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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

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Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose 50 mg

Pioglitazone has been approved in Europe for oral combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Along with other agents of the thiazolidinedione class, it has a novel intracellular mechanism of action. Clinical trials with pioglitazone have confirmed a strong product profile in terms of control of blood glucose and lipids. However, the drug acquisition cost for pioglitazone is greater than standard medications for type 2 diabetes. Long-term data regarding the cost effectiveness of pioglitazone-based combination therapy are not available.

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Glucose control by acarbose in rat carotid endarterectomy model of diet-induced insulin resistance resulted in attenuation of intimal hyperplasia.

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After the treatment of SC extract and its main components, the body weight and the fasting plasma insulin level were found to be increased while food intake, urine volume, urine sugars and fasting plasma were decreased. OSTT showed that SC extract and its main components could lower the postprandial plasma glucose level of diabetic rats. Furthermore, SC extract and its main components could inhibit the activities of intestinal disaccharidases in diabetic rats, whereas only SC extract and berberine could inhibit the activity of maltase in vitro.

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In hyperglycaemic Type 2 diabetic patients, ingestion of acarbose with a mixed test meal failed to enhance GLP-1 release and did not influence gastric emptying.

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This article reviews the relationship between the control of post-prandial hyperglycemia and diabetes-related complications.

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Prescription of acarbose is useful in addition to nutritional education, the corner stone of the treatment, to avoid the recurrence of severe hypoglycaemic events due to PRH.

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Compared to acarbose (IC(50)=1.2 μg/ml), water extracts of Pistacia atlantica, Rheum ribes and Sarcopoterium spinosum exerted significant dose dependent dual inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in in vitro enzymatic starch digestion bioassay, with IC(50)s; 46.98, 58.9 and 49.9 mg/ml, respectively. Comparable in vivo results were obtained for starch-fed rats, exhibiting significant acute postprandial antihyperglycemic efficacies. While Achillea santolina and Teucrium polium extracts lacked any favourable in vitro anti-α-amylase and anti-α-glucosidase effect, other modes of action can possibly explain their substantial acute antihyperglycemic activities in starch-treated rats. Except for Pistacia atlantica extracts, none of the investigated extracts qualified for improving the glucose intolerance in fasted rats on glucose loading.

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Our data clearly demonstrate that the postchallenge alteration of vascular function in patients with impaired glucose tolerance is caused by the acute elevation of glycaemia but not mediated by ADMA.

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According to our present findings, scutellaria-coptis herb couple (SC) possessed potent anti-hyperglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. And SC extract and its main components exerted anti-hyperglycemic effect partly via inhibiting the increased activities of intestinal disaccharidases and elevating the level of plasma insulin in diabetic rats induced by STZ.

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Long term complications continue to be the major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Acarbose could potentially help to reduce diabetic complications if it improved glucose control, reduced lipid levels and hyperinsulinaemia. Acarbose has been shown to effectively reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and haemoglobin A1c. This effect might be helpful in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, as insulin injections do not provide complete control of rises in postprandial glucose levels, and in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, because it simplifies the treatment programme. If improved control is shown to reduce complications, acarbose may be helpful. Although acarbose does not reduce hyperinsulinaemia, it reduces lipid levels and thus could reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.

precose patient review

A total of 290 patients with NIDDM and fasting plasma glucose levels of at least 140 mg/dL were randomized to receive treatment TID with acarbose 200 mg, tolbutamide 250 to 1,000 mg, a combination of both drugs, or placebo. A 6-week run-in period was followed by double-blind treatment for 24 weeks, then a 6-week follow-up period.

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The investigation done reveals that PLO has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity.

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The structure of pig pancreatic alpha-amylase in complex with carbohydrate inhibitor and proteinaceous inhibitors is known but the successive events occurring at the catalytic center still remain to be elucidated. The X-ray structure analysis of a crystal of pig pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA, EC 3.2.1.1.) soaked with an enzyme-resistant substrate analogue, methyl 4,4'-dithio-alpha-maltotrioside, showed electron density corresponding to the binding of substrate analogue molecules at the active site and at the "second binding site." The electron density observed at the active site was interpreted in terms of overlapping networks of oligosaccharides, which show binding of substrate analogue molecules at subsites prior to and subsequent to the cleavage site. A weaker patch of density observed at subsite -1 (using a nomenclature where the site of hydrolysis is taken to be between subsites -1 and +1) was modeled with water molecules. Conformational changes take place upon substrate analogue binding and the "flexible loop" that constitutes the surface edge of the active site is observed in a specific conformation. This confirms that this loop plays an important role in the recognition and binding of the ligand. The crystal structure was refined at 2.03 A resolution, to an R-factor of 16.0 (Rfree, 18.5).

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The contents of Rosmarinic acid in the aqueous extract and its dry powder, and extractum of Prunella vulgaris were 0.1494, 0.1657 and 0.2739 mg/g respectively, equal to crude drug. The Rosmarinic acid inhibited alpha-glycosidase, and its inhibition from alpha-maltase in small intestine was noncompetitive.

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We found alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect of Zn(II) complex with 6-methyl-2-picolinmethylamide (6mpa-ma) which showed the highest blood glucose lowering effect in Zn(II) complexes with picolinamide derivatives in KK-A(y) mice. The Zn(II) complex showed strong alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity greater by about eighty times (substrate: maltose) and forty times (substrate: sucrose) compared with acarbose.

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Data from ten post-marketing non-interventional studies using acarbose, the most widely used alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, from 21 countries, provinces and country groups were pooled. Effects on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) were analysed for four major ethnicity/region groups (European Caucasians and Asians from East, Southeast and South Asia) to identify differences in the response to acarbose.

precose medicine

The present studies were undertaken to determine the effect of various carbohydrates on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Tritiated-norepinephrine (3H-NE) turnover was measured in heart and interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats fed either chow or chow plus 50% caloric supplements of fructose, sucrose, dextrose, or corn starch. Additional studies were performed to examine whether absorption of carbohydrate plays a role in the SNS response, and to determine whether sweet taste in the form of artificial sweeteners may influence SNS activity. After five to ten days on the respective diets, 3H-NE turnover was increased to a similar extent by all carbohydrates tested (from 38% to 160% greater than controls in different studies). Addition of acarbose (which impairs sucrose absorption) to a sucrose-supplemented diet abolished the SNS stimulatory response, whereas cholestyramine (a drug that blocks fat absorption) had no effect. Finally, the addition of saccharin or aspartame to a chow diet failed to alter SNS activity. Thus, caloric supplementation with several carbohydrates, in addition to sucrose, stimulates both cardiac and IBAT SNS activity, absorption of carbohydrate is required for this effect, and noncaloric sugar substitutes do not alter SNS function.

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The three-dimensional structure of the pseudotetrasaccharide acarbose complexed with glucoamylase II(471) from Aspergillus awamori var. X100 has been determined to 2.4-A resolution. The model includes residues corresponding to 1-471 of glucoamylase I from Aspergillus niger, a single molecule of bound acarbose, and 535 sites for water molecules. The crystallographic R factor from refinement is 0.124, and the root-mean-squared deviation in bond distances is 0.013 A. Electron density for a single molecule of bound acarbose defines what may be the first four subsites in the binding of extended maltooligosaccharides. Hydrogen bonds between acarbose and the enzyme involve Arg54, Asp55, Arg305, carbonyl177, main chain amide121, Glu179, Glu180, and carbonyl179. Glu179 forms a salt link to the imino linkage between the first and second residues of acarbose. This buried salt link probably contributes significantly to the unusually tight association (Kd approximately 10(-12) M) of acarbose with glucoamylase. In addition, a significant hydrophobic contact between the third residue of acarbose and the side chain of Trp120 distorts the three-center angle of the glucosidic linkage between the second and third residues of acarbose. A water molecule (water500) hydrogen bonds to Glu400 and the 6-hydroxyl of the valienamine moiety of acarbose and is at an approximate distance of 3.7 A from the "anomeric" carbon of the inhibitor. The relevance of the acarbose-glucoamylase complex to the mechanism of enzymic hydrolysis of oligosaccharides is discussed.

precose 100 mg

DM2 subjects administered saline had diminished first-phase insulin secretion, compared with healthy control subjects. Exenatide-treated DM2 subjects had an insulin secretory pattern similar to healthy subjects in both first (0-10 min) and second (10-180 min) phases after glucose challenge, in contrast to saline-treated DM2 subjects. In exenatide-treated DM2 subjects, the most common adverse event was moderate nausea (two of 13 subjects).

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The crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase, in complex with the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose, revealed an hexasaccharide in the active site as a result of transglycosylation. After comparison with the known structure of the catalytic-site mutant complexed with the native substrate maltopentaose, it is suggested that the present structure represents a mimic intermediate in the initial stage of the catalytic process.

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Metformin, troglitazone, acarbose, and orlistat have been shown to decrease the risk of progression to diabetes in patients at risk for developing diabetes. Other questions that address issues such as identifying target populations, cost-effectiveness, and screening strategies must be answered to more fully define the place of pharmacologic therapy to prevent or delay diabetes.

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In this study, we examined the effects of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and voglibose on postprandial plasma glucose and serum triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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The patient population for the model was assumed to be all newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients eligible for monotherapy with an oral agent. Each monotherapy could be succeeded by add-on treatments. The model included the costs of routine medical care and supplies, medication, adverse events, and treatment failures.

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A recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was found to be produced as several isoforms arising from different N--terminal processing. Some of those isoforms were purified to homogeneity and crystallized at 293 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method under the following conditions: 35 mM sodium acetate (pH 4.6), 6.25%(v/v) 2-propanol, in the presence of 1.23%(w/v) acarbose (a pseudo-oligosaccharide inhibitor) in the drop. The crystals diffracted beyond 2.0 A resolution using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7 (2), b = 92.9 (4), c = 53.2 (2) A, beta = 109.4 (1) degrees.

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Tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans previously isolated from distinct habitats in Thailand were characterized for their capacities to produce the valuable polysaccharide, pullulan. A. pullulans strain NRM2, the so-called "color variant" strain, was the best producer, yielding 25.1 g pullulan l(-1) after 7 days in sucrose medium with peptone as the nitrogen source. Pullulan from strain NRM2 was less pigmented than those from the other strains and was remarkably pure after a simple ethanol precipitation. The molecular weight of pullulan from all cultures dramatically decreased after 3 days growth, as analyzed by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Alpha-amylase with apparent activity against pullulan was expressed constitutively in sucrose-grown cultures and induced in starch-grown cultures. When the alpha-amylase inhibitor acarbose was added to the culture medium, pullulan of slightly higher molecular weight was obtained from late cultures, supporting the notion that alpha-amylase plays a role in the reduction of the molecular weight of pullulan during the production phase.

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This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a screening programme for pre-diabetes, which was followed up by treatment with pharmaceutical interventions (acarbose, metformin, orlistat) or lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, diet and exercise) in order to prevent or slow the onset of diabetes in those at high risk.

precose 50 mg

The inhibitory effect of alpha-glucosidase (AGH) inhibitors against its origins (baker's yeast and rat, rabbit, and pig small intestines) was investigated. All inhibitors used in this study showed quite different inhibitory activities according to AGH origins. Voglibose, acarbose and glucono-1,5-lactone strongly inhibited mammalian AGHs, whereas no or less inhibition was observed in yeast AGH. On the contrary, (+)-catechin, a good inhibitor against yeast AGH (IC(50) = 1.3 x 10(-)(1) mM) as well as voglibose (IC(50) = 2.6 x 10(-)(2) mM), did not retard the mammalian AGH activity. Subsequent inhibition study with various food components revealed that all of foods except for green (IC(50) = 0.735 mg/mL) and oolong teas (IC(50) = 1.34 mg/mL) showed no inhibitory activity against rat AGH, whereas they inhibited yeast AGH. Consequently, the magnitude of AGH inhibition was greatly affected by its origin, and more attention relating to AGH origin would be needed to evaluate in vitro AGH inhibitory effect.

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precose medicine 2016-09-09

The blood glucose fluctuation was significantly buy precose improved, with the decrease of insulin dosage while both glucose excursions and hypoglycemia at night reduced in patients with type1 diabetes mellitus after the acarbose treatment.We suggested that this program deserve further observation.

buy precose online 2017-01-27

The role of spironolactone as pemphigoid-inducing agent has recently been suggested. We report a new case buy precose of pemphigoid probably induced by spironolactone. The disease resolved after withdrawal of the diuretic drug containing aldactone.

precose acarbose tablets 2016-10-07

Postprandial hyperglycemia is believed to affect vascular endothelial function. The aim of our study was to compare the effects of acarbose and buy precose nateglinide on postprandial endothelial dysfunction.

acarbose precose medication 2016-06-08

The increasing prevalence of diabetes is reaching epidemic proportion worldwide. Because of the associated morbidity and mortality, it is exerting major pressure on the healthcare system. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of type-2 diabetes, the concept of primary prevention has emerged. A number of studies have confirmed that intensive lifestyle modification was very effective in the prevention of diabetes in the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) population. However, maintaining long-term lifestyle modification is a major challenge. It is, therefore, important to have other strategies, either pharmacological or surgical, that can be used as an adjunct or alternative to lifestyle modification. The Chinese study showed that metformin and acarbose could reduce the risk of diabetes by 65 and 83%, respectively, in IGT subjects. The efficacy of metformin was confirmed by the Diabetes Prevention Program (31% risk reduction) and that of acarbose by the STOP-NIDDM trial (36% risk reduction) in a similar high-risk population. The TRIPOD study showed buy precose that troglitazone could reduce the risk of diabetes by 55% in Hispanic women with a history of gestational diabetes. And more recently, the XENDOS study showed that orlistat could reduced the risk of diabetes by 37% in obese subjects when used as an adjunct to an intensive lifestyle program. Three studies have suggested that bariatric surgery in morbidly obese subjects could reduce the risk of diabetes to near zero. Furthermore, a number of studies have examined the effect of a renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitor, as well as statin and hormone replacement therapy on the prevention of type-2 diabetes in high-risk subjects as secondary outcomes and have suggested that they could be of potential benefit. The accumulating evidence is now overwhelming. Yes, diabetes can be prevented or delayed in high-risk populations. With this new information, we need to design new strategies to screen high-risk populations and to implement the new treatments that have proven effective in the prevention of type-2 diabetes.

precose dosage 2017-11-16

The roles of the aromatic side chains of the glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger in the binding of ligands, as determined by difference spectroscopy using four types of inhibitors (a) valienamine-derived, (b) 1-deoxynojirimycins, (c) D-glucono-1,5-lactone, and (d) maltitol, two types of disaccharide substrates (a) alpha-(1----4)-linked and (b) alpha-(1----6)-linked, and three cyclomalto-oligosaccharides (cyclodextrins, CDs) are discussed. An unusual change in absorbance from 300 to 310-320 nm, obtained only with the valienamine-derived inhibitors or when D-glucono-1,5-lactone and maltose are combined, is concluded to arise when subsite 2 is occupied in a transition-state-type of complex. The single mutations of two residues thought to be involved in binding, namely, Tyr116----Ala and Trp120----Phe, alter, but do not abolish this buy precose perturbation. The perturbations in the spectra also suggest that maltose and isomaltose have different modes of binding. The following Kd values (M) were determined: acarbose, less than 6 x 10(-12); methyl acarviosinide, 1.6 x 10(-6); and the D-gluco and L-ido forms of hydrogenated acarbose, 1.4 x 10(-8) and 5.2 x 10(-6), respectively. Therefore, both the valienamine moiety and the chain length of acarbose are important for tight binding. In contrast to the valienamine-derived inhibitors, none of the 1-deoxynojirimycin type protected glucoamylase against inactivating oxidation of tryptophanyl residues, although each had a Kd value of approximately 4 x 10(-6) M. There are two distinct carbohydrate-binding areas in glucoamylase, namely, the active site in the catalytic domain and a starch-granule-binding site in the C-terminal domain. The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CDs have high affinity for the starch-binding domain and low affinity for the active site, whereas the reverse was found for acarbose.

precose generic name 2015-04-04

Acarbose was buy precose effective and well tolerated in the treatment of NIDDM. Control of glycemia was significantly better with acarbose compared with diet alone. Acarbose-plus-tolbutamide was superior to tolbutamide alone.

precose user reviews 2015-11-29

Upon comparison of the two treatments significant statistical differences were found in HbA1 (p = 0.0005) and in postprandial glycemia (p = 0.007). There were differences, although not statistically significant, in the buy precose amounts of triglycerides, cholesterol and fasting glycemia. One hundred and two patients referred adverse events, most being gastrointestinal (flatulence, meteorism).

precose tablets 2017-03-15

GacH is the solute binding protein (receptor) of the putative oligosaccharide ATP-binding cassette transporter GacFG, encoded in the acarbose biosynthetic gene cluster (gac) from Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.O. In the context of the proposed buy precose function of acarbose (acarviosyl-1,4-maltose) as a 'carbophor,' the transporter, in complex with a yet to be identified ATPase subunit, is supposed to mediate the uptake of longer acarbose homologs and acarbose for recycling purposes. Binding assays using isothermal titration calorimetry identified GacH as a maltose/maltodextrin-binding protein with a low affinity for acarbose but with considerable binding activity for its homolog, component 5C (acarviosyl-1,4-maltose-1,4-glucose-1,1-glucose). In contrast, the maltose-binding protein of Salmonella typhimurium (MalE) displays high-affinity acarbose binding. We determined the crystal structures of GacH in complex with acarbose, component 5C, and maltotetraose, as well as in unliganded form. As found for other solute receptors, the polypeptide chain of GacH is folded into two distinct domains (lobes) connected by a hinge, with the interface between the lobes forming the substrate-binding pocket. GacH does not specifically bind the acarviosyl group, but displays specificity for binding of the maltose moiety in the inner part of its binding pocket. The crystal structure of acarbose-loaded MalE showed that two glucose units of acarbose are bound at the same region and position as maltose. A comparative analysis revealed that in GacH, acarbose is buried deeper into the binding pocket than in MalE by exactly one glucose ring shift, resulting in a total of 18 hydrogen-bond interactions versus 21 hydrogen-bond interactions for MalE(acarbose). Since the substrate specificity of ATP-binding cassette import systems is determined by the cognate binding protein, our results provide the first biochemical and structural evidence for the proposed role of GacHFG in acarbose metabolism.

precose drug interactions 2016-03-19

Patients with diabetes display increased platelet activation. Recent data show a markedly increased risk for cardiovascular events already in pre-diabetic individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We investigated whether IGT is associated with platelet activation. Blood samples were collected from young lean (control) and obese Zucker rats, buy precose an established model of IGT, after single oral application of sucrose (4 g.kg-1). Platelet-bound fibrinogen and platelet surface-expression of P-selectin were assessed as indices of platelet activation using flow cytometry. In lean Zucker rats, acute sucrose application induced fibrinogen-binding and P-selectin surface-expression, which was prevented by co-administration of acarbose (10 mg.kg-1). In obese Zucker rats, platelet activation was already maximally increased under baseline conditions with no significant increase after sucrose application. Chronic treatment with acarbose (15 mg.kg-1.day-1) significantly reduced platelet activation in these animals. Acute ingestion of sucrose induces platelet activation which is prevented by acarbose. IGT is associated with marked platelet activation that can be reduced by chronic administration of acarbose. The positive modulation of platelet activation by acarbose may contribute to the reduction of cardiovascular events in patients with IGT.

precose online 2017-09-16

The reliability of a quantitative method for the non-invasive assessment of intestinal disaccharide hydrolysis buy precose was assessed.

precose drugs 2015-09-04

In this study, a novel biological macromolecule with strong in vitro anti-diabetic activity was developed by grafting catechin onto inulin via a free radical mediated method. The characterization, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) were investigated. Results showed that the grafting ratio of catechin-g-inulin was 124.8 mg CAE/g. UV-vis spectrum of catechin-g-inulin exhibited a new band at 280 nm, attributing to B ring of catechin moiety. FT-IR spectrum of catechin-g-inulin showed new absorption bands between 1540 and 1418 cm(-1), attributing to CC stretching vibration of catechin moiety. (1)H NMR spectrum of catechin-g-inulin preserved all the characteristic proton signals of inulin and partial signals of catechin. These all confirmed the successful grafting copolymerization. Conjugation probably occurred between OH of inulin (C-6) and H-6/H-8 of catechin (A ring). Catechin-g-inulin also exhibited increased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to inulin. Moreover, in vitro anti-diabetic assays showed the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity decreased in the order of catechin-g buy precose -inulin>catechin>acarbose>inulin, and α-amylase inhibitory activity decreased in the order of catechin-g-inulin>acarbose>catechin>inulin. These indicated the potential of catechin-g-inulin in the development of a novel effective anti-diabetic agent.

precose buy 2016-02-17

Previous reports indicate that serum lipoprotein lipase mass levels (LPL mass) and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) are independent predictors of atherosclerotic diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combination therapy of sulfonylurea buy precose and acarbose on LPL mass and CCA-IMT.

precose generic 2015-07-03

We investigated how fasting or postprandial insulin levels were altered by treatment with acarbose or sulfonylureas. Plasma glucose and serum insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin levels were measured before as well as 1 and 2 h after breakfast in 23 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 17 patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In the diabetic patients, 12 weeks of acarbose therapy decreased the postprandial levels of glucose (1 h: -60.0%; 2 h: -67.6%), insulin (1 h: -67.5%; 2 h: -72.2%) and proinsulin (1 h: -55.2%; 2 h: -46.7%), and proinsulin (1 h: -20.9%; 2 h: -57.5%). In contrast, sulfonylurea treatment increased postprandial insulin and proinsulin levels. Since increased in the serum insulin or proinsulin levels are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, the present buy precose findings suggest that the acarbose-induced reduction of the postprandial serum insulin or proinsulin responses to food intake might be useful for preventing vascular complications in patients with diabetes.

precose cost 2016-02-23

Literature review of articles buy precose obtained from a PubMed search of peer-reviewed journals on oral hypoglycaemic drug use in pregnancy.

precose drug class 2017-01-02

Acarbose increases insulin sensitivity but not Ventolin Generic Inhaler insulin release in elderly patients with diabetes.

precose patient review 2016-12-09

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and inflammatory changes. Ezetimibe inhibits cholesterol absorption from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes. The molecular target of ezetimibe is the sterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1). Human NPC1L1 is abundantly expressed in the liver and may facilitate the hepatic accumulation of cholesterol. Ezetimibe exerts beneficial effects on several metabolic variables. Ezetimibe Viagra 8000mg Review treatment attenuates hepatic steatosis and is beneficial in terms of NAFLD biochemical markers. The combination of ezetimibe with other interventions may also be beneficial in NAFLD patients. Our group investigated the ezetimibe-orlistat combination treatment in overweight and obese patients with hypercholesterolemia, with beneficial effects on NAFLD biochemical markers. These results are promising for patients with NAFLD, who usually have increased cardiovascular disease risk and need a multifactorial treatment. However, it should be mentioned that most results are from animal studies and, although modest elevation of liver function tests may raise the suspicion of NAFLD, none of these tests are sensitive to establish the diagnosis of NAFLD with great accuracy.

precose medication 2016-01-09

Tyramine derivatives 3-27 were synthesized by using conventional and environmental friendly ultrasonic techniques. These derivatives were then evaluated for the first time for their α-glucosidase (Sources: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian rat-intestinal acetone powder) inhibitory activity by using in vitro mechanism-based biochemical assays. Compounds 7, 14, 20, 21 and 26 were found to be more active (IC50 = 49.7 ± 0.4, 318.8 ± 3.7, 23.5 ± 0.9, 302.0 ± 7.3 and 230.7 ± 4.0 μM, respectively) than the standard drug, acarbose (IC50 = 840.0 ± 1.73 μM (observed) and 780 ± 0.028 μM (reported)) against α-glucosidase obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kinetic studies were carried out on the most active members of the series in order to determine their mode of inhibition and dissociation constants. Compounds 7, 20 and 26 were found to be the competitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. These compounds were also screened for their protein antiglycation, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activities. Only compounds 20, 22 and 27 showed weak antiglycation activity with IC50 values 505.27 ± 5.95, 581.87 ± 5.50 and 440.58 ± 2.74 μM, respectively. All the compounds Bactrim Pediatric Suspension were found to be inactive against DDP-IV enzyme. Inhibition of α-glucosidase, DPP-IV enzymes and glycation of proteins are valid targets for the discovery of antidiabetic drugs. Cytotoxicity of compounds 3-27 was also evaluated by using mouse fibroblast 3T3 cell lines. All the compounds were found to be noncytotoxic. The current study describes the synthesis α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of derivatives, based on a natural product tyramine template. The compounds reported here may serve as the starting point for the design and development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors as antidiabetic agents.

precose tablet 2017-11-09

Several earlier studies indicate an association between plasma insulin level and blood pressure independent of weight. A short review summarizes evidences showing: (a) the association between a high carbohydrate content of diet and Lansoprazole Generic Prevacid hyperinsulinemia; (b) effect of insulin on renal reabsorbation of sodium; and (c) effects of carbohydrate intake on sympathetic activity and blood pressure. A pilot study examined the effect of a glycoside-hydrolase inhibitor (BAY g 5421) on blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting plasma insulin and 100 g peroral sucrose test in six obese middle-aged men with borderline hypertension. The protocol included three periods of four weeks each. During the second and third period placebo and BAY g 5421 (100 mg three times per day) were given in a randomized, double-blind fashion. At the end of each period blood pressure was recorded during 30 minutes of rest in a supine position. The subjects also orally received 100 g sucrose as a 50 per cent solution dissolved in water. BAY g 5421 caused a significant decrease of plasma insulin after a 100 g sucrose tolerance test as compared to placebo. Blood pressure after four weeks of treatment with placebo was 135 +/- 5.7 systolic and 92 +/- 6.6 diastolic (mmHg, mean +/-s.d.) and after four weeks of treatment with BAY g 5421 was not significantly different. There was no change in weight. The question whether carbohydrates promote hypertension has to be further investigated.

precose drug 2016-02-10

A short course of intensive lifestyle and drug therapy achieves on-treatment normoglycemia and promotes sustained Clomid Reviews Bodybuilding weight loss. It may also achieve prolonged, drug-free diabetes remission and strongly supports ongoing studies of novel medical regimens targeting remission.

precose 100 mg 2015-06-15

Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, delays absorption of carbohydrate in the gut, thereby lowering postprandial glucose levels. Safety data on this drug have been gathered in a series of studies on animals and in extensive clinical trials in humans. Although an initial long term feeding study in rats showed an excess of renal tumours at very high dosages of acarbose (up to 300 mg/kg bodyweight daily), further evaluation with similar studies in rats, hamsters, and dogs indicated that the problem was related to carbohydrate malabsorption. With adequate glucose intake and in gavage studies, no difference in tumour incidence between placebo- and acarbose-treated groups was seen. From 1976 to 1989, safety data on acarbose were obtained in approximately 8800 patients in 2 separate groups Generic Nexium Reviews of clinical trials, the Bayer International Clinical Data Pool and the American phase III trials. Almost all adverse experiences, as reported by 56 to 76% of patients on acarbose vs 32 to 37% of patients on placebo, were related to the digestive system and included diarrhoea, flatulence, bloating and nausea. Most symptoms were of mild to moderate intensity and tended to improve with time. In the American trials a small but significant increase in liver transaminases was seen, 3.8% in acarbose-treated patients vs 0.9% in controls together with a 1% increase in anaemia in the acarbose group. Overall, acarbose was well tolerated and the adverse experience profile was clinically acceptable.

precose dose 2016-05-19

The combination therapy showed a significant reduction in mean HbA1c values (-1.7%) that was greater than with either type of monotherapy Repaglinide monotherapy resulted in a reduction of HbA1c values that Minipress Dosage was significantly greater than troglitazone (-0.8 vs. -0.4%) (P < 0.05). Combination therapy was more effective in reducing FPG values (-80 mg/dl) than either repaglinide (-43 mg/dl) or troglitazone (-46 mg/dl) monotherapies. Adverse events were similar in all groups.

precose tabs 2015-06-04

Novel quinazolinone based α-glucosidase inhibitors have been developed. For this purpose a virtual screening model has been generated and validated utilizing acarbose as a α-glucosidase inhibitor. Homology modeling, docking, and virtual screening were successfully employed to discover a set of structurally diverse compounds active against α-glucosidase. A search of a 3D database containing 22,500 small molecules using the structure based virtual model yielded ten possible candidates. All ten candidates were N-3-pyridyl-2-cyclopropyl quinazolinone-4-one derivatives, varying at the 6 position. This position was modified by Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling with aryl, heteroaryl, and alkyl boronic acids. A catalyst screen was performed, and using the best optimal conditions, a series of twenty five compounds was synthesized. Notably, the C-C cross coupling reactions of the 6-bromo-2-cyclopropyl-3-(pyridyl-3-ylmethyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one precursor have been accomplished at room temperature. A comparison of the relative reactivities of 6-bromo and 6-chloro-2,3-disubstituted quinazolinones with phenyl boronic acid was conducted. An investigation of pre-catalyst loading for the reaction of the 6-bromo-2-cyclopropyl-3-(pyridyl-3-ylmethyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one substrate was also carried out. Finally, we submitted our compounds to biological assays against α-glucosidase inhibitors. Of these, three hits (compounds 4a, 4t and 4r) were potentially active as α-glucosidase inhibitors and showed activity with IC50 values <20 μM. Based on structural novelty and desirable drug-like properties, 4a was selected for structure-activity relationship study, and thirteen analogs were synthesized. Nine out of thirteen analogs acted as α-glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 values <10 μM. These lead compounds have desirable physicochemical properties and are excellent candidates for further optimization.

precose reviews 2017-10-10

This novel fatty acid can potentially be developed as a novel natural nutraceutical for the management of diabetes.

precose 50 mg 2016-10-04

Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractionsCallus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 34.12 μg/mL) activity, respectively, among callus fractionsLEF and CEF were identified as noncompetitive and competitive á-glucosidase inhibitors, respectivelyAntiglucosidase and antioxidant activities of leaf fractions correlated with phytochemical contents. Abbreviations used: LHF: Leaf hexane fraction, LCF: Leaf chloroform fraction, LEF: Leaf ethyl acetate fraction, LBF: Leaf butanol fraction, LWF: Leaf water fraction, CHF: Callus hexane fraction, CCF: Callus chloroform fraction, CEF: Callus ethyl acetate fraction, CBF: Callus butanol fraction, CWF: Callus water fraction, TP: Total phenolic, TF: Total flavonoid, TC: Total coumarin.

precose 25 mg 2015-11-15

In early diabetes, reductions in glucose, driven by reductions in weight, can delay progressive metabolic worsening. These observations underscore the importance of lifestyle management including weight loss as a tool to mitigate worsening of glycemia in newly diagnosed diabetes.

precose dosing 2017-10-02

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (7-36 amide) is a physiological incretin hormone that is released after nutrient intake from the lower gut and stimulates insulin secretion at elevated plasma glucose concentrations. Previous work has shown that even in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients GLP-1 (7-36 amide) retains much of its insulinotropic action. However, it is not known whether the magnitude of this response is sufficient to normalize plasma glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients with poor metabolic control. Therefore, in 10 Type 2 diabetic patients with unsatisfactory metabolic control (HbA1c 11.6 +/- 1.7%) on diet and sulphonylurea therapy (in some patients supplemented by metformin or acarbose), 1.2 pmol x kg-1 x min-1 GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or placebo was infused intravenously in the fasting state (plasma glucose 13.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/l). In all patients, insulin (by 17.4 +/- 4.7 nmol x 1-1 x min; p = 0.0157) and C-peptide (by 228.0 +/- 39.1 nmol x 1-1 x min; p = 0.0019) increased significantly over basal levels, glucagon was reduced (by -1418 +/- 308 pmol x 1-1 x min) and plasma glucose reached normal fasting concentrations (4.9 +/- 0.3 mmol/l) within 4 h of GLP-1 (7-36 amide) administration, but not with placebo. When normal fasting plasma glucose concentrations were reached insulin returned towards basal levels and plasma glucose concentrations remained stable despite the ongoing infusion of GLP-1 (7-36 amide). Therefore, exogenous GLP-1 (7-36 amide) is an effective means of normalizing fasting plasma glucose concentrations in poorly-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

precose medicine 2015-03-18

Acarbose is a safe and effective drug in cirrhotic patients with low-grade hepatic encephalopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

buy precose online 2015-02-28

Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism caused by deficiency in lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase.

precose acarbose tablets 2015-10-17

Pioglitazone has been approved in Europe for oral combination therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Along with other agents of the thiazolidinedione class, it has a novel intracellular mechanism of action. Clinical trials with pioglitazone have confirmed a strong product profile in terms of control of blood glucose and lipids. However, the drug acquisition cost for pioglitazone is greater than standard medications for type 2 diabetes. Long-term data regarding the cost effectiveness of pioglitazone-based combination therapy are not available.

acarbose precose medication 2017-10-31

Accumulated evidence links an important signal involved in glucose-stimulated insulin release to the activation of the islet lysosomal glycogenolytic enzyme acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase. We have analyzed the function of the lysosomal system/lysosomal enzyme activities in pancreatic islets of young (6-8 weeks), spontaneously diabetic, GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rats and Wistar control rats in relation to glucose-induced insulin release. The insulin secretory response to glucose was markedly impaired in the GK rat, but was restored by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Islet activities of classical lysosomal enzymes, e.g.. acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-glucuronidase, and cathepsin D, were reduced by 20-35% in the GK rat compared with those in Wistar controls. In contrast, the activities of the lysosomal alpha-glucosidehydrolases, i.e.. acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase and acid alpha-glucosidase, were increased by 40-50%. Neutral alpha-glucosidase (endoplasmic reticulum) was unaffected. Comparative analysis of liver tissue showed that lysosomal enzyme activities were of the same magnitude in GK and Wistar rats. Notably, in Wistar rats, the activities of acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase and acid alpha-glucosidase were approximately 15-fold higher in islets than in liver. Other lysosomal enzymes did not display such a difference. Normalization of glycemia in GK rats by phlorizin administered for 9 days did not influence either the lysosomal alpha-glucosidehydrolase activities or other lysosomal enzyme activities in GK islets. Finally, the pseudotetrasaccharide acarbose, which accumulates in the lysosomal system, inhibited acid glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase activity in parallel with its inhibitory action on glucose-induced insulin release in intact Wistar islets, whereas no effect was recorded for either parameter in intact GK islets. In contrast, acarbose inhibited the enzyme activity equally in islet homogenates from both GK and Wistar rats, showing that the catalytic activity of the enzyme itself in disrupted cells was unaffected. We propose that dysfunction of the islet lysosomal/vacuolar system is an important defect impairing the transduction mechanisms for glucose-induced insulin release in the GK rat.