients underwent ST/SPECT testing with dipyridamole and 59,969 with adenosine. Risk-adjusted outcomes analysis showed that patients receiving dipyridamole had a higher number of emergency room (ER) visits (0.65 vs. 0.23%, p<0.001) and angina pectoris episodes (7.11 vs. 6.01%, p<0.001). The likelihood of shortness of breath was significantly higher (6.63 vs. 5.77%, p<0.001) in the adenosine group. One-day risk-adjusted, office-visit, outpatient hospital and other utilization costs for same day ST/SPECT testing were higher for the adenosine buy persantine group. Risk-adjusted ER visit costs were higher for the dipyridamole group ($1276 vs. $1095, p<0.001).

persantine 10 mg 2017-09-04

All data from eligible studies were independently Voltaren Pills Dosage abstracted by 2 investigators according to a standard protocol.

persantine medication classification 2017-07-10

In mammalian cells selected in culture for resistance to PALA the CAD gene is amplified and these cells are a widely used model system to study gene amplification. Selection of resistant mutants is routinely performed in medium supplemented with dialyzed serum, because the cytotoxic effect of PALA is reversed by uridine, which is contained in serum. We Suprax Drug have shown that in Chinese hamster cells dipyridamole reduced uridine uptake to less than 5% with limited effect on cell survival. Moreover, in medium supplemented with complete serum and 10 microM dipyridamole the toxicity of PALA was similar to that obtained in medium containing dialyzed serum. We then used 10 microM dipyridamole to inhibit uridine uptake during selection of PALA resistant colonies and found that both the frequency and the type of mutants were as those obtained in the presence of dialyzed serum. In particular, in the five mutants tested, the mechanism of resistance to PALA was amplification of the CAD gene.

persantine drug interactions 2016-08-01

Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. Efforts directed at reversing acute cerebral ischemia are promising but are hampered by multiple logistic and physiologic barriers. Prevention of stroke, therefore, remains of critical importance. Primary prevention is accomplished through reduction of risk factors and the appropriate use of warfarin or aspirin in patients with cardiac sources of emboli such as atrial fibrillation. Secondary prevention is designed Amoxil Suspension Glaxosmithkline to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with known stroke precursors, including transient ischemia, reversible ischemic deficits, and completed stroke. Aspirin and ticlopidine are two antiplatelet agents with an established role in secondary stroke prevention. In a major North American clinical trial, ticlopidine demonstrated superior efficacy to aspirin for the prevention of recurrent stroke, particularly in the first year following a stroke. Dipyridamole has not been shown to be useful for stroke prevention. The role of warfarin in the prevention of recurrent noncardiogenic stroke remains controversial and is currently under investigation. Stroke prevention remains an important challenge, and therapy should be individualized to achieve optimal results.

persantine dose 2015-10-04

Myocardial oxygen demand is a function of the product of heart rate and blood pressure. Agents such as nitroglycerin not only produce coronary vasodilatation, which increases oxygen supply, but also reduce myocardial oxygen demand secondary to a reduction in both preload and afterload. Beta-adrenergic blockers are useful in angina because they reduce myocardial work and, hence, oxygen demand. A heart rate in the 50s Diovan Drug Interactions does not preclude an increase in the dosage of propranolol when necessary.

persantine dosage 2015-12-18

Forty-one subjects had a standard 1-day rest/stress Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial SPECT study. Two sets of rest and stress images were acquired on the same day for each subject. One set of images was acquired with a 5- to 10-minute fast acquisition protocol; the second set of images was acquired with a 25-minute standard protocol. The accuracies of the fast and standard protocols for identifying individuals with and without coronary artery disease were equivalent. Accuracy was 76% for the fast protocol and 73% for the standard protocol in individuals with at least one coronary stenosis > or = 70%. The accuracies of Pamelor 50mg Capsules the two protocols for identifying individual coronary arteries with stenoses > or = 70% also were equivalent. Accuracy was 77% for the fast protocol and 74% for the standard protocol.

persantine medication 2015-09-11

Loss of inhibitory GABAergic modulation may induce hyperexcitability of neuronal elements and potentiate their vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. It has been also found that the adenosine system interacts with the GABAergic system during ischemia and anoxia where the adenosine receptors as well as the GABAergic receptors may conscript the same intracellular pathway to increase tolerance to ischemia. Therefore, it was aimed to study whether dipyridamole (CAS 58-32-2), an adenosine uptake inhibitor, or adenosine (CAS 58-61-7) could affect the rat brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, CAS 56-12-2) level after induction of cerebral ischemia, and to test their effect on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of the ischemic rat brain. Ischemia was induced by bilateral clamping of the common carotid arteries for 60 min followed by reperfusion for other 60 min. Dipyridamole was administered alone and in combination with adenosine and the effect of the drugs on the brain GABA level as well as on LDH activity was determined. The results show that dipyridamole could protect the brain of rats against the ischemic insult, while adenosine when administered separately failed to Flagyl Bv Dosage influence the selected parameters. Protection of the rat brain by dipyridamole might be related to the elevated level of GABA.

persantine overdose 2016-04-20

We selected 457 patients (245 males; 56+/-10 years) who underwent stress high-dose dipyridamole echocardiography and had angiographically non- Sinemet Plus Dosage significant (<50% visually assessed) stenosis in any major vessel and preserved left ventricular function. All patients were followed up for a median of 7.1 years (first quartile 5 and third quartile 10.5). Dipyridamole echocardiography test (DET) positivity for regional dysfunction occurred in 43(9%) patients. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed a significant better outcome for those patients with negative dipyridamole echocardiography test compared with those with a positive test (90 vs. 75.7%, at 140 months of follow-up, P=0.0018). At multivariable analysis, mild or moderate irregularity on coronary arteriogram (HR=3.3, CI 95%=1.7-6.2), diabetes (HR=3.5, CI 95%=1.4-9.2), and wall motion score index at peak stress (HR=6.7, CI 95%=2.5-17.8) were independent predictors of all-cause death.

persantine generic names 2015-11-20

Prosthetic AVR is of Depakote Max Dosage considerable benefit concerning the CFR in patients with a normal coronary angiogram after a long-term follow-up.

persantine oral dose 2017-08-20

In control experiments, red cells became more rigid after perfusion (slope values: 0.62 +/- 0.09 vs 0.40 +/- 0.04; P < 0.05). Absence of platelets or treatment of red cells with aspirin and/or dipyridamole prevented dipyridamole prevented the increased stiffness of red cells observed after exposure of blood to flow conditions. Moreover, a significant increase in red cell deformability was observed when blood was treated with dipyridamole alone or combined with aspirin (0.69 +/- 0.07 and 0. Calan Medication 65 +/- 0.05 respectively vs. 0.40 +/- 0.04; P < 0.05). Treatment with dipyridamole alone or combined with aspirin caused a decrease in ATP levels. Statistical significance was reached when red cells alone were treated with dipyridamole alone (45.8 +/- 2.8 vs. 173.3 +/- 47.6 ng ATP/ml; P < 0.05).

persantine and alcohol 2015-05-19

We prospectively studied the sensitivity, specificity, feasibility, and safety of high-dose dipyridamole echocardiography, compared to exercise electrocardiography in 130 subjects (67 younger and 63 elderly patients) referred for angiographic evaluation of suspected or proven coronary artery disease. Sensitivity, specificity, and feasibility of dipyridamole echocardiography were respectively 75.5%, 100%, and 88.0% in younger patients and 82.9%, 100%, and 79.4% in elderly patients (P = NS). The sensitivity of exercise electrocardiography was 72.7% in young and 66.6% in elderly patients (P = NS); specificity 66.0% vs 60.0% (P = NS); feasibility 83.6 vs 63.5 (P = 0.05). Forty-nine younger and 38 elderly patients performed both tests. Sensitivity of dipyridamole echocardiography compared to exercise electrocardiography was 76.2% vs 73.8% in young patients and 83.3% vs 70% in the older group (P = NS). The feasibility of the two tests was significantly different in the elderly group only (dipyridamole echocardiography 79.4% vs exercise electrocardiography 63.5%; P less than 0.01). The incidence of side effects during dipyridamole echocardiography was similar in the two groups, except for dyspnea which was observed in 20% of older and 5% of younger patients (P less than 0.05). Our data demonstrate that the dipyridamole test combined with echocardiographic monitoring of regional myocardial contractility may be considered a valid non-invasive method for evaluating coronary artery disease in the elderly and that this test is a satisfactory alternative to the exercise Levitra Normal Dose stress test.

cost of persantine 2015-08-10

Adenoscan (Fujisawa USA, Inc., Deerfield, Ill.) has been initially packaged Desyrel 300 Mg in a 30 ml glass vial for single use only because it contains no preservative. This restricted usage has generated considerable waste and high cost for the patient. Although the new 20 ml vial of Adenoscan provides some reduction in waste, the savings offered by the 20 ml and 30 ml vial system is still not optimal. The purpose of this study was to investigate an optimal dual-size vial system that would provide limited amounts of waste while maintaining its practicality to satisfy different patient populations.

persantine drug classification 2016-03-20

Among 5269 participants, cardiovascular events were experienced by 251 (8.9%) of 2823 patients taking aspirin (alone or with dipyridamole) and by 269 (11.0%) of 2446 in the control group (pooled relative risk [RR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-1.04). Aspirin therapy was associated with a reduction in the secondary outcome of nonfatal stroke (52 of 2823 vs 76 of 2446; RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47-0.94) but was not associated with significant reductions in all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, MI, or major bleeding. In the subset of 3019 participants taking aspirin alone vs control, aspirin was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in cardiovascular events (125 of 1516 vs 144 of 1503; RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48-1.18), a significant reduction in nonfatal stroke (32 of 1516 vs 51 of 1503; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.99), but no statistically significant reductions in all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, MI, or major bleeding.

persantine drug 2017-08-12

In patients with aortic stenosis and a normal coronary angiogram, a coronary flow reserve (CFR) is impaired. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of aortic valve replacement (AVR) on the CFR after a long-term follow-up.

persantine dosage chart 2017-03-24

Nucleoside transport was evaluated in the trypanosomatid Crithidia luciliae by a rapid sampling technique. C. luciliae was shown to possess two independent nucleoside transporters, one which transported adenosine, deoxyadenosine, tubercidin, sangivamycin and the pyrimidine nucleoside thymidine, while the second was specific for guanosine, inosine and deoxyguanosine. The rapid influx occurred by a process of facilitated transport. The apparent Km values for adenosine and guanosine were 9.34 +/- 1.30 and 10.6 +/- 2.60 microM, respectively. The pyrimidine nucleoside thymidine was transported at a rate approximately 50% lower than the purine nucleosides, whilst uridine, deoxyuridine and deoxycytidine were not transported. The optical isomer, L-adenosine entered the organism by simple diffusion rather than by facilitated transport. In contrast to mammalian cells, neither of the nucleoside transporters in C. luciliae were inhibited by nitrobenzylthioinosine, dilazep, or dipyridamole, potent inhibitors of nucleoside transport in mammalian cells, whilst p-chloromercuribenzoate sulphonate inhibited both nucleoside transporters in C. luciliae.

persantine dosing chart 2015-08-20

Dipyridamole can improve the specificity of photodynamic sterilization of RBC concentrates, thereby increasing the practical applicability of this photodecontamination method.

persantine cost 2017-03-13

In this three-part series, the first part described the role of platelets in thrombogenesis, this second part considers the pharmacologic effects of platelet-inhibitor drugs, and the third part will discuss their clinical application. This second article comprises (1) the physiologic contribution of the vessel wall to the prevention of thrombosis, particularly the role of prostacyclin, (2) the mechanisms of action of platelet-inhibitor drugs in the prevention of thrombosis, (3) the ideal dose and ideal therapeutic combinations of conventional platelet-inhibitor drugs, (4) other agents and new agents that inhibit platelet function, and (5) drug side effects.