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Seventeen boys and three girls with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in the study. On two separate days either 50 micrograms salmeterol or placebo was inhaled. FEV1 and PD20 methacholine were determined before and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after inhalation.
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A case-control study nested within a cohort of patients with asthma, identified in the year 2000, over a 2-year period was conducted. Cases were subjects who had a first-time hospitalization for asthma in the year 2001, and were matched with up to five controls by age (+/- 5 years), sex, and number of asthma-related outpatient visits.
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Although beta-agonists remain an important aspect of the treatment of asthma, their role has recently been questioned. Salmeterol has recently been developed as a beta-agonist with prolonged bronchodilator action. Using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, we have shown that salmeterol inhibits this aspect of phagocyte function in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. However, salmeterol differs from classical beta 2-agonists in that at concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-3) mol/L, its effects on phagocytes cannot be completely reversed by washing the cells or by propranolol. The effects on phagocytes may not therefore be explicable on the basis of beta-adrenergic mechanisms alone.
The inhaled corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (fluticasone), and the long-acting beta(2)-agonist, formoterol fumarate (formoterol), have been combined in a single aerosol inhaler (fluticasone/formoterol). In a randomized, open-label study, fluticasone/formoterol showed similar efficacy to fluticasone/salmeterol after 12 weeks of treatment. This post-hoc analysis compared the onset of bronchodilation with the two treatments.
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A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter study was conducted in 539 adult asthma patients over 12 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either salmeterol 42 microg via metered-dose inhaler twice daily or albuterol 180 microg four times daily. Upon entry into the study, 46% of patients were being treated with an inhaled corticosteroid and were allowed to continue treatment throughout the study. Pulmonary function and asthma symptoms were monitored daily, and patients completed the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment.
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Four hundred eight asthmatic patients > or = 12 years of age with baseline FEV1 of > or = 70% of predicted values. Patients were not using inhaled corticosteroids.
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The 1990 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act mandated drug utilization review in response to inappropriate drug use. In the Pennsylvania Medicaid program, pediatric asthma is associated with high healthcare utilization and cost.
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Long-term treatment studies with formoterol and salmeterol show that these inhaled long-acting beta 2-agonists compared to available beta 2-agonists produce better bronchodilation, decrease the need for additional doses, decrease asthma symptoms, and are strongly preferred by the patients. Development of tolerance has not been found. One case history indicates that these effective bronchodilators might mask deterioration of asthma.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects millions worldwide. Although many therapies exist and are being developed to relieve symptoms and reduce mortality, few data are available to understand which of the therapeutic alternatives is the most cost-effective for COPD patients in everyday clinical practice, especially for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Comparative effectiveness research can help patients, clinicians, and decision-makers make best informed treatment decisions where such evidence was previously lacking. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and economic evaluation of three treatments: (1) conventional Western medicine; (2) TCM treatments, which have been evaluated and have certain effect; and (3) a combination of both conventional Western medicine and TCM treatments, and then determine which treatment is the most suitable for COPD patients.
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To examine the relationship between number of prescriptions dispensed of salmeterol-containing products and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-containing products and the rates of asthma-related hospitalizations and mortality in the United States.
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There were no differences in beta2-adrenoceptor density (Bmax) between the three treatments prior to the first dose; whereas, after the last dose, Bmax was lower with both active treatments than with placebo, but was significant for salmeterol only--a 1.2-fold geometric mean fold difference (95% CI 1- to 1.4-fold), P = 0.04. Compared with placebo, there were n = 9 of 16 subjects with salmeterol and n = 6 of 16 with formoterol who had a greater than 15% fall in Bmax. Post-hoc trend analysis of polymorphism showed that the propensity for downregulation appeared to be related to the occurrence of an allelic substitution of glycine at codon 16-8 of 13 for salmeterol versus 5 of 13 for formoterol with a greater than 15% fall compared with placebo. There were no significant differences between salmeterol and formoterol in terms of mean or individual values for downregulation. There was evidence of persistent bronchodilator activity with both active treatments compared with placebo; this was significant for forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75)--the mean difference versus salmeterol was 0.39 1/s (95% CI 0.06-0.70), P = 0.02, and versus formoterol was 0.35 1/s (95% CI 0.16-0.53), P = 0.001. These effects were mirrored by significant improvements in morning peak flow rate compared with placebo--mean difference versus salmeterol was 24 1/min (95% CI 7-42), P = 0.01, and versus formoterol was 36 1/min (95% CI 25-48), P < 0.0001.
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. It is attributable to complicated coactions between various genetic factors and environmental allergens.
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On average, the 59 patients completing the study (mean age ± SD 51 ± 12 years, 38 women) had significant improvement in VAS and QLQ scores at the end of the treatment period (49.1 ± 2.4 vs. 73.1 ± 2.05 and 146.1 ± 2.7 vs. 176.7.1 ± 3.4 respectively, P < 0.001), but not in the inflammatory indicators (EBT, CRP and Eos). However, when comparing the "top responders" with the "poor responders", significant improvement in these inflammatory indicators was observed: EBT significantly decreased from 34.04/mean/± 0.30/s.e.m./[°C] to 33.57 ± 0.33, P = 0.003, Eos in blood fell from 381.7 ± 91.2 [cells/μL] to 244.2 ± 43.2, P = 0.02. Before/after treatment differences in hsCRP decreased significantly in the top responders compared with the poor responders (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04).
Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover study.
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For the primary outcome there was significant protection after single and long-term dosing with fluticasone alone and fluticasone-salmeterol combination, whereas salmeterol alone only afforded protection after the first dose. Fluticasone-salmeterol combination and fluticasone but not salmeterol conferred significant chronic dosing effects on secondary outcomes of nasal symptoms and disease-specific quality of life. There was no potentiation of the response to fluticasone by salmeterol on any outcomes when given in combination.
Indacaterol monotherapy is expected to be at least as good as FOR/BUD (9/320 and 9/160 μg) and comparable to SAL/FP (50/250 and 50/500 μg) in terms of lung function. Indacaterol is also expected to be comparable to FOR/BUD (9/320 and 9/160 μg) and SAL/FP 50/500 μg in terms of health status and to SAL/FP (50/250 and 50/500 μg) in terms of breathlessness.
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Earlier use of FSC following an asthma exacerbation was associated with reduced risk of future asthma-related exacerbation and lower use of rescue medications.
The clinical development of salmeterol xinafoate, the 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid salt of salmeterol, a potent long acting beta 2 agonist bronchodilator, has required the development of a method for the determination of 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), in human plasma. A sensitive, accurate and precise method was, therefore, required to enable the pharmacokinetic profile to be established. HNA was determined in human plasma using a semi-automated procedure with solid-phase extraction using an automated analytical sample processor (AASP) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The method was sensitive to 10 ng ml-1. The method is specific for HNA with respect to endogenous plasma components and has been shown to be robust, accurate and precise. Over four independent assay runs, the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the quality control samples (QC) were 1.6, 2.4 and 5.5% at 180, 100 and 40 ng ml-1, respectively. A pharmacokinetic profile of HNA in man has been established from a single dose kinetic study in healthy volunteers following an oral dose of 500 micrograms salmeterol xinafoate, equivalent to 225 micrograms HNA. Maximum plasma concentrations attained at 1 h after dosing ranged between 35.3 and 66.8 ng ml-1 and were within the calibration range of the assay.
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To compare the effects of salmeterol, an adrenergic drug, and ipratropium bromide, an anticholinergic drug, on breathlessness and gas exchange during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), we performed a progressive treadmill exercise test on 15 patients on 3 days (24 h apart), after inhalation placebo, ipratropium bromide (120 micrograms) or salmeterol (50 micrograms) in a randomized fashion. Dyspnoea during exercise was evaluated from the regression slope between Borg scale (BS) scores and distance walked each minute on the treadmill. The regression was expressed as the distance walked at BS score 5, the threshold load of dyspnoea (TLD) and breakpoint load of dyspnoea. During and after the exercise, oxygen saturation was monitored by pulse oxymeter and we measured the lower SaO2 during exercise and the recovery time of SaO2 after exercise. In comparison to placebo inhalation we found the same small but significant improvement in airflow limitation after salmeterol or ipratropium inhalation, also the distance walked on treadmill increased after bronchodilators. After bronchodilators the magnitude of oxyhaemoglobin desaturation with exercise was similar to that observed after placebo but the duration of the recovery from sustained SaO2 desaturation after exercise was shorter to the same extent as after ipratropium or salmeterol. Dyspnoeic sensation, when assessed by the TLD and by the distance walked at BS score 5, was decreased after salmeterol and after ipratropium bromide to a similar extent. We conclude that the salmeterol, when given in conventional doses, produces significant improvement in the airway obstruction in the recovery of postexercise HbO2 desaturation and in dyspnoeic sensation in patients with COPD, effects which were similar to those observed after inhalation of the anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide.
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Seventy-seven studies met the entry criteria and randomised 21,248 participants (4625 children and 16,623 adults). Participants were generally symptomatic at baseline with moderate airway obstruction despite their current ICS regimen. Formoterol or salmeterol were most frequently added to low-dose ICS (200 to 400 microg/day of beclomethasone (BDP) or equivalent) in 49% of the studies. The addition of a daily LABA to ICS reduced the risk of exacerbations requiring oral steroids by 23% from 15% to 11% (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87, 28 studies, 6808 participants). The number needed to treat with the addition of LABA to prevent one use of rescue oral corticosteroids is 41 (29, 72), although the event rates in the ICS groups varied between 0% and 38%. Studies recruiting adults dominated the analysis (6203 adult participants versus 605 children). The subgroup estimate for paediatric studies was not statistically significant (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.39) and includes the possibility of the superiority of ICS alone in children.Higher than usual dose of LABA was associated with significantly less benefit. The difference in the relative risk of serious adverse events with LABA was not statistically significant from that of ICS alone (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.30). The addition of LABA led to a significantly greater improvement in FEV(1) (0.11 litres, 95% 0.09 to 0.13) and in the proportion of symptom-free days (11.88%, 95% CI 8.25 to 15.50) compared to ICS monotherapy. It was also associated with a reduction in the use of rescue short-acting ss(2)-agonists (-0.58 puffs/day, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.35), fewer withdrawals due to poor asthma control (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61), and fewer withdrawals due to any reason (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant group difference in the risk of overall adverse effects (RR 1.00, 95% 0.97 to 1.04), withdrawals due to adverse health events (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.26) or any of the specific adverse health events.
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Sixty patients were enrolled in this study, and the scores of the asthma control test (ACT) and asthma control questionnaire-5 item version (ACQ5) were significantly improved 4 and 8 weeks after the switch to ICS/LABA treatments, and well-controlled asthma (ACQ5 score <0.75) and good control (ACT score >20) was achieved in 54 (90%) and 40 (66.7%) patients, respectively, at 8 weeks. The spirometric analysis revealed significant improvements of the values of the peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after switching from FP/SM to BUD/FM, and significantly improved small airway impairments ([Formula: see text]50 and [Formula: see text]25) were observed in patients treated with high-dose ICS/LABA. These subjective and objective improvements were also seen in patients aged over 65 years old.
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Patients with physician-diagnosed COPD and a record of postdiagnosis treatment with a fixed combination of budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol were included. Data from primary care medical records were linked to those from Swedish national hospital, drug and cause of death registers. Pairwise (1 : 1) propensity score matching was carried out at the index date (first prescription) by prescribed fixed ICS/LABA combination. Exacerbations were defined as hospitalizations, emergency visits and collection of oral steroids or antibiotics for COPD. Yearly event rates were compared using Poisson regression.
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Evidence suggests that systemic inflammation may play an important role in the progression and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It remains controversial whether inhaled corticosteroid in combination with a long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist can attenuate systemic inflammation. We evaluated the effect of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate on circulating C-reactive protein level in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.
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In 15 patients with chronic airflow obstruction 0.2 mg salbutamol was administered to determine reversibility within 15 minutes ("test effect"). Subsequently, maximum 24-hour effects of three beta 2-agonists (fenoterol 0.2 mg, salbutamol 0.2 mg, salmeterol 0.05 mg, each by MDI) were determined in random order ("best effect"). Airways obstruction was measured by FEV1, MEF50, MEF25, airway resistance Raw and thoracic gas volume TGV. "Best effects" were compared with "test effects". As a whole test effects were significantly smaller than best effects, often not reaching a 15% change, normally achieved during the 24-hour observation. Significant correlations existed between FEV1 and the corresponding values of Raw, MEF50 and MEF25, although there were considerable individual differences between test results. The reduction of TGV after a beta 2-agonist was significantly related to TGV-baseline values. We conclude in line with other authors that tests of acute reversibility of airways obstruction cannot reliably differentiate between "responders" and "non-responders" and that such tests may mislead if used for the differentiation of asthma and COPD.
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Bronchodilator therapy is central to the symptomatic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and treatment with short-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with mild COPD.