Male volunteers ( n=12) participated in a randomised, two-period, crossover trial evaluating the effect of multiple doses of 600 mg rifampicin once daily for 7 days on repaglinide metabolism. Subjects were, after baseline measurements of repaglinide pharmacokinetics, randomised to receive, on either day 7 or day 8 of the rifampicin administration period, a single dose of 4 mg repaglinide and vice versa in the following period.
prandin tab 2mg
Two new sulfonylureas being investigated are repaglinide, which has a rapid onset of action, rapid reversal, and potential usefulness as a preprandial treatment of NIDDM, and glimepiride, the most potent sulfonylurea on a weight basis with an efficacy similar to that for glyburide. Metformin, an orally administered biguanide hypoglycemic agent, decreases blood glucose levels by 50 to 100 mg/dL and consistently improves triglyceride levels. Another agent for NIDDM therapy is acarbose, an a-glucosidase inhibitor. This agent avidly binds to intestinal disaccharidases and limits the postprandial increase in blood glucose. Troglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of insulin sensitizers, enhances insulin action and lowers blood glucose and blood pressure levels. In overweight patients with diabetes, fenfluramine has been the most effective centrally acting weight reduction agent.
prandin 2 mg
Patients with diabetes are at risk of early renal function decline. Therefore, kidney function needs monitoring at least once per year. Once the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is less than 60 ml/min, the pharmacokinetics of antidiabetic drugs may be altered. Sulfonylurea and glinide therapies are associated with a risk of hypoglycaemia which is increased in the presence of renal impairment. Most sulfonylureas must be discontinued once GFR is <60 ml/min. Some glinides may be continued beyond this threshold, in particular repaglinide, which may be used in dialysis patients. In the absence of comorbidities, metformin can be continued at lower doses until a GFR of 45 ml/min, but must be withdrawn in case of dehydration or during the administration of a nephrotoxic drug including dye for radiological investigations. Glitazones may worsen water and sodium retention in patients with renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of all DPP-IV inhibitors except linagliptin are altered with impaired renal function. Only sitagliptin, saxagliptin and linagliptin may be used in advanced kidney disease, but experience is as yet very limited. GLP-1 agonists are contraindicated in moderate to advanced kidney disease.
cost of prandin
Short-term costs required to provide comprehensive diabetes care and achieve glycemic goals can be substantial. The model suggests a sulphonylurea strategy may provide similar effectiveness with cost savings over other agents and should be considered when selecting an initial drug therapy in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
In this single-centre, open-label, phase-I trial, six healthy male volunteers received 2 mg of the prandial glucose regulator, repaglinide, four times daily for 13 days, 15 min before meals. On the morning of day 7, breakfast was omitted and the dose was given as an oral solution containing 2 mg of (14)C-repaglinide.
is prandin generic
The subject matter of this case report is "sudden deterioration" of glycemic control in a thus far well-complying patient with type 2 diabetes. It describes possible impacts of glucometer technical failure associated with other unfavorable circumstances. An error in displaying glycemia was discovered when analyzing data from glucometer in a computer using software (DIABASS PRO, Mediaspect GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) for data evaluation, and other possible complications (especially hypoglycemia episodes) resulting from inadequate treatment correction were thus prevented.
prandin dosage diabetes
Diabetic prevalence in nursing homes is high, and institutionalised patients are elderly, long-standing diabetics, with both macro- and microvascular complications, and have a significant level of mental and functional disabilities.
prandin e gel
Pharmacokinetic profiles of single- and multiple-dose regimens of repaglinide were evaluated in 12 elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes. On day 1, following a 10-hour fast, subjects received a single 2-mg dose of repaglinide. Starting on day 2 and continuing for 7 days, each subject received a 2-mg dose of repaglinide 15 minutes before each of the three main meals. On day 9, subjects received a single 2-mg dose of repaglinide. Pharmacokinetic profiles, including area under the curve (AUC), log(AUC), maximal concentration (Cmax), log(Cmax), time to maximal concentration (Tmax), and half-life (T(1/2)), were determined at completion of the single- and multiple-dose regimens (days 1 and 9, respectively). Trough repaglinide values were collected on days 2 through 7. The mean log(AUC) values after multiple dosing were significantly higher than the values obtained after a single dose. The mean values for log(Cmax), and Tmax were comparable after each dosing regimen. The T(1/2) of repaglinide after multiple dosing was 1.7 hours. The trough values for repaglinide were low. No hypoglycemic events were reported. The pharmacokinetic profiles of repaglinide after single- and multiple-dose regimens were similar, and repaglinide was well tolerated by elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes.
prandin 5 mg
Spectrofluorimetric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods for estimation of repaglinide were developed. These methods were validated for estimation of repaglinide in tablets as well as in receptor fluid obtained during in vitro permeation studies. Repaglinide was observed to exhibit emission and excitation wavelengths, respectively, at 379 nm and 282 nm with linearity in the concentration range of 5-80 µg/ml. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of repaglinide yielded retention time of 6.14 min with linearity ranging from 0.1-1.2 µg/ml concentration. Spectrofluorimetric analysis of repaglinide in tablets yielded results comparable to high performance liquid chromatography.
prandin 1mg tablet
In all cystic fibrosis patients with an age of 10 years or older, an oral glucose tolerance test is recommended. The result of this test is classified according to the WHO cut off values. It is required to have two diabetes positive oral glucose tolerance tests for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.This study is a multi-national, multicentre, open labelled, randomized and prospective controlled parallel group's trial, with 24 months treatment.The primary objective of this trial is to compare the glycaemic control of oral therapy with Repaglinide with insulin injections in patients with cystic fibrosis related diabetes after 2 years of treatment.The trial should include 74 subjects showing cystic fibrosis related diabetes newly diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test during annual screening for cystic fibrosis related diabetes.Patients are randomised by central fax randomisation.Primary endpoint is mean HbA1c after 24 months of treatment. Secondary endpoints are change in FEV1% predicted and change in BMI-Z-score.
buy prandin online
We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of repaglinide plus metformin with metformin alone on type 2 diabetes. Twenty-two studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results showed combination therapy was safe and could gain better outcomes in glycemic control. Well-designed studies are required to confirm this conclusion.
Prandial glucose regulation has the potential for achieving good metabolic control with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and increased flexibility with regard to eating patterns. Comparative studies have suggested that the prandial glucose regulator repaglinide is at least equivalent to sulphonylureas in terms of efficacy, but incurs a lower risk of major hypoglycaemia. However, these trials employed fixed dosing and mealtime regimens, so repaglinide was not used as intended. This prospective investigation in a daily clinical setting aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability profile of flexible prandial glucose regulation with repaglinide in Type 2 diabetes.
This single-dose study found that the test and reference formulations of repaglinide met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers. Both formulations appeared to be well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: 2012L01684.
prandin diabetes medicine
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacogenetic variability in the disposition of repaglinide in healthy Chinese subjects.
To further explore the mechanism underlying the interaction between repaglinide and gemfibrozil, alone or in combination with itraconazole.
prandin repaglinide dose
The NCS (neuronal calcium sensor) proteins, including neurocalcins, recoverins and visinin-like proteins are members of a family of Ca2+-sensitive regulators, each with three Ca2+-binding EF-hand motifs. In plants, lily CCaMK [chimaeric Ca2+/CaM (calmodulin)-dependent protein kinase] and its PpCaMK ( Physcomitrella patens CCaMK) homologue are characterized by a visinin-like domain with three EF-hands. In the present study, in an effort to discover NCS antagonists, we screened a total of 43 compounds using Ca2+-dependent drug affinity chromatography and found that the insulinotropic agent repaglinide targets the NCS protein family. Repaglinide was found to bind to NCS proteins, but not to CaM or S100 proteins, in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Furthermore, the drug antagonized the inhibitory action of recoverin in a rhodopsin kinase assay with IC50 values of 400 microM. Moreover, repaglinide tightly bound to the visinin-like domain of CCaMK and PpCaMK in a Ca2+-dependent manner and antagonized the regulatory function of the domain with IC50 values of 55 and 4 microM for CCaMK and PpCaMK respectively. Although both repaglinide and a potent insulin secretagogue, namely glibenclamide, blocked K(ATP) channels with similar potency, glibenclamide had no antagonizing effect on the Ca2+-stimulated CCaMK and PpCaMK autophosphorylation, mediated by their visinin-like domain. In addition, a typical CaM antagonist, trifluoperazine, had no effect on the CCaMK and PpCaMK autophosphorylation. Repaglinide appears to be the first antagonist of NCS proteins and visinin-like domain-bearing enzymes. It may serve as a useful tool for evaluating the physiological functions of the NCS protein family. In addition, since repaglinide selectively targets NCS proteins among the EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins, it is a potential lead compound for the development of more potent NCS antagonists.
dose of prandin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action. An elevated rate of basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hyperinsulinemia is the primary cause of fasting hyperglycemia; after a meal, impaired suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin and decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake by muscle contribute almost equally to postprandial hyperglycemia. In the United States, five classes of oral agents, each of which works through a different mechanism of action, are currently available to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The recently completed United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder that can be treated initially with oral agent monotherapy but will eventually require the addition of other oral agents, and that in many patients, insulin therapy will be needed to achieve targeted glycemic levels. In the UKPDS, improved glycemic control, irrespective of the agent used (sulfonylureas, metformin, or insulin), decreased the incidence of microvascular complications (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy). This review examines the goals of antihyperglycemic therapy and reviews the mechanism of action, efficacy, nonglycemic benefits, cost, and safety profile of each of the five approved classes of oral agents. A rationale for the use of these oral agents as monotherapy, in combination with each other, and in combination with insulin is provided.
Repaglinide is an antidiabetic drug metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes. To clarify the mechanisms of observed repaglinide drug interactions, we determined the contribution of the two enzymes to repaglinide metabolism at different substrate concentrations, and examined the effect of fibrates and rifampicin on CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and repaglinide metabolism in vitro. We studied repaglinide metabolism using pooled human liver microsomes, recombinant CYP2C8 and recombinant CYP3A4 enzymes. The effect of quercetin and itraconazole on repaglinide metabolism, and of gemfibrozil, bezafibrate, fenofibrate and rifampicin on CYP2C8 (paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylation) and CYP3A4 (midazolam 1-hydroxylation) activities and repaglinide metabolism were studied using human liver microsomes. At therapeutic repaglinide concentrations (<0.4 microM), CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 metabolised repaglinide at similar rates. Quercetin (25 microM) and itraconazole (3 microM) inhibited the metabolism of 0.2 microM repaglinide by 58% and 71%, and that of 2 microM repaglinide by 56% and 59%, respectively. The three fibrates inhibited CYP2C8 (Ki: bezafibrate 9.7 microM, gemfibrozil 30.4 microM and fenofibrate 92.6 microM) and repaglinide metabolism (IC50: bezafibrate 37.7 microM, gemfibrozil 111 microM and fenofibrate 164 microM), but had no effect on CYP3A4. Rifampicin inhibited CYP2C8 (Ki 30.2 microM), CYP3A4 (Ki 18.5 microM) and repaglinide metabolism (IC50 13.7 microM). In conclusion, both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 are important in the metabolism of therapeutic concentrations of repaglinide in vitro, but their predicted contributions in vivo are highly dependent on the scaling factor used. Gemfibrozil is only a moderate inhibitor of CYP2C8 and does not inhibit CYP3A4; inhibition of CYP-enzymes by parent gemfibrozil alone does not explain its interaction with repaglinide in vivo. Rifampicin competitively inhibits both CYP2C8 and CYP3A4, which can counteract its inducing effect in humans.
prandin 4 mg
To test the possibility that a fast-onset promoting agent repaglinide may initiate prandial insulin secretion through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release, we explored the expression and distribution character of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old were killed after general anesthesia. The circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and pancreas tissues were separately collected. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression and distribution of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) in rat taste buds. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 mRNA. The pancreatic tissues from the same rat were used as positive control. This is the first study to report that SUR1 is uniquely expressed in the taste buds of fungiform papillae of each rat tongue, while the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 was not detected in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae. SUR1 is selectively expressed in rat taste buds, and its distribution pattern may be functionally relevant, suggesting that the rapid insulin secretion-promoting effect of repaglinide may be exerted through the cephalic-phase secretion pathway mediated by taste buds.
prandin renal dose
All components of the glucose triad (ie, FPG, HbA1c, and PPG) should be considered in the management of type 2 diabetes. Therapy targeted at PPG has been shown to improve glucose control and to reduce the progression of atherosclerosis and CV events; therefore, physicians should consider monitoring and targeting PPG, as well as HbA1c and FPG, in patients with type 2 diabetes.
prandin user reviews
age, sex, prevalence of diabetes, duration of diabetes, complications, macrovascular complications, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Metabolic control: frequency of baseline blood glucose and HbA1c determinations. Metabolic complications suffered.
The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends both short-term and long-acting insulin therapy when cystic fibrosis-related diabetes has been diagnosed. Diagnosis is based on: an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 6.94 mmol/liter (125 mg/deciliter); or symptomatic diabetes for random glucose levels greater than 11.11 mmol/liter (200 mg/deciliter); or glycated hemoglobin levels of at least 6.5%.
prandin dosage forms
A combination therapy of metformin hydrochloride (MH) and repaglinide (RG) achieves a perfect glycemic control; however, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, compromising the therapeutic benefits and causing inconveniences to the patients. Herein, a bilayer matrix tablet that aimed at continuously releasing both MH and RG over time was developed, in which the two drugs were formulated into two separated layers. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method, and the optimized formulation was obtained by evaluating the factors that affected the drug release. The bilayer tablets simultaneously released the two drugs over 12 h; and a better in vivo performance with a steady plasma concentration, markedly lower Cmax, prolonged Tmax, and perfect absorption was obtained. Summarily, the bilayer matrix tablets sustained both MH and RG release over time, thereby prolonging the actions for diabetic therapy and producing better health outcomes.
prandin brand name
Aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of repaglinide t.i.d. (three times a day) plus single-dose insulin glargine regimen in low-risk type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan fasting. Participants had been taking the regimen for at least 3 months. Patients with a history of diabetic coma, severe hypoglycemic crisis or repeating attacks of hypoglycemia were excluded. Hypoglycemic unawareness, kidney or liver disease or HbA1c over 8% were also accepted as exclusion criteria. Eleven patients who insisted on this worship and eight non-fasting cases were involved. All were told to make home-glucose-monitorisation weekly and report any hypoglycemic event throughout Ramadan. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), post-prandial blood glucose (PBG) and fructosamine levels, body weights and blood pressures were recorded just before and after Ramadan. Seven patients in each group concluded the follow-up. Any significant change was detected in the parameters in either groups (P>0.05). Glucose control remained unchanged; fructosamine 318.14+/-65.38 versus 317.28+/-52.80 mmol/L in fasting group, 290.71+/-38.48 versus 290+/-38.56 mmol/L in non-fasting group. None of them exhibited either a major or a minor hypoglycemic event. The results of this pilot study indicated that repaglinide t.i.d. plus single-dose insulin glargine regimen was safe for low-risk type 2 diabetic patients who insisted on fasting during Ramadan.
prandin pill identifier
Lipid changes as a result of improved glycaemic control are not uniform findings associated with anti-diabetic therapy. Only metformin, acarbose, voglibose, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone had significant effects on the lipid profile. These effects should be considered when selecting OAMs for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Using stably transfected cell systems recombinantly expressing the uptake transporters OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, or OCT1, we analyzed whether the antidiabetic drugs repaglinide, rosiglitazone, or metformin influence the transport of substrates and drugs (for OATPs, sulfobromophthalein [BSP] and pravastatin; for OCT1, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium [MPP(+)] and metformin).