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Resistance patterns in the F. fujikuroi species complex are species specific and therefore identification down to species level is important for the choice of antifungal treatment.
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The maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) of lovastatin or its metabolite did not differ significantly when lovastatin was given alone and when it was given with 100 mg of cilostazol. The mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the time of the last measurable concentration (AUCt) for lovastatin coadministered with 100 mg of cilostazol to that with lovastatin given alone were 1.6 for lovastatin and 1.7 for its metabolite. With 150 mg of cilostazol, lovastatin Cmax did not change, whereas Cmax of the metabolite increased 2.2-fold. The mean AUCt ratios for lovastatin given with 150 mg cilostazol/lovastatin given alone were 1.6 and 2.0 for lovastatin and its metabolite, respectively. All increases in lovastatin and metabolite AUC were statistically significant, except for the 1.6-fold increase in lovastatin AUC with 150 mg of cilostazol. Maximum steady-state plasma drug concentration (Cssmax) and AUC during a dosage interval (AUC tau) for cilostazol 100 mg twice daily decreased 14 and 15%, respectively, upon lovastatin coadministration.
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In a randomised 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took 600 mg gemfibrozil or placebo orally twice daily for 3 days. On day 3, each ingested a 7.5 mg dose of zopiclone. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of zopiclone and its two primary metabolites, plasma gemfibrozil, and psychomotor performance were measured. The effects of CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 inhibitors on the depletion of zopiclone (500 nM) were studied in vitro in human liver microsomes.
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Twelve of 73 patients (16.4%) developed a recurrence of onychomycosis a mean time of 36 months after successful treatment. These included 5 of the 14 patients (35.7%) who had taken I and 7 of the 59 (11.9%) who had taken T (P = .046).
We report a case of aspergillous bronchitis in an immunocompetent patient, recalling the clinical signs, laboratory findings and therapeutic management of this uncommon bronchopulmonary disorder related to aspergillus.
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We evaluated the commercially prepared Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel to determine the susceptibility of 170 Candida spp isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine. The NCCLS reference microdilution method (M27-A document) was used as reference method. The YeastOne panel was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. For the colorimetric method, MICs were determined at 24 h of incubation. MICs for the NCCLS reference method were read at 48 h of incubation. The overall agreement within +/-2 dilutions by both methods was calculated against the four antifungal agents. This agreement was 92.9, 68.2, 77.6 and 80% for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine, respectively. Thirteen isolates (7.6%) showed very major discrepancies for fluconazole and 12 (7%) for itraconazole. We found that the reading of MIC with the YeastOne panel was somewhat easier than the reading of reference MIC, although the determination of endpoint was sometimes difficult, especially for azoles, because the trailing effect appeared in a high percentage of isolates.
Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) is a subacute infection most commonly seen in patients with altered local defense from preexisting pulmonary disease or in patients with risk factors that alter systemic immune status. Delays in diagnosis are common. Although initial reports advocated intravenous amphotericin B, itraconazole has emerged as a better initial therapy because of its documented efficacy and minimal toxicity. The dose and duration of therapy should be based on clinical response. In patients who do not respond to medical therapy, pulmonary resection can be considered, but postoperative morbidity is high. Recurrent or relapsing infections occur; chronic maintenance therapy with itraconazole can be considered in patients with residual parenchymal scarring. A wide range of mortality rates has been reported for CNPA. Outcome is most likely influenced by severity of comorbid conditions, extent of underlying pulmonary disease, delays in diagnosis, and initiation of effective therapy.
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We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).
An urea broth microdilution method to assay the susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to antifungal drugs was newly developed. Using this method, urease activity of the fungus was measured instead of the viability by checking colony development. The urease activities were indicated by colour changes in optical density at 545 nm. The end point in this assay was considered as 99% inhibitory concentration. When we measured antifungal activities of the three drugs against 16 isolates of Cr. neoformans using this assay method, mean minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine were 2.0 micrograms ml-1, 0.008 microgram ml-1 and 0.25 microgram ml-1 respectively. This assay method resulted in higher sensitivity in MICs of the three antifungal drugs than the broth microdilution method recommended by the Committee for Laboratory Standards of the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology. The results obtained using this assay method support the more effective evaluation of antifungal substances in susceptibility testing of Cr. neoformans.
All identified trials were independently reviewed by both reviewers & all data collected. Trial quality was scored by the Cochrane assessment of allocation concealment & the Jadad scale of methodological quality.
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Twenty-one women (mean age, 35.3 years) with 2 to 4 episodes of vaginal candidosis in the last 6 months were included in the study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of itraconazole as short-term, as well as prophylactic, treatment of chronic candidosis. After clinical evaluation and laboratory confirmation of candidosis, 200 mg of itraconazole were given orally for 3 days. Twelve of the 21 patients were cured. The remaining nine repeated treatment, after which all were cured. All patients were entered in the maintenance phase, and received 200 mg of itraconazole the first day of the menstrual cycle for 6 months. One patient relapsed in the second month, but after taking 200 mg of itraconazole BID for 1 day she remained cured for the rest of the study period. All other patients remained cured for the 6 months of the maintenance period. Three months after the end of prophylactic therapy, 17 of 20 patients (85%) were clinically and mycologically cured. No adverse experiences were reported. It is concluded that itraconazole is an efficient and safe short-term treatment for chronic or recurrent vaginal candidosis. Moreover, the dose of 200 mg once monthly for 6 months proved to be a successful suppressive treatment.
Subgingival colonization by Candida albicans has been described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, but subgingival isolates have scarcely been characterized, particularly with respect to genotype and antifungal susceptibility. A series of 29 subgingival strains of C. albicans isolated from nine HIV-infected individuals was typed by electrophoretic karyotyping and tested for susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, the new investigational triazole posaconazole and amphotericin B. DNA typing showed genetic heterogeneity within subgingival isolates, as almost every individual harbored his/her own specific isolate. Genetic identity was usually demonstrated within oral and subgingival isolates simultaneously collected from the same individual, but a number of DNA types were found to be unique to subgingival strains. These findings suggest that colonization is not just the result of Candida spreading from oral surfaces, and that subgingivally adapted strains could be involved. All isolates were susceptible to all the triazole drugs tested and amphotericin B. Additional studies on subgingival Candida colonization and further characterization of subgingival isolates are now required to clarify the role of Candida as opportunistic periodontal pathogen.
Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an unusual fungal infection that is most often found in AIDS or in organ transplant recipients. Although in immunocompromised patients, cryptococcal infection often causes pulmonary infections, the diagnosis of lung involvement is generally difficult. The presentation of pulmonary cryptoccosis in HIV-infected patients appears to be more acute and severe than in other immunocompromised patients, probably related with the severe immunosuppression. Diffuse infiltrates, mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes enlargement are the most common radiological findings in AIDS-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis. Cavitation is a rare form of and includes only 10% to 15% of all cases. Only a few case reports or studies with small number of patients of pulmonary cryptococcosis have been published over the past two decades. We report a case of an AIDS patient who developed cavitary pneumonia as the only clinical expression of cryptococcosis.
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A decision analysis model was developed using clinical and economic data from randomized comparative trials, the economic literature, and from expert opinion. The data were then used to estimate the incremental cost per life year saved with oral posaconazole prophylaxis relative to Flu/Itra from the Canadian provincial health care system perspective. The base case results were then tested with a sensitivity analysis which evaluated extremes in the incidence of IFI as well as variations in their cost of management.
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Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis usually results from traumatic inoculation with the fungus and generally occurs in immunosuppressed men. Cladosporium, Exophiala, and Alternaria spp. are commonly implicated pathogens.
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Sporotrichosis in childhood is rare in most countries. Isolated cases and small outbreaks related to recreational activities or without identification of the transmission mechanism have been reported.
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With the increasing use of antifungals such as amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, and terbinafine (TRB) in patients at high risk for invasive aspergillosis, resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus to these agents will ultimately emerge. Due to the limited availability of molecular genetics for A. fumigatus, few studies have addressed its mechanisms of resistance to antifungals. We transformed A. fumigatus protoplasts with a pyrG-based A. fumigatus genomic DNA library (constructed in the multicopy nonintegrating vector pRG3-AMA1-NotI, which also has the pyr-4 gene for selection). We obtained one pyrG(+) transformant that grew in medium containing a fungicidal concentration (0.625 microg/ml) of TRB. To determine whether TRB resistance in that transformant was plasmid dependent, we evicted the plasmid and found concomitant loss of uracil prototrophy and TRB resistance. DNA sequence analysis identified the gene responsible for TRB resistance as the A. fumigatus squalene epoxidase gene (ERG1), which encodes the target enzyme of TRB. Authentic A. fumigatus ERG1, amplified from the genome and cloned into pRG3-AMA1-NotI, also conferred TRB-specific resistance. This molecular approach has the potential to enhance our knowledge of the mechanisms of A. fumigatus resistance to modern antifungals.
Forty-three pediatric patients with candidemia,
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Fungal endophthalmitis in north China is predominantly exogenous. Fungal keratitis and penetrating trauma are the main common etiological factors. Fusarium ranks first in pathogens, followed by Aspergillus and Candida. Fusarium was the first pathogen of exogenous fungal endophthalmitis caused by fungal keratitis. Aspergillus was the most common isolated pathogens from exogenous fungal endophthalmitis caused by penetrating ocular trauma and it also was the first pathogen of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. Microscopic detection of hyphae from samples is helpful in the diagnosis. Fusarium ranks first in pathogens, followed by Aspergillus. They both are more sensitive to voriconazole and amphotericin B than ketconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole.
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Our preliminary data provide promising results for the development of a reference method for dermatophyte susceptibility testing based on the microdilution technique, although more dermatophytes should be tested and the method evaluated in different laboratories.
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Albaconazole was well tolerated at all doses and resulted in high cure rates for onychomycosis.
HIV-infected people in northern Thailand have been devastated by an outbreak of Penicillium marneffei in recent years. The opportunistic infection by the fungus discovered in 1956 has killed thousands of AIDS patients in Thailand. If untreated, it is almost always fatal. Symptoms of infection include fever, chronic coughing, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, weight loss, diarrhea, and skin lesions. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin B is successful in 75 percent of patients. After initial treatment for P. marneffei, patients must take prophylactic medicine to prevent a relapse. The fungus probably grows in the soil in Southeast Asia, but only people with severely compromised immune systems become infected.
We replaced each of the 21 putative residues of TMS11 with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AD1-8u(-) strain was used to overexpress the green fluorescent protein tagged wild-type and mutant variants of TMS11 of Cdr1p. The cells expressing mutant variants were functionally characterized.
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We present the third case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Veronaea botryosa in China and the tenth case worldwide. A 16-year-old Chinese girl developed crusted, verrucous lesions, initially on the left ear and later on the left buttock, within 2-5 months of receiving an ear piercing. Histopathological examination of biopsy specimens confirmed diagnosis of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Microscopic examination of the colonies recovered in culture from a portion of the biopsy specimen resulted in the identification of Veronaea botryosa based primarily on the presence of two-celled, brownish pigmented, cylindrical conidia produced sympodially from erect conidiogenous cells. The lesions significantly improved with daily oral treatment with itraconazole 400 mg and adjuvant thermotherapy for 6 months. A maintenance therapy with low dose itraconazole was prescribed in order to achieve clinical and mycological cure. A two-year follow-up didn't reveal any recurrence of infection. Our case is the first report of V. botryosa infection associated with a cosmetic procedure, which suggests that skin piercing could precipitate V. botryosa or other dematiaceous, as well as opportunistic fungal infections.
A previously healthy, 18-month-old girl developed edema and erythema around her left eye 1 week after getting sand in that eye. The patient did not respond to oral or intravenous antibiotics. A mass developed around the eye, and biopsy revealed Conidiobolus incongruus. The patient failed to respond to amphotericin B 1 mg/kg, and susceptibility tests indicated multiantifungal resistance. A combination of antifungal therapy, hyperbaric oxygen, and surgery was required for successful treatment. Three months after treatment the child was disease free. There is no definitive therapy for Conidiobolus incongruus infections, although various drugs have been administered with some success. When susceptibility tests determine multidrug resistance, radical resection with antifungal chemotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen may be necessary as well as lifesaving.
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Systemic histoplasmosis is an invasive fungal infection that may mimic primary vasculitis, particularly granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and was rarely described in adult patients. We reported an immunocompetent patient with disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking GPA who fulfilled European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO)/Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PRES) validated classification criteria.
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Four trials were identified by the searches; none of which was judged eligible for inclusion in the review.
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A 10% incidence of PN was observed for patients commenced on triazole therapy for chronic aspergillosis. Patients on long-term triazole therapy should be monitored for neurological symptoms. If PN is suspected, diagnosis should include nerve conduction studies, exclusion of other causes and consideration of dose reduction or cessation of therapy.
Whether maintenance antifungal prophylaxis against histoplasmosis should be continued life-long in patients with immune restoration after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains unclear. We report a case of disseminated histoplasmosis involving the skin, lung, gastrointestinal tract, mesentery, and retroperitoneum in a 33-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. His symptoms improved after use of amphotericin B and itraconazole in addition to ileostomy to relieve the intestinal obstruction. After the start of HAART, he was able to discontinue itraconazole as maintenance therapy without relapse for 24 months.
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The antifungal susceptibility of 35 Candida lusitaniae isolates was determined in vitro by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-P macrodilution methodology. All the isolates were susceptible to ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole. Of the 35 isolates, eight (23%) were resistant to flucytosine. For amphotericin B, M27-P yielded a narrow range of MICs (0.06-0.5 mg/L). We therefore investigated the activity of this drug by reading MICs at 72 h and by using alternative media, namely casitone complex medium (CCM) and antibiotic medium 3 (M-3). Reading at 72 h did not generate reproducible results. CCM and M-3 provided better discrimination between the isolates but did not change the rank order of the MICs. We thus concluded that all the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. We also conducted an evaluation with the Etest method according to the manufacturer's instructions with RPMI 1640 agar, CCM and the alternative semi-synthetic medium (SSM). For RPMI 1640, agreements +/-2 dilutions were 58% for amphotericin B, 92% for flucytosine, 57% for ketoconazole, 92% for fluconazole and 74% for itraconazole. CCM did not improve the agreement rates between the two methods but it led to better growth of all the isolates. The suitability of SSM was pointed out with itraconazole. The poor agreement rates for amphotericin B and ketoconazole call for further evaluation of the Etest method to assess several drug-organism combinations.