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Retrovir (Zidovudine)
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Retrovir

Generic Retrovir is used for treating HIV infection when used along with other medicines. It is also used with other medicines to help prevent women from passing the HIV virus to the fetus during pregnancy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Sustiva, Combivir, Epivir, Zerit

 

Also known as:  Zidovudine.

Description

Generic Retrovir is an antiviral. It works by blocking the reproduction of the HIV virus.

Generic name of Generic Retrovir is Zidovudine.

Retrovir is also known as Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, Zidovir, Retrovis.

Brand name of Generic Retrovir is Retrovir.

Dosage

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Retrovir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Retrovir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Be careful with Generic Retrovir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Retrovir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are allergic to Generic Retrovir components.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you have an enlarged liver, high lactic acid levels in the blood, or abnormal liver function tests.

Do not use Generic Retrovir if you are taking doxorubicin, ribavirin, stavudine, or any medicine that contains zidovudine.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems, bone marrow problems, low white blood cell levels, kidney problems, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or other liver problems.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you take zalcitabine because severe pancreas problems may occur, fluconazole, ganciclovir, interferon alfa, probenecid, valproic acid, or any medicine that contains zidovudine because they may increase the risk of Generic Retrovir 's side effects; doxorubicin, ribavirin, or stavudine because they may decrease Generic Retrovir 's effectiveness.

Be careful with Generic Retrovir if you are very overweight.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

buy retrovir

Each subject provided a series of semen samples that was examined for HIV-1 by virus culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transmission electron micrography.

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AZT, at concentrations 250 microM and above, caused depopulation of the Leu-19-positive myotubes, destructive changes in the mitochondria consisting of swelling, lamellar inclusions and multiple concentric cristae, accumulation of lipid droplets, and increase lysosomes. L-Carnitine increased the number of Leu-19-positive myotubes from 3.4 +/- 0.6 to 9.4 +/- 1.2, preserved the morphology of the mitochondria, increased their volumetric density from 2.5 +/- 0.4 to 6.0 +/- 0.7, and reduced the volumetric density of the lipid droplets from 12.2 +/- 4.9 to 1.4 +/- 0.7 and of the lysosomes from 15.6 +/- 3.6 to 3.9 +/- 1.4 (p < 0.001).

retrovir oral suspension

In this study of HIV positive patients with PPROM, the mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV did not seem to be related to the duration of rupture of membranes prior to delivery.

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To assess the association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes and the incidence rates of CD4 decline to < 20% and to AIDS.

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Antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis during the antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum periods, cesarean delivery and avoidance of breast milk significantly reduce vertical transmission of HIV.

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The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Zidovudine (AZT)-loaded microparticulated bioadhesive vaginal gel (MBVG) in order to obtain a controlled releasing, safe gel delivery system. AZT microparticles (ZMPs) were evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, surface morphology and in vitro drug release profiles and drug release mechanism and optimized. The optimized ZMPs were then encompassed in bioadhesive gel using different bioadhesive polymers and evaluated for the drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo drug release profiles, drug release mechanism and vaginal irritancy study. From the dissolution data of ZMP4 and MBVG4 showed a zero-order diffusion pattern and Fickian diffusion case I transport mechanism in 24 and 36 h, respectively. On the basis of a pharmacokinetic study of MBVG4 (containing ZMP: Carbopol 1:4), it was found to have better bioavailability, larger AUC and T(max) in comparison to an oral pure suspension of AZT.

retrovir tablets

The Patient Medication Adherence Questionnaire Version 1.0 (PMAQ-V1.0) is a patient-reported adherence instrument to assess medication-taking behaviors and identify barriers to adherence with antiretroviral therapy. To assess the correlation between adherence and virologic outcome, the PMAQ-V1.0 was administered to 194 antiretroviral-experienced adults with HIV infection enrolled in a 16-week evaluation of protease inhibitor-containing regimens featuring a lamivudine/zidovudine combination tablet. At baseline, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were less than 10,000 copies/mL and CD4(+)-cell counts were equal to or greater than 300 x 10(6)/L; patients had been receiving a conventional regimen of lamivudine + zidovudine (separately) plus a protease inhibitor for at least 10 weeks immediately prior to the study. Forty-eight percent of patients who reported missing at least one dose of a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) during the study had detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA, compared with 26% of patients who reported no missed doses (P = .002). Patients who missed at least one dose of an NRTI or protease inhibitor were 2.5 times more likely to have quantifiable HIV-1 RNA than those who reported no missed doses. Patients who reported fewer barriers and more motivators to adherence had better virologic outcomes (P = .001). Several dimensions of the PMAQ-V1.0 did not function as well as hypothesized. In this study, self-reported adherence derived from the PMAQ-V1.0 predicted virologic outcomes, but further refinement of the dimensions appears warranted.

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A retrospective analysis was conducted of HIV/AIDS cases registered at the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. There were 104 such cases, but, due to incomplete data or lost to follow up, the analysis included only 66 HIV/AIDS cases. The age of the 66 HIV/AIDS cases ranged from 0 to 60 years. 89.4% were 21-40 years old. The female to male ratio was 1:10. 53.8% of the HIV/AIDS cases had acquired HIV via intravenous drug use. The next most common HIV transmission modes were heterosexual and homosexual intercourse (20% and 13.8%, respectively). There were 73 episodes of AIDS-defining illness among the 66 patients. The most common illnesses were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (32.9%) and esophageal candidiasis (16.4%). Of the 28 patients who had at least 1 CD4+ measurement, 54% had a CD4+ count less than 500/mcl. 66% of them had at least 1 AIDS-defining illness. 17 HIV/AIDS patients had already died. The leading causes of death were fulminant pneumonia (23.5%) and PCP (17.6%). The probability of survival at 2.7 years after HIV diagnosis was 50%. The probability of survival free from AIDS-defining illness at 2 years was also 50%. Reasons for poor survival included delay in HIV diagnosis, presentation late in the course of HIV disease (the case in 50% of HIV/AIDS patients at the hospital), poor compliance to follow-up, and non-availability of zidovudine until recently.

retrovir syrup

Data of 1844 patients (1198-Male & 645-Female) enrolled from November 2005 to December 2007 was collected. 222 patients developed about 228 ADRs with prevalence of 12.36%. Peripheral neuropathy and anemia were highly prevalent ADRs. Nevirapine induced rash and SJ syndrome developed within first month of treatment followed by anemia, hepatitis and gastritis which developed within 6 months after initiation of ART. 96.49% ADRs were found to be possible and 3.50% probable by WHO probability scale. 20 (8.77%) were mild, 176 (77.19%) were moderate and 32 (14.02%) were severe in nature. 183 (80.26%) ADRs were found to be non-serious whereas 45 (19.74%) were serious. Only 2.63% ADRs were found to be preventable which included vomiting and rash. Odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated.

retrovir dosing

Although HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities reside in spatially distinct domains of the enzyme, inhibitors that bind in the RT polymerase domain can affect RNase H activity. We used both gel assays and a real-time FRET assay to analyze the impact of three mechanistically distinct RT polymerase inhibitors on RNase H activity in vitro. The nucleoside analogue 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine triphosphate (AZT-TP) had no effect, whereas the pyrophosphate analogue phosphonoformate (PFA) inhibited RNase H activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) enhanced RNase H catalysis, but the cleavage products differed substantially for RNA/DNA hybrid substrates of different lengths. A comparison of 61 different RT crystal structures revealed that NNRTI binding opened the angle between the polymerase and RNase H domains of the p66 subunit and reduced the relative motion of the thumb and RNase H regions, suggesting that NNRTI enhancement of RNase H cleavage may result from increased accessibility of the RNase H active site to the RNA/DNA hybrid duplex. We also examined the effects of combining a diketo acid (DKA) RNase H inhibitor with various RT polymerase inhibitors on polymerase-independent RNase H cleavage, RNA-dependent DNA polymerization, and in reverse-transcription assays. Interestingly, although the NNRTI decreased DKA potency in polymerase-independent RNase H assays, NNRTI/DKA combinations were synergistic in inhibiting reverse transcription overall, indicating that regimens incorporating both NNRTI and RNase H inhibitors may be therapeutically beneficial.

retrovir generic

A selective and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC-UV) method was developed and validated from human plasma. Nevirapine and internal standard (IS) zidovudine were extracted from human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction process using methyl tert-butyl ether. The samples were analysed using Inertsil ODS 3, 250×4.6 mm, 5 μ column using a mobile phase consists of 50 mM sodium acetate buffer solution (pH-4.00±0.05): acetonitrile (73:27 v/v). The method was validated over a concentration range of 50.00 ng/ml to 3998.96 ng/ml. The method was successfully applied to bioequivalence study of 10 ml single dose nevirapine oral suspension 50 mg/5 ml in healthy male volunteers.

retrovir dosage

To study the effect of sequential or additive use of zalcitabine or didanosine on survival in 308 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with advanced disease treated with zidovudine, an observational study using time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models was done. Changing to sequential or additive therapy was based on deterioration of a patient's health status, a significant drop in CD4 cell count, or intolerance for zidovudine. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 110 x 10(6)/L; 42% of patients had AIDS. The median count before a change in therapy was 50 x 10(6)/L. Additive or sequential treatment was associated with an increased risk for death (relative hazard, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.49; and 1.58; 95% CI, 1.10-2.37, respectively). Adjustment of the models for prognostic factors failed to substantially affect this observation. Possibly the lack of benefit in this study is because patients switched therapy at advanced stages, whereas the switch may be more effective in early disease.

retrovir 200 mg

DNA repair is an essential outcome of DNA damage, which may compromise the end point of various in vitro and in vivo test systems of the genotoxicity evaluation. poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes have an essential role in DNA repair. Here, we investigated the effect of 3-AB, a PARP inhibitor on the sensitivity of comet and PBMN assays.

retrovir medication

ECS is an efficacious intervention for the prevention of MTCT among HIV-1-infected women not taking ARVs or taking only zidovudine. The risk of PPM with ECS is higher than that associated with vaginal delivery, yet lower than with NECS. Among HIV-1-infected women, more advanced maternal HIV-1 disease stage and concomitant medical conditions (e.g., diabetes) are independent risk factors for PPM. The risk of MTCT of HIV-1 according to mode of delivery among HIV-1-infected women with low viral loads (low either because the woman's HIV-1 disease is not advanced, or because her HIV-1 disease is well-controlled with ARVs) is unclear. Therefore, an important issue to be addressed in one or more large studies (individual studies or an individual patient data meta-analysis combining data from more than one study) is assessment of the effectiveness of ECS for prevention of MTCT of HIV-1 among HIV-1-infected women with undetectable viral loads (with or without receipt of highly active ARV therapy (HAART)).

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Hearing loss was common, seen in 29 subjects (29%). It was significantly associated with age and history of ear infection and tended to be more common in subjects prescribed antiretroviral agents. An interaction existed between age and antiretroviral therapy; the association between hearing loss and antiretroviral therapy was significant for subjects aged 35 years or older, but not for subjects younger than 35 years. In subjects aged 35 years or older, this association remained significant using a multivariate model that included those variables found to have the greatest potential for confounding (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-20.5; P = .05).

retrovir dosage forms

Most patients were homosexual (71%), and 91% were male. Only one patient (3%) had a single exposure with a known HIV-infected person and was therefore eligible for PEP. Eight patients (23%) who did not know the HIV status of their partner would have been eligible considering single exposure as a sufficient criterion for PEP. Oro-genital contact appears to account for transmission in four instances. Eleven persons (31%) were infected after sexual contact with their stable partner, of whom 7 did not known his/her HIV status. Twelve patients (34%) were infected after multiple unprotected sexual contact with unknown partners.

retrovir medicine

Since 1986, the French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolled all HIV-infected women in 90 centers and collected follow-up on their children through 2 years of age. All CHDs were reviewed by a specialist blinded to exposures. Additionally, in a randomized trial (PRIMEVA ANRS 135) of 2 ARV regimens during pregnancy, 1 of which was without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, infants had a specific follow-up including echocardiography at 1 month and 12 months.

cost of retrovir

Three treatment comparisons from randomized trials [Delta, AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 175, Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) 007 and ACTC 320] were mimicked in cohorts: (i) zidovudine monotherapy versus combination regimens of two nucleoside analogues; (ii) zidovudine combined with either didanosine or zalcitabine; and (iii) a dual combination versus a triple regimen including a protease inhibitor. Data for over 10 000 patients from the French Hospital Database on HIV, the EuroSIDA study and the Swiss HIV cohort study were analysed for each of the comparisons. Progression to AIDS disease or death was analysed in Cox models, adjusting for baseline differences, and results compared with randomized trials.

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Haematopoietic growth factors such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are effective in the treatment of AIDS-related neutropenia. G-CSF appears to be better tolerated than GM-CSF. Moreover, GM-CSF can stimulate HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. Thus G-CSF may offer a better treatment option in some patients. Doses of up to 300 micrograms G-CSF (filgrastim) per day rapidly reverse neutropenia in most HIV-infected patients. Subsequently, normal neutrophil counts can be maintained with intermittent doses (1-7 days a week). This allows greater use of myelosuppressive agents. Recombinant human erythropoietin is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of anaemia due to zidovudine when endogenous erythropoietin levels are < or = 500 IU/l. Recombinant human erythropoietin combined with CSF also appears to be well tolerated and effective in the treatment of combined cytopenias. Other haematopoietic growth factor combinations are currently being explored.

retrovir dose

A total of 8237 samples were analyzed. In all, 84% of the mothers ever breast-fed their children. In instances where both mother and baby received intervention, the transmission rates of HIV were higher among those who are still breast-feeding after 6 to 12 months. Disclosure, location, and mode of delivery did not have an effect on the transmission rates of HIV when both mother and baby received prophylaxis.

retrovir pediatric dosing

We examined the effect of methadone treatment, duration of Medicaid enrollment during pregnancy, and other maternal characteristics on receipt of prenatal care by 2,254 women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) delivering a singleton in New York state from 1985 through 1990. Data were obtained from the New York State Medicaid HIV/AIDS Research Data Base and vital statistics records. Adequacy of the number of prenatal visits reported by the mother on vital statistics records was assessed with use of the Kessner Index, which adjusts for gestational age at delivery. Too few visits were reported by 65% of the study population. Illicit drug users had higher odds of having too few visits [1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-2.17] than methadone-treated women but the odds were similar for non-drug users and methadone-treated women (0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.25). Women with brief Medicaid enrollment (< or = 25% of pregnancy) had 45% higher odds of having too few visits than did longer enrollees. Treatment for drug addiction and longer Medicaid enrollment during pregnancy may offer important interventions to increase prenatal care of HIV-infected women. Approaches to increase prenatal care of HIV-infected women are especially important given trials showing a reduction in vertical transmission from zidovudine treatment during pregnancy.

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Four university-based or -affiliated clinics.

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HIV infection has been associated with decline in a number of cognitive functions that are components of 'working memory'. Thus, tests of working memory that require the interaction of these components may be particularly sensitive to cognitive dysfunction that arises from HIV infection. To assess this possibility, working memory was examined in 147 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 38 HIV-seronegative (HIV-) males using the Reading Span Test and the Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Speed of information processing, a component of some working memory tasks, was assessed with a version of the Sternberg Memory Scanning task. Results indicated that symptomatic HIV+ subjects were impaired relative to HIV- control subjects on the Reading Span and Digit Span tests. Asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic HIV+ groups exhibited a trend toward impairment on these tests, and on the whole, a greater proportion of HIV+ subjects than HIV- subjects were impaired. The groups did not differ significantly in information processing speed. These results indicate that deficits in working memory are apparent in at least a subset of HIV-infected individuals. These deficits are most apparent in symptomatic HIV+ individuals, but the decline may begin during the asymptomatic phase of infection.

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These data indicate that pharmacologic variability affects antiretroviral response. Furthermore, these findings provide a framework to characterize the pharmacologic determinants of effect and quantitate their contribution to the heterogeneity in clinical response to optimize therapeutic benefit.

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Since the introduction of HAART the incidence of HIV dementia has declined and HAART seems to improve neurocognitive function in patients with HIV dementia. Currently, HIV dementia develops mainly in patients without effective treatment, though it has also been described in patients on HAART and milder HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment is still frequent among HIV-1 infected patients regardless of HAART. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of markers of neural injury and immune activation have been found in HIV dementia, but neither of those, nor CSF HIV-1 RNA levels have been proven useful as diagnostic or prognostic pseudomarkers in HIV dementia.

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Some children with perinatal HIV infection develop early progression to severe symptoms (Category C) within the first 4 years of life. Prophylactic therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) may affect progression by decreasing the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP).

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Upon histological examinations fetal livers and kidneys appeared normal. In contrast the maternal samples revealed structural alterations. Maternal kidneys of the three experimental groups exhibited progressive and dose-dependent histological alterations; liver alterations were detected only in Exp3. Blood levels of AST and ALT were not significantly different from the control group but urea and creatinine levels were lower in groups Exp3 and Exp1.

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Thirty-six (43%) parents described moderate (n = 30) or great (n = 6) interference with everyday life. This was more frequent among parents of children whose HIV disease progressed (P = 0.03, Fisher's exact test) but was unrelated to ethnicity, country of origin, treatment allocated or adverse events. Invited comments suggested that concern about forgetting doses and the taste/volume of the trial medication contributed to interference with everyday life. Seventy-six (90%) parents considered information received during the trial adequate. The eight expressing dissatisfaction were recruited in the same country and five of them were among the eight (10%) who stated that they would not want to enroll their child in another trial.

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retrovir 200 mg 2015-06-14

Phase I/II, buy retrovir open and dose-ranging (0.125 to 4 mg/kg/day in two divided doses).

retrovir dosage 2016-11-01

Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from mother to child can occur in utero, during labour or after delivery from breastfeeding. The majority of infants are infected during delivery. Maternal HIV-1 plasma viral load at delivery is the most important predictor of vertical transmission. For this reason, efforts to interrupt transmission have focused on the use of antiretroviral therapy. Zidovudine has been shown to reduce significantly vertical HIV transmission when used antepartum and intrapartum by the mother and postpartum by the newborn for 6 weeks. However, zidovudine monotherapy increases the risk of developing zidovudine resistance and may jeopardize the goal of durable viral suppression and allow HIV disease progression in the mother and transmission to the infant. Potent antiretroviral therapy is now recommended for all HIV-infected pregnant women using the same criteria for non-pregnant individuals. If possible, combination antiretroviral regimens should include the use of zidovudine but not at the expense of long-term viral suppression. The use of elective Caesarean section should probably be reserved for women who fail to achieve viral suppression at the time of delivery or if indicated for obstetrical reasons. The practice of breastfeeding has been shown to diminish the long-term efficacy of perinatal antiretroviral therapy. All HIV-infected mothers buy retrovir should avoid breastfeeding the newborn if possible. This review summarizes major prospective and retrospective antiretroviral treatment studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Pharmacokinetic information as it relates to pregnancy and adverse event profiles of antiretroviral agents are also discussed. The impact of recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy is discussed with regard to their feasibility in resource-poor countries.

retrovir cost 2015-03-09

Progression to AIDS was more rapid in individuals harbouring syncytium-inducing (SI) viral isolates or showing a conversion from non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) to SI viral isolates. One out of 20 patients who spent a total of 559 months harbouring an buy retrovir NSI phenotype progressed to AIDS, whereas eight out of 12 patients who spent a total of 223 months harbouring an SI phenotype progressed to AIDS (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between SI and non-SI isolates in the frequency of five mutations causing zidovudine resistance. However, all SI isolates obtained after 2 years of treatment contained mutations in codons 41 and 215 of the RT gene, whereas only five out of 11 (45%) NSI isolates obtained at that time had this combination of mutations.

retrovir drug name 2015-07-26

HIV-1 215 revertants with an increased buy retrovir ability for selecting 215Y mutation are associated with a higher risk of virological failure and may lead to the appearance of virus carrying 215Y/F mutation in vivo. These findings suggest that 215 revertant viruses may compromise the efficacy of the first thymidine analog-containing regimen.

retrovir syrup zidovudine 2016-08-31

Several allometric models were used to predict clearance (4 models), volume of distribution (2 models), and half-life (2 models) in extremely low to low birth weight neonates. From the literature, clearance, volume of distribution, and half-life values for 16 drugs for these neonates were obtained. The predictive performance of these allometric models was evaluated by comparing the predicted values of the aforementioned pharmacokinetic parameters with the observed pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual neonate. For the evaluation of the predictive performance of these allometric models, there were 16 drugs with 36 (n = 279), 34 (n = 261), and 31 (n = 197) weight groups for clearance, volume buy retrovir of distribution, and half-life, respectively.

retrovir overdose 2017-06-16

Amdoxovir ([-]-beta-D-2,6-diaminopurine dioxolane [DAPD]) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against HIV-1. DAPD is deaminated in vivo by adenosine deaminase to (-)-beta-D-dioxolane guanosine (DXG), a highly active anti-HIV compound. The median 50% effective concentrations (EC 50 ) +/- SD (representing antiviral activity against a laboratory-derived HIV-1 isolate) for DAPD and DXG in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were 4.0 +/- 2.2 micromol/L and 0.25 +/- 0.17 micromol/L, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic dose (CC 50 ) of both DAPD and DXG was >500 micromol/L. Recombinant viruses and clinical isolates of HIV-1 from patients for whom NRTI therapy and/or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) combination therapies failed remained susceptible to inhibition by DXG (less than fourfold change in EC 50). Similar analysis showed that recombinant viruses harboring mutations known to confer resistance to NRTIs (zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir) and NNRTIs (efavirenz and nevirapine) as well as the multidrug resistance-associated mutation Q151M and double codon insertions (SS and SG) were also susceptible to inhibition by buy retrovir DXG. Resistance to DXG was observed only in recombinant isolates containing the 65R and 151M double mutations. Phenotypic analysis of a site-directed mutant containing only the 151M mutation demonstrated moderate resistance to DXG (<10-fold change in EC 50). We also examined site-directed mutants containing only L74V or K65R, the characteristic resistance mutations for DXG. The L74V mutant remained susceptible to inhibition by DXG, and the K65R mutant demonstrated moderate resistance to DXG.

retrovir capsules 2017-12-11

Anthropometry was performed serially in 282 term infants born to HIV-infected women in a multicenter prospective natural history cohort study. Repeated measures analysis was used to compare z-score anthropometric indexes of weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-for-length, and head circumference-for-age between infected and uninfected infants, with adjustment for buy retrovir covariates including infant gender; maternal education; prenatal alcohol, tobacco, and/or illicit drug exposure; and mean prenatal CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. A separate repeated measures model was used to assess the effect of infant zidovudine treatment on growth.

retrovir dosage forms 2017-05-17

A 48-year old male coinfected by human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus ( buy retrovir HCV) genotype 3a. The patient was under clinically and virologically effective treatment with Trizivir (zidovudine, lamivudine and abacavir) when it was decided to initiate treatment for the chronic HCV infection with peginterferon and ribavirin. Should the ongoing antiretroviral treatment be adjusted?

retrovir tablets spc 2017-09-09

198 adults with HIV- buy retrovir 1 infection and no more than 350 CD4+ lymphocytes/mm3 who had received at least 6 months of nucleoside therapy.

retrovir 250 mg 2016-02-10

33 HIV-infected, zidovudine-experienced patients with serum HIV buy retrovir RNA levels of at least 20,000 copies/mL and CD4 counts ranging from 50 to 400 cells/mm3.

retrovir syrup dosage 2015-07-30

3T3-F442A white and T37i brown adipocytes were exposed to buy retrovir stavudine (10 microM), zidovudine (1 microM) and indinavir (10 microM), alone or in combination. Adipocyte fat content was measured with Oil Red 0 staining. Quantification of mRNA levels and of mitochondrial DNA content used PCR-based techniques. Mitochondrial activities were evaluated with respiration, ATP synthesis and spectrophotometric assays. Mitochondrial mass was assessed by the fluorescent probe MitoTracker Red.

retrovir tablets 2017-12-04

After a median follow-up of 35 months, disease progression or death occurred in 62 percent of the 363 patients assigned to zidovudine plus didanosine, 63 percent of the 367 assigned to zidovudine plus zalcitabine, and 66 percent of the 372 assigned to zidovudine only (P=0.24). As compared with zidovudine therapy, treatment with zidovudine plus didanosine was associated with a relative risk of disease progression or death of 0.86 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.03), and treatment with zidovudine plus zalcitabine was associated with a relative risk of buy retrovir 0.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.76 to 1.10). Survival was similar in the three groups. In a subgroup analysis, combination therapy delayed disease progression or death in patients who had previously received zidovudine for 12 months or less. Therapy with zidovudine plus didanosine resulted in more gastrointestinal adverse effects, and treatment with zidovudine plus zalcitabine, more neuropathy. The mean increases in CD4 cell counts at two months were higher with combination therapy than with zidovudine alone.

retrovir dose 2017-06-11

To evaluate the efficacy of antiretroviral therapies in reducing the risk of mother-to buy retrovir -child transmission of HIV infection.

cost of retrovir 2015-11-01

PNU-140690 is a member of a new class of nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (sulfonamide-containing 5,6-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-pyrones) discovered by structure-based design. PNU-140690 has excellent potency against a variety of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) laboratory strains and clinical isolates, including those resistant to the reverse transcriptase inhibitors zidovudine or delavirdine. When combined with either zidovudine or delavirdine, PNU-140690 contributes to synergistic antiviral activity. PNU-140690 is also highly active against HIV-1 variants resistant to peptidomimetic protease inhibitors, Requip Drug Classification underscoring the structural distinctions between PNU-140690 and substrate analog protease inhibitors. PNU-140690 retains good antiviral activity in vitro in the presence of human plasma proteins, and preclinical pharmacokinetic studies revealed good oral bioavailability. Accordingly, PNU-140690 is a candidate for clinical evaluation.

retrovir generic name 2016-07-14

Mature Langerhans cells (mLC), the ex vivo correlates of interdigitating dendritic cells (IDC), are susceptible to infection with HIV-1. As IDC are important activators of T helper (Th) cells in vivo, we examined the interaction of HIV-1-infected mLC with CD4+ T lymphocytes. HIV-1-infected mLC readily formed clusters with the T cells and efficiently transmitted HIV-1 to the CD4+ Th cells. Formation of syncytia between mLC and T cells was initiated by HIV-1-infected mLC. In the clusters of HIV-1-infected mLC and activated T cells Lasix Normal Dosage a massive HIV-1 production was observed leading to the subsequent elimination of the activated and infected T helper cells. Examination of the cytokine pattern produced during interaction of infected mLC with CD4+ T cells revealed an enhanced production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 in the cocultures. These results suggest that during antigen presentation-driven T cell activation by IDC in the lymphoid tissues, HIV-1-infected IDC might efficiently transmit the virus to Th cells, leading to altered Th cell responses.

retrovir generic 2016-01-16

After phosphorylation to the corresponding diphosphates, 2'-azido-2'-deoxycytidine and Tricor Pill 2'-difluorocytidine act as powerful inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase. Phosphorylation requires deoxycytidine kinase, an enzyme with particularly high activity in lymphoid cells. Therefore, the deoxycytidine analogs can be expected to inhibit the reductase with some specificity for the lymphoid system. Pretreatment of human CEM lymphoblasts with the analogs considerably increased the phosphorylation of 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AzT). The increased phosphorylation of AzT is caused by a prolongation of the S phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest the possibility of a combination of 2'-substituted deoxycytidine analogs with AzT in the treatment of AIDS. Gao et al. [Gao, W.-Y., Cara, A., Gallo, R. C. & Lori, F. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 8925-8928] have suggested the use of the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor hydroxyurea for this purpose, since the resulting decrease in the size of deoxyribonucleotide pools decreases the processivity of the HIV reverse transcriptase. From our results it would appear that the 2'-substituted deoxycytidine analogs might be preferable to hydroxyurea.

retrovir drug 2016-09-27

Ninety patients were enrolled. They had been receiving ART for a median time of 42 months and half were receiving zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine. Seventy-five per cent of patients were infected with CRF02_AG. Esomeprazole Nexium Generic Twenty-seven per cent of patients displayed a plasma viral load <50 copies/mL. Among the 66 patients with detectable viraemia, the median viral load was 4.7 log10 copies/mL (IQR = 3.0-5.6). The prevalence of NRTI and NNRTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) was 63% and 71%, respectively; and the median number of NRTI and NNRTI RAMs was 2 and 3, respectively. Two patients (4%) displayed viruses with PI RAMs. Regarding NRTI drug resistance, 29%, 38%, 63%, 29% and 25% of patients had viruses resistant to zidovudine, stavudine, lamivudine/emtricitabine, abacavir and tenofovir, respectively. Regarding the NNRTI drug class, 56%, 65%, 33% and 42% of patients had viruses resistant to efavirenz, nevirapine, etravirine and rilpivirine, respectively.

retrovir dosing 2017-07-01

Cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES e.g. macrophages) play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of specifically targeting antiviral drugs such as azidothymidine (AZT) to macrophages using nanoparticles as colloidal drug Nolvadex Reviews carriers. In a first series of experiments the body distribution of 14C-labelled AZT bound to nanoparticles and a similarly prepared control solution with unbound AZT were studied in rats after intravenous injection. In a second series of experiments polysorbate 80-coated nanoparticles and a solution of AZT in saline were tested. 14C-labelled AZT was bound to nanoparticles using the surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulphosuccinate sodium (DOSS). The radioactivity in several organs, including those containing large numbers of macrophages, was measured after intravenous injection of the AZT-nanoparticles and the AZT-control solutions. AZT concentrations were up to 18 times higher in organs belonging to the RES if the drug was bound to nanoparticles compared with unbound AZT. These results demonstrate that nanoparticles are a potential drug targeting system for anti-AIDS drugs. The increase in drug concentration at the sites containing abundant macrophages may allow a reduction in dosage to reduce systemic toxicity.

retrovir drug interactions 2017-07-17

284 individuals were included. The most common NRTIs used included lamivudine (79%), zidovudine (50%), abacavir (39%), and stavudine (24%). Twenty-two patients (8%) had increased lactates (mean = 2.7 mmol/L; range, 2.1-4.5 mmol/L), while 262 patients (92%) had normal lactates (mean = 1.2 mmol/L, range, 0.1-2.0 mmol/L). Median symptom scores were similar between groups (3 vs. 2, p = .23). Spearman's correlation coefficient Motrin Dose for lactate and symptom score was 0.07 (p = .22).

retrovir pediatric dosing 2016-12-27

To evaluate the impact of counseling Imitrex Dosing Instructions on reproductive choices in seropositive women in South-Eastern Italy.

buy retrovir 2017-06-09

This study demonstrates that primary HIV-1 infection can be treated with NNRTI-based Nexium Dosage Otc HAART.

retrovir brand name 2016-08-15

We reviewed the medical records of HIV-exposed infants born in North Carolina between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1999, who were tested for HIV DNA. These results were compared with data collected on HIV-exposed infants born from 1993 through 1997.

retrovir medication 2016-12-22

A retrospective study of children started on HAART between August 2002 and November 2004 was completed.

retrovir medicine 2017-09-24

To better characterize an unusual blepharoptosis observed in HIV-positive patients and to evaluate histopathology.

retrovir 300 mg 2015-07-06

Heterogeneity in the response to antiretroviral therapy has been attributed to pharmacologic, immunologic, and virologic differences between patients. Currently available antiretroviral agents used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults are administered in standard fixed doses. The active moiety of nucleoside anti-HIV drugs is the intracellular anabolite. Therefore the heterogeneity in response to nucleoside agents may arise as a result of pharmacologic variability at both the systemic and cellular level.

retrovir drug class 2017-05-04

The feasibility of providing postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) after sexual or injection drug use exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was evaluated. PEP was provided within 72 h to individuals with exposures from partners known to have or to be at risk for HIV infection. PEP consisted of 4 weeks of antiretroviral medications and individually tailored risk-reduction and medication-adherence counseling. Among 401 participants seeking PEP, sexual exposures were most common (94%; n=375). Among sexual exposures, receptive (40%) and insertive (27%) anal intercourse were the most common sexual acts. The median time from exposure to treatment was 33 h. Ninety-seven percent of participants were treated exclusively with dual reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and 78% completed the 4-week treatment. Six months after the exposure, no participant developed HIV antibodies, although a second PEP course for a subsequent exposure was provided to 12%. PEP, after nonoccupational HIV exposure, is feasible for persons at risk for HIV infection.

retrovir syrup 2017-11-16

The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of in utero infection to the vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 during the second trimester.