rulide y alcohol
Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a common side effect of chronic cyclosporine use. The average prevalence of GO is about 30%, ranging from 10% to 85% in various series, due to diverse aggravating risk factors: drug interactions with calcium channel blockers, age, cyclosporine dose, bacterial plaque, and genetic predisposition. Recent studies have demonstrated elevated levels of specific cytokines particularly transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in hyperplastic gingival tissue, suggesting that this growth factor plays a role in the accumulation of the extracellular matrix. Until recently treatment for this complication was only surgical. Nowadays, several studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of antibiotic treatment on the regression of GO. In the present study, we used roxithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic that has inhibitory effect on TGF-beta production by inflammatory cells. The results suggested that roxithromycin may be an important therapeutic tool to reduce cyclosporine-induced GO.
In vitro Ro 15-8074 and Ro 19-5247 (T2525), two new oral cephalosporins, were active against 410 penicillin-susceptible and -resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Two new macrolides, A-56268 and to a lesser extent roxithromycin (RU 28965), were active against Chlamydia trachomatis. A-56268 had activity against N. gonorrhoeae similar to that of erythromycin.
syrup rulide az
rulide 150 mg
All 16-membered macrolides showed very low MICs (MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s, < or =0.06-0.5 mg/L) for the erythromycin-susceptible isolates and for those with the M phenotype, but the telithromycin MICs for the M-type isolates were at least four times higher (MIC(90)s, 0.5 mg/L). In S. pyogenes, the MIC(50)s of 16-membered macrolides for the cMLS(B) isolates were > or = 256 mg/L, whereas that for telithromycin was 4 mg/L; the MIC(50)s of 16-membered macrolides and telithromycin ranged from < or = 0.06 to 0.5 mg/L for the iMLS(B) isolates with erm(A) and from 0.12 to > or = 256 mg/L for those with erm(B). In S. pneumoniae, the MIC(50)s of the 16-membered macrolides for the cMLS(B) isolates ranged from 0.5 to 128 mg/L, whereas for the iMLS(B) isolates their values ranged from < or = 0.06 to 4 mg/L; the MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s of telithromycin for both the cMLS(B) and the iMLS(B) isolates ranged from < or = 0.06 to 0.12 mg/L.
rulide generic name
The binding to human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and the intracellular bioactivity of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin and roxithromycin on Legionella micdadei, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in vitro by the combination of a fluorochrome microassay and a radioassay. Polymorphs with intact or absent membrane-associated oxidative metabolism were used to investigate the interactions which may occur between the intrinsic oxygen-dependent antimicrobial systems of human polymorphs and the test antibiotics, in the elimination of intracellular microbial pathogens. Elimination of O2-dependent antimicrobial systems with retention of phagocytic activity was achieved by using polymorphs from children with chronic granulomatous disease NaF-pulsed normal polymorphs. Both antimicrobial agents were actively concentrated by polymorphs. Erythromycin was concentrated ten-fold and roxithromycin approximately thirty-fold above extra cellular levels. Both agents possessed intracellular bacteriostatic activity for all three test microbial pathogens. Depletion of polymorph O2-dependent intrinsic antimicrobial systems interfered with the intracellular bioactivity of both antibiotics. This emphasizes the importance of interactions between cell-associated antibiotics and phagocyte antimicrobial systems in the elimination of intracellular microbial pathogens. Like erythromycin, roxithromycin is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly.
rulide 500 mg
Forty-nine human isolates of MAC were tested for susceptibility to nine chemotherapeutic agents. All isolates were from Indian patients suffering from chronic pulmonary mycobacteriosis. Drug susceptibility was performed both by agar dilution and MIC method. MIC values were analysed, both visually and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin for clinical isolates collected from six teaching hospitals in Taiwan were determined by the agar dilution method. The tested bacteria included methicillin-sensitive and -resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Bacteroides fragilis.
generic rulide tablet
Coronary heart disease remains the most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Although atherosclerosis is generally asymptomatic in the early stages, progressive plaque development leads to arterial stenosis which is characterized by angina and may eventually lead to unstable angina, myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Evidence that the coagulation cascade is activated during acute coronary events has justified the use of antithrombotic agents such as aspirin, heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the standard management of acute coronary syndromes. The inflammatory process is also known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, resulting in a cycle of continued inflammatory cell activation and ongoing cell recruitment. As the human leukocyte-associated antigen (HLA) system plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory process, the expression of HLA antigens in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease has been investigated. These studies have demonstrated a relationship between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression and the most severe pattern of angina refractory to conventional therapy, within the framework of a chronic infectious disease. A number of studies have documented an association between coronary heart disease and the presence of high titres of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, and this organism has been implicated in plaque instability. Such findings have stimulated interest in the role of C. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, with a view to developing novel and effective treatment approaches. The ROXIS study showed a lower incidence of acute ischaemic events in patients with unstable angina treated with an antichlamydial antibiotic, roxithromycin.
rulide tablet uses
Cyclophosphamide or roxithromycin at concentrations from 0.05 to 500 micromol/L were not toxic to endothelial cells as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. However, the combination of roxithromycin (500 micromol/L) and cyclophosphamide was toxic for all the tested cyclophosphamide concentrations (0.05 to 500 micromol/L) without clear concentration dependence (LDH ratio 38.3 +/- 11.0 [mean +/- SEM] for the combination with cyclophosphamide 0.05 micromol/L and 50.2 +/- 10.2 for the combination with cyclophosphamide 500 micromol/L; P
Spirochaetal infections have been successfully treated with penicillin; more recently, erythromycin has been used in cases with known penicillin allergy. The discovery of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi and the elaboration of a new generation of macrolides with properties that differ from older macrolides have led to new ways of treating spirochaetal disease with these compounds. This paper presents data on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a combination of roxithromycin and co-trimoxazole against B. burgdorferi. In vitro (checkerboard technique; B. burgdorferi strain B31; modified BSK II medium) it was found that while roxithromycin showed excellent efficacy against B. burgdorferi (MIC 0.031 mg/l), co-trimoxazole had no effect. However, the combination of both chemotherapeutics led to a minor synergistic effect, decreasing the MIC for roxithromycin by one dilution step at concentrations of co-trimoxazole from 256 to 8 mg/l. In addition, a clearly reduced growth of microorganisms was seen at concentrations of roxithromycin as low as 0.015 mg/l in combination with 256 to 4 mg/l co-trimoxazole, when compared to the positive controls. Most interestingly, however, the motility of B. burgdorferi was markedly reduced even when the two drugs were combined at very low concentrations. In an in vivo, non-randomised, open, prospective pilot study it was found that of 17 patients with confirmed late Lyme borreliosis (stage II/III), treated with combined roxithromycin (300 mg b.i.d.) and co-trimoxazole for 5 weeks, 13 (76%) recovered completely by the end of treatment, and four continued to have symptoms on follow-up at 6 and 12 months. This success rate is similar to that seen with i.v. penicillin and ceftriaxone. It appears that the reduced motility of B. burgdorferi makes the pathogen more accessible to the immune system.
rulide drug class
In an open, randomized study of 60 patients with acute or recurrent sinusitis, the bacteriological and clinical efficacy of roxithromycin 150 mg bd were compared with those of po co-amoxiclav (625 mg) tds. Of 52 patients who underwent sinus puncture for isolation of causative organisms, 48 had pathogens sensitive to both antibiotics. Satisfactory clinical response was obtained in 93.1% (27/29) evaluable patients receiving roxithromycin and 88.8% (24/27) receiving co-amoxiclav. Tolerability was significantly better in the roxithromycin group, with 1/29 (3.4%) patients in this group experiencing gastrointestinal side-effects, compared with 7/27 (25.9%) patients in the co-amoxiclav group (P < 0.05). Although the study had limited power to detect differences, roxithromycin demonstrated clinical, bacteriological and overall efficacy similar to that of co-amoxiclav, but with better tolerability. Roxithromycin thus appears to be an effective and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of acute and recurrent sinusitis.
Eighty eight strains came from skin of soft tissues, 19 from surgical wounds, 18 from invasive infections, 15 from pharyngeal swabs and 9 from other locations. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, roxithromycin and miocamycin. Ninety nine percent of strains were susceptible to erythromycin. Strains isolated in 1995-95 had a higher MIC 50 and 90 for erythromycin than those isolated in 1986.
dose of rulide
Improvements with regard to the in-vitro activity of new macrolides are marginal and apply mainly to Haemophilus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (e.g. azithromycin is two to eight times more active than erythromycin) and to non-enterococcal streptococci (e.g. clarithromycin is two to four times more active than erythromycin). The increase in activity against staphylococci is even less striking, being restricted to a few species and limited to clarithromycin (twice as active as erythromycin). The Enterobacteriaceae, as well as glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, remain outside the therapeutic range of the new macrolides, as they were for the established compounds. The majority of enterococci and Corynebacterium jeikeium are resistant to all macrolides, whereas Corynebacterium diphtheriae is highly susceptible. In-vitro susceptibilities both of Campylobacter jejuni/coli and Helicobacter pylori indicate only moderate susceptibility to macrolides and the azalide. In the case of anaerobic organisms, clarithromycin is the most active macrolide against the majority of species. Dirithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and josamycin, and the azalide azithromycin, are similar in their antibacterial spectrum to erythromycin. New macrolides differ from established compounds largely in their pharmacokinetic behaviour and only minor progress has been achieved in improving their antibacterial spectrum.
Preincubation of Haemophilus influenzae with antibiotics may influence opsonophagocytosis as studied by chemiluminescence. Two strains of H. influenzae (strain 1 [type b] and strain 2 [uncapsulated]) were pretreated with erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin for 1 h in Haemophilus test medium (the last 25 min was either without serum or with 10% fresh serum or 10% decomplemented serum). Human neutrophils were stimulated with a pretreated or control inoculum at four different bacterium/neutrophil ratios and tested for luminol chemiluminescence with an LKB luminometer. The results were normalized for bacterium/neutrophil ratio and compared by the two-sided Wilcoxon test. Pretreatment of bacteria with one-half of the MICs of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin produced nonsignificant (P > 0.05) increases in the chemiluminescence response (means of 23% for strain 1 and 4% for strain 2). Pretreatment with azithromycin at one-half of the MIC produced an increase in the chemiluminescence response induced by serum-opsonized strain 1 (320% +/- 36% [mean +/- standard error of the mean]) and strain 2 (107% +/- 20%) (P < 0.05). This increase was concentration dependent: for strain 1, 60% +/- 18% at one-fourth of the MIC to 440% +/- 41% at the MIC; for strain 2, 10% +/- 5% at one-fourth of the MIC to 300% +/- 20% at the MIC. For strain 1, the maximal increase with azithromycin pretreatment (at the MIC) required opsonization with fresh serum. Opsonization with decomplemented serum was associated with a 53% +/- 21% increase; this increase was 28% +/- 3% in the absence of serum. For strain 2, azithromycin reduced the lag phase of the chemiluminescence response induced by the absence of serum but did not alter the chemiluminescence response in the presence of decomplemented serum. A significant contribution of soluble factors in the enhanced response observed with bacteria preincubated with azithromycin was excluded. The increase of the chemiluminescence response with azithromycin pretreatment was probably due to improvement in complement-dependent opsonization for strain 1 and to improvement in both serum-independent and serum-dependent opsonization for strain 2.
rulide pediatric dose
One hundred and sixty black South African gold miners with acute pneumococcal pneumonia were enrolled in a prospective randomized double-blind trial comparing roxithromycin (150 mg 2 X day) with cephradine (1.0 g 2 X day). Ninety patients with pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae were treated for 5-10 days. Forty-three of 46 (93.4%) of the roxithromycin and all 44 (100%) of the cephradine treated groups had satisfactory clinical responses. In eight of the 46 (17%) roxithromycin treated patients and 10 of the 44 (23%) cephradine treated patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae was not eradicated from sputum cultures by the tenth day. Side effects in 18 patients (20%) were mild and were usually manifested by elevation of the transaminases; these were more common in the cephradine group (12) than in the roxithromycin group (5). Roxithromycin appears to be a safe and effective oral antibiotic for treatment of patients with mild to moderate pneumococcal pneumonia.
We examined the effects of roxithromycin, a 14-membered ring macrolide antibiotic, on tumor angiogenesis using a mouse dorsal air sac model. The inhibitory effect of roxithromycin was dose-dependent and 100 mg/kg of roxithromycin administered intraperitoneally twice a day reduced the dense capillary network area to about 20% of the control. However, at concentrations of up to 50 microM, roxithromycin had no effect on lung cancer cells and human vascular endothelial cell growth and lung cancer cell production of the angiogenesis-inducing factors interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Roxithromycin at concentrations greater than 20 microM inhibited endothelial cell migration and tube formation.
rulide and alcohol
The macrolide resistance plasmid pRSB111 was isolated from bacteria residing in the final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant. The 47-kb plasmid confers resistance to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, and tylosin when it is carried by Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and is very similar to prototype IncP-1beta plasmid pB3, which was previously isolated from an activated-sludge bacterial community of a wastewater treatment plant. The two plasmids differ in their accessory regions, located downstream of the conjugative transfer module gene traC. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pRSB111 accessory region revealed that it contains a new macrolide resistance module composed of the genes mphR(E), mph(E), and mrx(E), which putatively encode a transcriptional regulator, a macrolide phosphotransferase, and a transmembrane transport protein, respectively. Analysis of the contributions of the individual genes of the macrolide resistance module revealed that mph(E) and mrx(E) are required for high-level macrolide resistance. The resistance genes are flanked by two insertion sequences, namely, ISPa15 and ISRSB111. Two truncated transposable elements, IS6100 and remnants of a Tn3-like transposon, were identified in the vicinity of ISRSB111. The accessory element of pRSB111 apparently replaced the Tn402-like element present on the sister plasmid, pB3, as suggested by the conservation of Tn402-specific terminal inverted repeats on pRSB111.
rulide antibiotic dosage
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are the most common arterial aneurysms. Endovascular or open surgical aneurysm repair is indicated in patients with large AAA ≥ 5.5 cm in diameter as this prevents aneurysm rupture. The presence even of small AAAs not in need of immediate repair is associated with a very high cardiovascular risk including myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. This risk by far exceeds the risk of aneurysm rupture. These patients therefore should be considered as high-risk patients and receive optimal medical treatment and life-style modification of their cardiovascular risk factors to improve their prognosis. In addition, these patients should be followed-up for aneurysm growth and receive medical treatment to decrease aneurym progression and rupture rate. Treatment with statins has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in these patients, and also slows the rate of AAA growth. Use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and AT1-receptor antagonists does not affect AAA growth but may be indicated for comorbidities. Antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin has a small effect on AAA growth, but this effect must be critically weighed against the potential risk of wide-spread use of antibiotics.
rulide 300mg tablets
Agar dilution methodology (with added Oxyrase in the case of the macrolide group to allow incubation without added CO2) was used to compare the activity of RU 64004, a new ketolide, with the activities of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, amoxicillin with and without clavulanate, piperacillin with and without tazobactam, metronidazole, and imipenem against 379 anaerobes. Overall, RU 64004 yielded an MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. In comparison, MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 2.0 to 8.0 and >64.0 microg/ml, respectively. MICs of macrolides, including RU 64004, were higher for Bacteroides ovatus, Fusobacterium varium, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Clostridium difficile than for the other species. RU 64004 was more active against gram-positive rods and cocci, Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp., and fusobacteria other than F. mortiferum and F. varium than against the Bacteroides fragilis group. Overall MIC50s and MIC90s (in micrograms per milliliter), respectively, of other compounds were as follows: clindamycin, 1.0 and 16.0; amoxicillin, 4.0 and 64.0; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 0.5 and 4.0; piperacillin, 8.0 and >64.0; piperacillin-tazobactam, 1.0 and 16.0; metronidazole, 1.0 and 4.0; and imipenem, 0.25 and 1.0.
rulide tablet price
MICs, time-kills, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of ABT-773 (a new ketolide) and 10 other agents were determined against 226 pneumococci. Against 78 ermB- and 44 mefE-containing strains, ABT-773 MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(50)s) and MIC(90)s were 0.016 to 0.03 and 0.125 microgram/ml, respectively. Clindamycin was active only against macrolide-resistant strains containing mefE (MIC(50), 0.06 microgram/ml; MIC(90), 0.125 microgram/ml). Activities of pristinamycin (MIC(90), 0.5 microgram/ml) and vancomycin (MIC(90), 0.25 microgram/ml) were unaffected by macrolide or penicillin resistance, while beta-lactam MICs rose with those of penicillin G. Against 19 strains with L4 ribosomal protein mutations and two strains with mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA, ABT-773 MICs were 0.03 to 0.25 microgram/ml, while macrolide and azalide MICs were all >/=16.0 microgram/ml. ABT-773 was bactericidal at twice the MIC after 24 h for 8 of 12 strains (including three strains with erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 64.0 microgram/ml). Kill kinetics of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin against macrolide-susceptible strains were slower than those of ABT-773. ABT-773 had longer PAEs than macrolides, azithromycin, clindamycin, or beta-lactams, including against ermB-containing strains. ABT-773, therefore, shows promising in vitro activity against macrolide-susceptible as well as -resistant pneumococci.
Compared with normal control, TGF-β1 secretion was significantly increased in asthmatic ASMCs; meanwhile, TGF-β1 promoted ASMCs proliferation (P < 0.05). However, ASMCs proliferation was remarkably inhibited by RXM, β-CD, PD98059 and wortmannin (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT were increased and peaked at 20 min after TGF-β1 stimulation, and then suppressed by RXM. Further, caveolin-1 level was down-regulated by TGF-β1 and up-regulated by inhibitors and RXM.
rulide az syrup
The in-vitro activity of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, midekamycin, roxithromycin and clindamycin against 674 Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, was determined by agar dilution, microdilution and agar diffusion with Mueller-Hinton medium according to the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 58940 guidelines. The results obtained by regression analysis and the error-rate-bounded method of Metzler-DeHaan indicate that common interpretative criteria (breakpoints) for test discs may be assigned to susceptible/resistant Gram-positive strains for all antibiotics tested. The following tentative DIN values are suggested for 15 microg macrolide discs: for susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, an inhibition zone diameter (IZD) of > or = 26 mm at a corresponding MIC of < or = 2 mg/L; for resistant Gram-positive strains, an IZD of < or = 21 mm; for resistant Gram-negative strains, an IZD of < or = 19 mm at a corresponding MIC of > or = 8 mg/L. For Haemophilus influenzae only, breakpoints for azithromycin are suggested with IZDs of > or = 21 mm for susceptible and < or = 18 mm for resistant.
ME was effective in 70.6% (48/68 patients). The efficacy of ME was significantly less in the polyp group compared with the polyp-free group (p < 0.05). Therapeutic efficacy was significantly different between R1 and R3 groups (p < 0.05) with a tendency for worse outcome from R1 to R3. The efficacy in asthma patients was significantly less compared with patients with allergic rhinitis or no allergy (p < 0.05). The efficacy after polypectomy was significantly improved in N2 group but not in N1 group. The number of eosinophil/total inflammatory cells (%) in nasal polyps of resistant cases was significantly higher than in marked improved cases.
rulide renal dose
Randomization 1:1 to Spfx, 400 mg on day 1, then 200 mg once daily, or ROXI, 150 mg twice daily, 10 to 14 days. Safety and efficacy analyses in intention-to-treat (ITT) and evaluable populations.
The efficacy and tolerance of roxithromycin 150 mg b.i.d. were compared with those of erythromycin stearate 500 mg b.i.d. in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Out of 86 patients recruited for the study, 79 were evaluable for tolerance and 76 for efficacy. These patients were evenly distributed among the 3 investigational clinics, with 26, 25 and 28 patients, respectively. The diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections was based on clinical, laboratory, radiological and/or physical findings and, when available, bacteriological and serological findings. The duration of treatment was 10 days, with follow-up at post-treatment visits directly after treatment and 6 weeks thereafter. The clinical outcome was satisfactory with no significant difference between the drugs. More patients reporting adverse events were on erythromycin than on roxithromycin (51.3% vs 17.5%; p = 0.003). The results suggest that roxithromycin is as effective as erythromycin stearate in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and causes fewer adverse effects.