Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ropinirole.
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication.
Generic Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, poor muscle control.
Requip is also known as Ropinirole, Ropidon, Adartrel, Ropark.
Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Generic Requip has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease.
Generic name of Generic Requip is Ropinirole.
Brand names of Generic Requip are Requip, Requip XL.
Take Generic Requip orally.
Take Generic Requip with or without food.
The dose and timing of Generic Requip in treating Parkinson's disease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Requip suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Requip and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Requip overdosage: nausea, vomiting, weakness, fainting, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle twitching, tingly feeling, chest pain.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Requip are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Requip if you are allergic to Generic Requip components.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you have heart disease, high or low blood pressure, mental illness or compulsive behaviors, kidney or liver disease.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are taking levodopa, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), metoclopramide (Reglan), omeprazole (Prilosec); medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil), perphenazine (Trilafon), thioridazine (Mellaril), promazine (Sparine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thiothixene (Navane), or haloperidol (Haldol); estrogen such as Premarin, Prempro, Estratest, Ogen, Estraderm, Climara, Vivelle, estradiol and others.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid machine driving.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Requip taking suddenly.
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Continuous dopaminergic stimulation is a therapeutic concept for the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) that proposes that continuous, as opposed to discontinuous or pulsatile, stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors will delay or prevent the onset of levodopa-related motor complications. This hypothesis has arisen from studies of the normal basal ganglia demonstrating that nigral dopaminergic neurons normally fire continuously and striatal dopamine levels are relatively constant. In MPTP monkeys, pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors with short-acting agents is associated with the induction of molecular and physiologic changes in basal ganglia neurons and the development of motor complications. These are avoided when dopaminergic therapies are delivered in a more continuous manner. Studies in animal models support this hypothesis, demonstrating that long-acting dopamine agonists are associated with a decreased risk of motor complications in comparison to short-acting formulations of levodopa. Similarly, continuous infusion of dopamine agonists ropinirole and rodigotine reduces dyskinesia associated with intermittent doses of oral formulations of the same drug. The current challenge is to develop a long-acting formulation of levodopa that simulates the pharmacokinetic pattern seen with infusions of levodopa in attempt to provide comparable benefits with an oral levodopa treatment strategy.
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In Australia, there is voluntary reporting of suspected adverse events (AEs) of therapeutic medicines. Some dopamine agonists (DAs) have serious AEs.
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This study demonstrated that therapeutic dosages of dopamine agonists were well tolerated by 46% of very elderly patients who received a trial of an agonist. These results indicate that dopamine receptor agonist therapeutic trials are warranted in selected very elderly patients.
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L-dopa in the treatment of PD is associated with motor fluctuations, dyskinesia, and other adverse effects. The use of dopamine agonists in the treatment of PD delays recourse to L-dopa and thus delays the possibility of adverse effect onset.
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Dyskinesia (abnormal involuntary movements) is a common complication of l-DOPA pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease, and is thought to depend on abnormal cell signaling in the basal ganglia. Dopamine (DA) denervated mice can exhibit behavioral and cellular signs of dyskinesia when they are treated with l-DOPA, but the clinical relevance of this animal model remains to be established. In this study, we have examined the pharmacological profile of l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in the mouse. C57BL/6 mice sustained unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in the striatum. The animals were treated chronically with daily doses of l-DOPA that were sufficient to ameliorate akinetic features without inducing overt signs of dyskinesia upon their first administration. In parallel, other groups of mice were treated with antiparkinsonian agents that do not induce dyskinesia when administered de novo, that is, the D2/D3 agonist ropinirole, and the adenosine A2a antagonist KW-6002. During 3 weeks of treatment, l-DOPA-treated mice developed AIMs affecting the head, trunk and forelimb on the side contralateral to the lesion. These movements were not expressed by animals treated with ropinirole or KW-6002 at doses that improved forelimb akinesia. The severity of l-DOPA-induced rodent AIMs was significantly reduced by the acute administration of compounds that have been shown to alleviate l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia both in parkinsonian patients and in rat and monkey models of Parkinson's disease (amantadine, -47%; buspirone, -46%; riluzole, -33%). The present data indicate that the mouse AIMs are indeed a functional equivalent of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.
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Three new dopamine agonists (cabergoline, pramipexole, ropinirole) have been put on to the market within the past months to treat patients with Parkinson's disease. Like any marketed dopamine agonists, the new compounds bind to the D2-like receptors. Pramipexole and ropinirole appear to be quite close drugs. Both are selective non ergot D2 (and preferentially D3) agonists, with an elimination half-life of 5 to 10 hours. Conversely, cabergoline is an ergot derivative, less selective for the D2 receptors, with a much longer elimination half-life (60 hours or more). In moderately advanced levodopa treated patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations, cabergoline, pramipexole and ropinirole all do significantly better than placebo in reducing UPDRS motor examination scores, time spent off and daily dose of levodopa. None of the 3 newer agonists proved to do significantly better than bromocriptine in this indication, at the cost of very similar adverse effects. In de novo levodopa naive patients, pramipexole and ropinirole did significantly better than placebo in short-term (few months) follow-up trials, at the cost again of classical dopaminergic adverse effects. Ropinirole was marginally more effective than bromocriptine, while its use induced the same risk of psychosis than the "old" reference agonist. Early treatment with cabergoline, compared with levodopa, in a long-term (5 year) study reduced the relative risk of developping motor complication by more than 50%. A similar study is presently on-going to compare ropinirole and levodopa. Clinical trials to assess putative neuroprotective effects are also on going with ropinirole and pramipexole. Up to now, the available clinical controlled data suggest that the newer dopamine agonists have very similar clinical effects with only minor superiority, if any, versus bromocriptine.
This was a 24 week, flexible-dose, OLE study in Chinese patients with advanced PD who received 24 week treatment with ropinirole PR in the preceding double-blind (DB), phase III study (NCT01154166) and had no break in receiving study treatment while switching from the DB study to the OLE study. In the OLE study, patients received ropinirole PR once daily, starting with 2 mg/d and increasing up to 8 mg/d at week 4 (2 mg increment/week); if tolerable, the dose could be further increased in 4 mg increments up to 24 mg/d according to clinical judgment. There were no efficacy assessments. Safety assessments included monitoring adverse events (AEs), neurological examination, Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale questionnaire, liver chemistry, and laboratory tests.
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Eleven patients (7 men, 4 women) were enrolled in the study. They received either levodopa SR or ropinirole for 6 weeks, followed by a washout week, then the alternate treatment for 6 weeks. Patients rated the severity of RLS by means of a 6-item questionnaire developed by the International Restless Legs Study Group (6-item IRLS), by the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, and by sleep diaries.
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To determine the frequency of compulsive behaviors in a Parkinson's disease (PD) clinic where agonist-treated patients were routinely asked about such aberrant behaviors.
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Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensory motor neurological disorder that is characterised by an irresistible urge to move the legs that significantly affects the quality of life of the patient. Prevalence in the general population is 5-25% and it is twice as prevalent in women as in men. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy with a fourfold increased risk of developing this disorder later in life. The pathophysiology of RLS is centred on dopaminergic dysfunction, reduced central nervous system iron, genetic linkages, or alteration in neurotransmitters such as hypocretins, endorphins levels and immune dysfunction and inflammatory mechanisms. With the emergence of new evidence, there are changes to the previous treatment recommendations for RLS. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that dopamine agonists such as rotigotine transdermal patch, pramipexole, ropinirole, gabapentin enacarbil, pregabalin and gabapentin are effective in the short-term treatment of RLS and rotigotine, followed by gabapentin enacarbil, ropinirole, pramipexole and gabapentin for long-term treatment. Based on expert consensus, the recommendation for daily RLS is dopamine agonists or gabapentin or low-potency opioids. Levodopa is less preferred for treating daily RLS due to its high risk of augmentation. For intermittent RLS, it is levodopa or dopamine agonists or low-potency opioids or benzodiazepines. For refractory RLS, the choice is to change to gabapentin or a different dopamine agonist, addition of a second agent like gabapentin or benzodiazepine to the existing drug or changing to a high-potency opioid or tramadol. Medications with safety record in pregnancy include opioids and antiepileptics such as carbamazepine and gabapentin. There are concerns that patients with RLS are at risk for metabolic deregulation, autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. However, a recent study concluded that RLS is not associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications.
Sixty-two patients treated with ropinirole or pramipexole were recruited for this study. We evaluated the historical and clinical characteristics including the motor symptom rating scales, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). An ESS score of 10 or greater was defined as EDS. Participants with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were determined to have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive factors of EDS.
The dataset for this study comprised 1799 patients who received ropinirole (either formulation) and 1258 patients who received placebo. No signal for suicidality was detected for ropinirole in the treatment of patients with RLS.
The dopaminergic drugs, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergocryptine, pergolide and ropinirole were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) at the dose of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day for 7 days into male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain. The drug pre-treatment reverted amnesia induced in rats by hypobaric hypopxia and tested in active and passive avoidance tasks. A restoration of memory retention, as assessed in a step-through passive avoidance task, was found in animals with a 2-month brain occlusive ischemia and exposed to dopaminergic drugs for 7 days. For behavioral effects in both active and passive avoidance tests in both experimental models, the rank of relative potency was ropirinole>bromocriptine=cabergoline>pergolide>dihydroergocryptine. Spontaneous ambulation of animals with brain occlusive ischemia was increased by the higher doses of drugs. All dopaminergic drugs reduced kainate mortality rate. The rank of relative potency for this effect was ropirinole=bromocriptine=cabergoline>pergolide=dihydroergocryptine. However, no change was found in other seizure parameters (latency to first convulsion and total number of convulsions) after drug treatment. A biochemical analysis of glutathione redox index (glutathione reduced/glutathione oxidized ratio) in discrete brain areas revealed that exposure to dopaminergic drugs increased this parameter in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of animals subject to hypobaric hypoxia and brain occlusive ischemia. For this effect, the relative potency rank was ropirinole>bromocriptine=cabergoline>pergolide=dihydroergocryptine. These behavioral and biochemical findings suggest that dopaminergic drugs may counteract either behavioral or biochemical changes induced by experimental models of brain injury. This activity was found after protective activity (as found in animals pre-treated with these drugs and exposed to hypobaric hypoxia) or reversal of brain injury (as found in animals treated after 2-month occlusive brain ischemia). Their neuroprotective activity probably involves the reduction/oxidation balance of the glutathione system in the brain.
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No significant differences between ropinirole and bromocriptine were found in off time reduction, dyskinesia as an adverse event, motor impairment and disability, or levodopa dose reduction. Withdrawal rates and adverse event frequency were similar with the two agents apart from significantly less nausea with ropinirole (odds ratio 0.50; 0.29, 0. 84 95% CI; p =0.01).
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Our meta-analysis showed long-acting NEDAs were noninferior to standard NEDAs in efficacy, tolerability, and safety in the treatment of PD.
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A significantly greater number of ropinirole patients were able to achieve a 20% or greater reduction in both L-dopa dose and in percent time spent "off" compared with placebo (35.0% versus 13.0%; p = 0.003). The mean daily L-dopa dose was reduced significantly with ropinirole treatment (242 mg versus 51 mg; p < 0.001) as was the percent awake time spent "off" (11.7% versus 5.1%; p = 0.039). There was no difference in the percent of patients who withdrew because of adverse effects (15.8% on ropinirole versus 16.7% on placebo).
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a relatively common disorder that leads to considerable distress in and of itself and amplifies other physical symptoms, such as pain, by exacerbating sleep disturbance in affected patients. Due to its prevalence, it is important to query patients about this syndrome, evaluate for treatable causes, and provide palliative therapy to optimize comfort and normalize sleep patterns. This brief review summarizes current understanding of pathophysiology, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.
For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP) and aspirin (ASA) to human holo-transferrin (hTf) has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering), as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD) spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.
Ropinirole hydrochloride, a dopamine receptor agonist with a non-ergot alkaloid structure, is highly selective for the dopamine D(2) /D(3) receptors. This study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy after repeated oral administration of prolonged-release tablets of ropinirole hydrochloride in the absence of L-dopa preparations in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
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Although 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA-induced) rats are a well-known Parkinson's disease model, the effects of dopamine D2 agonists in mice with 6-OHDA-induced lesions are not completely understood. We produced mice with 6-OHDA-induced lesions and measured their total locomotion counts following administration of several dopamine D2 agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, cabergoline, rotigotine, apomorphine, talipexole, and quinelorane). Cabergoline showed the longest duration of drug action, which was in agreement with its long-lived anti-Parkinson effects in rats and humans. In contrast, pramipexole and ropinirole had notably short durations of drug action. We demonstrated that mice with 6-OHDA-induced lesions accompanied with significant lesions in the striatum may be reasonable models to predict the action duration of anti-Parkinson drug candidates in humans.
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There are many reasons for patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease to develop sleep disorders and subsequent daytime sleepiness. Important causes are reduction of total sleep duration and sleep efficiency, and an increase in respiratory and motor arousals. This daytime sleepiness at first glance seems different from the "sleep attacks" which caused motot vehicle mishaps reported recently in persons taking pramipexole and ropinirole. There is, however, only little evidence that we deal with a new phenomenon in a new clinical situation, i. e. cataplexy-like attacks after high doses of new non-ergot dopamine-agonists. Until now there is no single case of a proven cataplexy on one hand, and older dopamine agonists like pergolide as well as L-Dopa + carbidopa have been reported to induce sudden onsets of sleep, too.
Based on an internal request, GlaxoSmithKline conducted a retrospective pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare suicidality in adult subjects with restless legs syndrome (RLS) who were being treated with ropinirole. The objective was to proactively evaluate the incidence of potentially suicidal thoughts or behaviors (suicidality) among patients with RLS treated with ropinirole immediate release (IR) or controlled release (CR).
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This study identified apomorphine use and levodopa dosages between 500 and 1000 mg as non-genetic and the 15× DRD2 CA repeat allele as genetic determinants for the discontinuation of non-ergoline DA treatment in patients with PD. More research is needed to replicate these findings.
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Inclusion criteria were patients with probable PD suffering from a wearing-off phenomenon and who had been treated using levodopa/carbidopa with or without entacapone, but not with other classes of anti-Parkinson agents. Patients were excluded if they had at least one condition that could be associated with high AVP levels. Ropinirole was initiated at 0.5 mg 3 times daily, and daily dosages were increased by 1.5 mg/day on a biweekly basis up to 6 mg/day. Plasma AVP levels were determined every two weeks. Effects of escalating ropinirole dosage on plasma AVP levels were evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures, an a priori Dunnett multiple comparison test, and a regression analysis.
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Patients with hemiparesis 1 to 12 months after stroke were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of ropinirole+physical therapy versus placebo+physical therapy, results of which have previously been reported (NCT00221390).(15) Primary end point was change in gait velocity. Enrollees underwent baseline multimodal assessment that included 19 measures spanning 5 assessment categories (medical history, impairment, disability, brain injury, and brain function), and also underwent reassessment 3 weeks after end of therapy.
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Patients diagnosed with RLS were randomly divided into three groups with thirty patients in each group (Group A: Bupropion [300 mg/day], Group B: Ropinirole [0.25-0.5 mg/day], and Group C: Oral iron [150 mg elemental iron] along with folic acid [500 μg]). Each participant was then assessed for severity of RLS, as well as RLS-related quality at the baseline, and thereafter, every 14(th) day till 6 weeks based on the International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) severity rating scale and Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life (RLSQoL) Questionnaire, respectively.
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We describe the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of three RLS patients with unilateral symptoms.
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To confirm the superiority of transdermal rotigotine up to 16 mg/24 h over placebo, and non-inferiority to ropinirole, in Japanese Parkinson's disease (PD) patients on concomitant levodopa therapy.
1. Entacapone and rasagiline should be offered to reduce off time (Level A). Pergolide, pramipexole, ropinirole, and tolcapone should be considered to reduce off time (Level B). Apomorphine, cabergoline, and selegiline may be considered to reduce off time (Level C). 2. The available evidence does not establish superiority of one medicine over another in reducing off time (Level B). Sustained release carbidopa/levodopa and bromocriptine may be disregarded to reduce off time (Level C). 3. Amantadine may be considered to reduce dyskinesia (Level C). 4. Deep brain stimulation of the STN may be considered to improve motor function and reduce off time, dyskinesia, and medication usage (Level C). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the efficacy of DBS of the GPi or VIM nucleus of the thalamus in reducing off time, dyskinesia, or medication usage, or to improve motor function. 5. Preoperative response to levodopa predicts better outcome after DBS of the STN (Level B).
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