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Tofranil (Imipramine)

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Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pamelor, Norpramin, Silenor, Zonalon, Aventyl, Norpress, Elavil


Also known as:  Imipramine.


Generic Tofranil is used to treat depression. Generic Tofranil is also used on a short-term basis, along with behavioral therapies, to treat bed-wetting in children aged 6 and older. Sometimes Generic Tofranil is prescribed to treat bulimia, attention deficit disorder in children, obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

Generic Tofranil is a member of the family of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants.

Tofranil is also known as Imipramine, Antideprin, Deprenil, Deprimin, Deprinol, Depsonil, Dynaprin, Eupramin, Imipramil, Irmin, Janimine, Melipramin, Surplix, Antidep, Apo-Imipramine, Chrytemin, Daypress, Depsol, Ethipramine, Fronil, Imidol, Imimine, Imine, Imiprex, Imiprin, Impril, Medipramine, Melipramine, Mipralin, Novopramine, Primonil, Pryleugan, Sermonil, Sipramine, Talpramin, Tofnil, Tofranil-PM, Venefon.

Generic name of Generic Tofranil is Imipramine hydrochloride.

Brand names of Generic Tofranil are Tofranil, Tofranil-PM.


Take Generic Tofranil orally.

Take Generic Tofranil with or without food.

For adults

The usual starting dose is 75 mg a day. The maximum daily dose is 200 mg.

For children

Total daily dosages for children should not exceed 2.5 mg for each 2.2 pounds of the child's weight. Doses usually begin at 25 mg per day. This amount should be taken an hour before bedtime. If needed, this dose may be increased after 1 week to 50 mg (ages 6 through 11) or 75 mg (ages 12 and up), taken in one dose at bedtime or divided into 2 doses, 1 taken at mid-afternoon and 1 at bedtime.

Aged people

The usual dosage should start with 25 to 50 mg per day. The dose may be increased as necessary, but effective dosages usually do not exceed 100 mg a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Tofranil suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Tofranil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Tofranil overdosage: agitation, bluish skin, convulsions, difficulty breathing, dilated pupils, drowsiness, heart failure, high fever, involuntary writhing or jerky movements, irregular or rapid heartbeat, lack of coordination, low blood pressure, overactive reflexes, restlessness, rigid muscles, shock, stupor, sweating, vomiting.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Tofranil are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are allergic to Generic Tofranil components.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Generic Tofranil if you are recovering from a recent heart attack or take MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you have diabetes, hypoglycemia, a history of mental disorders.

Be very careful with Generic Tofranil if you are taking albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin), antidepressants that act on serotonin, including Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft, antipsychotic drugs such as Mellaril and chlorpromazine, barbiturates such as Nembutal and Seconal, blood pressure medications such as Catapres, Carbamazepine (Tegretol), cimetidine (Tagamet), decongestants such as Sudafed, drugs that control spasms, such as Cogentin, Epinephrine (EpiPen), Flecainide (Tambocor), Guanethidine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Norepinephrine, other antidepressants such as Elavil and Pamelor, Phenytoin (Dilantin), Propafenone (Rythmol), Quinidine, thyroid medications such as Synthroid, tranquilizers and sleep aids such as Halcion, Xanax, and Valium.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not participate in any activities that require full alertness if you are unsure about your ability.

Try to stay out of the sun as much as possible.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Tofranil taking suddenly.

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It is recommended that children and adolescents on tricyclics receive an ECG at baseline and after each dose increase. Recommendations are made regarding ECG parameters and indications for cardiac consultation.

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The authors present a case report that provides support for a relationship between estrogen and the menstrual cycle on the 1 hand and affective disorders on the other. The patient in this case, a 35-year old woman, suffered from a rapid cycling affective disorder that was severely affected by her menstrual cycle and responded positively to oral contraceptives (OCs). The patient had a 24-year history of numerous manic and depressive episodes, the 1st of which coincided with menarche. She had noted that, 4 days before menses, she would experience symptoms of premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS) and often the onset of an affective episode. Treatment with a series of psychotropic agents had not been effective in controlling the number of episodes. However, the patient reported that there had been an 8-9-month period in the past when she had taken OCs and had fewer symptoms. Thus, the patient was placed on Ortho-Novum as well as imipramine. At the 9-month follow-up, she reported there had been no further episodes of depression or mania. The exact mechanism behind estrogen's psychotropic effect is unclear, although it increases the central availability of norepinephrine and induces changes in dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic receptors. Beta-endorphin levels covary with estrogen levels, and estrogen seems to affect every major neurotransmitter system. The fact that estrogen has not consistently been shown to be effective in this regard may only signify the existence of a distinct subclass of affective disorders closely linked to the menstrual cycle. This subclass may have some type of dysfunction within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that contributes to mood swings.

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The effects of equimolar doses of imipramine (IP) and three catatoxic steroids, pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), spironolactone (SNL) and dexamethasone (DEXA), on hepatic mixed-function oxidases were investigated in female rats. Liver weight and N-demethylation of IP and amitriptyline (AMI) were significantly increased by 3 days of catatoxic steroid pretreatment. Repeated prior administration of IP enhanced N-demethylase activity and 9000g supernate protein, but diminished hepatic weight.

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Based on the results of an open trial with Ro 8-1998 (chemic name: N,N-dimethyl-3-(1-methyl-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cycloheptene-5-ylidene)-propylamine N-oxide hydrochloride) in 11 endogenous depressed outpatients a double-blind trial with imipramine was proposed. Therapeutic efficacy and side effects of Ro 8-1998 and imipramine were compared in a double-blind trial with 30 patients who were newly hospitalized. Most of them suffered from endogenous depression. On days 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 the patients were examined and the symptoms were documented with the AMP system, the Hamilton scale for depression, a behaviour rating and the "global depression rating Zurich". Ro 8-1998 caused a decrease of systolic blood pressure, an increase of heart frequency and urea. Twelve out of 15 patients showed a decrease of white blood cells. In four patients the number of white blood cells dropped below 4,000. Statistical analyses proved both substances to be potent antidepressants. The therapeutic efficacy of Ro 8-1998 was at least equal to that of imipramine. Further trials with bigger groups of patients are necessary to show whether the trend towards a better antidepressant efficacy of Ro 8-1998 can be reproduced.

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Given the evolving nature of anatomical and functional changes in the nervous system that are involved in the development of neuropathic pain, it is possible that the differing time course after injury underlies the inconsistent efficacy of drugs in neuropathic pain patients. In the current study, we evaluated the behavioral effects of two standard drugs used clinically for neuropathic pain, the anticonvulsant gabapentin and antidepressant imipramine, in rats at different times after peripheral nerve injury. Rats that underwent the spared nerve injury procedure responded to an innocuous mechanical stimulus (von Frey filament) 2, 4, and 8 wk after injury. Gabapentin dose-dependently suppressed mechanical sensitivity at all time points tested but the potency of gabapentin was three-fold less 4 wk postinjury (135 mg/kg) compared with 2 and 8 wk postinjury (41 and 44 mg/kg, respectively). In contrast, imipramine lacked significant efficacy at 2 and 8 wk postinjury but slightly attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity at 4 wk postinjury. The results show that drug effects may change over time in the neuropathic state, which should be an important consideration in the evaluation of drugs in preclinical animal pain models and has implications for temporal approaches to therapy in the clinic.

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Substantial pharmacokinetic changes can occur during pregnancy in a number of commonly used antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Dose increases may be indicated for antidepressants including citalopram, clomipramine, imipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, and sertraline, especially late in pregnancy. Antenatal dose increases may also be needed for lithium, lamotrigine, and valproic acid because of perinatal changes in metabolism. Close clinical monitoring of perinatal mood disorders and TDM of tricyclic antidepressants and mood stabilizers are recommended.

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Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) play an important role in the treatment of pediatric psychiatric disorders. Despite widespread clinical use, concerns about their possible cardiovascular risk have arisen following several published reports of sudden death associated with their use in children. Accordingly, available evidence concerning TCA-associated cardiovascular effects in children and adolescents was surveyed.

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Ki values for venlafaxine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and sertraline as inhibitors of imipramine and desipramine 2-hydroxylation were determined from Dixon plots of control and inhibited rate data in human hepatic microsomal incubations. The inhibitory effect of imipramine and desipramine on liver microsomal CYP2D6 dependent venlafaxine O-demethylation was determined similarly. Venlafaxine's IC50 values for CYP3A4, CYP1A2 CYP2C9 were determined based on inhibition of probe substrate activities (testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase and tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation, respectively).

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Association between emotionality and effect of imipramine on immobility time in forced swimming test was investigated in Swiss and Balb/c mice. Mice of both the strains were segregated into normal emotional (mean +/- 1SD), low emotional (> mean + 1SD) and high emotional (< mean - 1SD) based on their performance with respect to each indices of emotionality in novel arena and elevated plus maze. Baseline immobility and effect of imipramine (20 mg/kg, po) on immobility time was evaluated in these emotionally different groups of mice using forced swimming test model. Baseline immobility time of low emotional mice was found to be significantly less (P<0.01) and that of high emotional mice was found to be significantly more (P<0.01) when compared to normal emotional mice of both the strains. Immobility time after imipramine administration was found to be significantly less (P<0.05) with low emotional mice and significantly more (P<0.01) with high emotional mice when compared to normal emotional mice of both the strains.

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Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) are well absorbed (0.7-0.8 bioavailability) when given orally. Severe malnutrition (such as kwashiorkor) effects absorption but diahrrea does not. Both HCQ and CQ have prolonged half-lives, between 40 and 50 days, and low blood clearance (e.g. hydroxychloroquine's blood clearance is 96 ml/min). There is great variability of blood concentrations with an eleven-fold range of drug concentrations found after similar doses in RA patients. Protein binding ranges between 30 and 40% with binding to both albumin and alpha, glycoprotein. There is differential binding and metabolism of the (R) and (S) stereoisomers. Both drugs bind strongly to pigmented tissues but also bind to mononuclear cells, muscles, etc. There is stereo-selective excretion of both drugs and 40-50% of the drug is excreted renally. Between 21 and 47% is excreted unchanged. There is a suggestion of concentration response and concentration toxicity relationships with decreased morning stiffness as HCQ concentrations increase and increased EKG abnormalities as CQ concentrations become higher, but further testing is required. Pharmacokinetic interaction studies are limited. Potentially important kinetic interactions have been documented for d-penicillamine and cimetidine but have not been found for aspirin, ranitidine or imipramine.

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Impairments of cellular plasticity appear to underlie the pathophysiology of major depression. Recently, elevated levels of phosphorylated AMPA receptor were implicated in the antidepressant effect of various drugs. Here, we investigated the effects of an antidepressant, Tianeptine, on synaptic function and GluA1 phosphorylation using murine hippocampal slices and in vivo single-unit recordings. Tianeptine, but not imipramine, increased AMPA receptor-mediated neuronal responses both in vitro and in vivo, in a staurosporine-sensitive manner. Paired-pulse ratio was unaltered by Tianeptine, suggesting a postsynaptic site of action. Tianeptine, 10 μM, enhanced the GluA1-dependent initial phase of LTP, whereas 100 μM impaired the latter phases, indicating a critical role of GluA1 subunit phosphorylation in the excitation. Tianeptine rapidly increased the phosphorylation level of Ser(831)-GluA1 and Ser(845)-GluA1. Using H-89 and KN-93, we show that the activation of both PKA and CaMKII is critical in the effect of Tianeptine on AMPA responses. Moreover, the phosphorylation states of Ser(217/221)-MEK and Thr(183)/Tyr(185)-p42MAPK were increased by Tianeptine and specific kinase blockers of the MAPK pathways (PD 98095, SB 203580 and SP600125) prevented the effects of Tianeptine. Overall these data suggest that Tianeptine potentiates several signaling cascades associated with synaptic plasticity and provide further evidence that a major mechanism of action for Tianeptine is to act as an enhancer of glutamate neurotransmission via AMPA receptors.

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Pharmacotherapy provides considerable relief from the symptoms of dysthymia in patients suffering from this chronic affective disorder, with both sertraline and imipramine being more effective than placebo. The greater tolerability of sertraline is an important consideration because of the chronicity of dysthymia, which may require prolonged treatment with antidepressant medication.

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Circadian rhythms of body temperature, plasma cortisol, norepinephrine (NE), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and melatonin were compared in 16 endogenously depressed, 15 recovered (after 3 weeks of anti-depressant treatment), and 16 normal subjects. The depressed patients showed clear circadian rhythm abnormalities, consisting mainly in amplitude reduction. This amplitude reduction was significantly correlated with the patients' Hamilton depression scores. Normal circadian profiles were restored after recovery when amplitude, in particular, was increased. Features of the circadian rhythms observed in remission may be associated with antidepressant drug effects, whereas those observed in depression resemble the circadian rhythms observed in normal subjects living under conditions of temporal isolation and those of blind subjects. Our findings suggest that depression may be related both to a weakening of the coupling processes between internal pacemakers and to an abnormal sensitivity to environmental information.

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The recognition and treatment of psychiatric illness in general practice is a skilled and difficult task and it is estimated that about 30% of psychiatric diagnoses may be missed. Patients whose illness is recognized are more likely to recover at follow-up than those whose illness is missed, demonstrating the importance of adequate training in recognizing psychiatric illness. Many general practitioners find difficulty in using tricyclic antidepressants to treat depression. The usual dose is lower than research evidence accepts as therapeutic and side effects often result in patient refusal to take a full dose. Additionally, the tricyclics are highly toxic in overdose. Many general practitioners in the UK are wary of new treatments because of previous experience of rare side effects leading to withdrawal of some new drugs. However, prescriptions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression are gradually increasing here and in other countries such as the USA, France and Canada, where the SSRIs as a class account for upwards of 30% of new antidepressant prescriptions. The SSRIs are well suited to general practice; they have a greater therapeutic index than tricyclics, are much safer in overdosage, and have a different range of side effects (mainly nausea) which are better tolerated by patients at therapeutic doses. Furthermore, the SSRIs generally do not require dosage escalation for most patients and evidence indicates that they are effective in the treatment of depression associated with anxiety and insomnia. The safety and efficacy of the new SSRI sertraline has been established in comparative trials versus amitriptyline, imipramine and dothiepin (Reimherr et al., 1990; Cohn et al., 1990; Fontaine, 1991; Langdon, 1991).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The electrocardiographic effects of imipramine hydrochloride at therapeutic plasma concentrations were determined in 44 depressed patients during a 6-week clinical outcome study of depression. During each week of the protocol, i.e., 2 weeks of control and 4 weeks of drug treatment, a standard 12-lead ECG, high-speed, high-fidelity ECG tracings, and a 24-hour continuous ECG recording were obtained. PR, QRS, and QTc intervals, T-wave amplitude, heart rate and frequency of ventricular premature depolarizations (VPDs) were measured. The plasma concentration of imipramine and desmethylimipramine was measured three times a week. Imipramine prolonged the PR (p less than 0.001), QRS (p less than 0.001) and QTc (p less than 0.001) intervals, increased the heart rate (p less than 0.001) and lowered T-wave amplitude (p less than 0.05) during the 4 weeks of treatment. No patient developed high-grade atrioventricular block or severe intraventricular conduction abnormalities. In addition, imipramine had a potent antiarrhythmic action in patients who were recovering from depression. Ten of 11 patients who had more than 10 VPDs/hour had 90% or greater arrhythmia suppression during antidepressant treatment with imipramine at plasma concentrations ranging from 100--302 ng/ml.

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The authors evaluated platelet tritiated imipramine binding in 22 outpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and 22 psychiatrically normal controls matched for age and gender. Mean maximal binding site density (Bmax) and equilibrium dissociation affinity (Kd) values were not significantly different. In OCD patients, Bmax was positively associated with age but was not associated with age of onset, gender, personality disorder, or five measures of illness severity. Eight patients with OCD were subsequently treated with clomipramine up to 300 mg/day for 10 weeks. Among these 8 patients, Bmax values had a 65% mean decrease from baseline, but Bmax values did not change among 7 OCD patients receiving placebo. The results suggest that a reduced density of tritiated imipramine binding sites may not be associated with OCD.

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Addition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to cholesterol-deprived human skin fibroblast cultures treated by imipramine at a 20 microM concentration induced a significant intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were already visible by histochemical filipin staining after 2 h of LDL uptake and were progressively mobilized towards the perinuclear region within 24 h. At this concentration of the drug, the rate of proteolytic 125I-LDL hydrolysis was similar in treated and untreated cells. Treated cells maintained in lipoprotein-deficient medium showed no abnormality, indicating the exogenous origin of the accumulated sterol. Further, the drug induced a drastic dose-dependent impairment of LDL-stimulated cholesterol esterification, not related to an inhibition of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, and a significant delay in down-regulation of de novo cholesterol synthesis. However, imipramine did not affect 25-hydroxycholesterol-mediated regulation of the two latter processes. These results resemble those observed in Niemann-Pick type C disease and suggest an impaired mobilization of LDL-derived cholesterol in imipramine-treated cells.

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Alprazolam as antidepressants compounds facilitates 5-HT(1A)- and 5-HT(2A)-receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the DPAG, implicating this effect in the mode of action of different classes of antipanic drugs.

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Seizures are uncommon, but serious, adverse effects of antidepressant drugs. A better understanding of drug-related seizure risk, its predictors, and its neurophysiologic basis might help clinicians avoid this adverse event. A better understanding of the factors involved in the determination of seizure risk would be helpful for interpretation of seizure rates reported.

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1. The active uptake of serotonin by platelets of schizophrenic patients and a healthy control group was compared with imipramine binding to these platelets. 2. Significant correlation was observed between the Vmax of serotonin uptake and the imipramine binding. 3. Serotonin uptake by patients was much lower than that of control group.

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This paper uses Bayesian hierarchical models to analyse multi-centre clinical trial data where the outcome variable of interest is continuous, but not normally distributed, and where censoring has occurred. The goal of such an analysis is the same as for any subgroup analysis, to provide survival estimates for specific subgroups as well as for the population and to provide estimates of the degree of heterogeneity between subgroups. An analysis of the Collaborative Study of Long-Term Maintenance Drug Therapy in Recurrent Affective Illness, a multi-centre clinical trial funded by the National Institute for Mental Health's Pharmacologic Research Branch, serves to illustrate the proposed methodology. A feature of this data set is that one treatment group was withdrawn from medication at the time of randomization. The paper contains comparison of models, one that accounts for the drug washout period through the use of a changepoint model as well as a comparison of results across several choices of prior parameter values. In addition, the paper considers sensitivity to model choice and priors in a decision theory context.

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The influence of mepiprazole (EMD 16,923), a new pyrazol-ylalkyl-piperazine derivative, on the uptake of 3H-norepinephrine (NE), 3H-dopamine (DA), and 3H-serotonin (5-HT) into rat brain synaptosomes from cerebral cortex, corpus striatum, and hypothalamus was investigated in comparison with several psychotropic drugs, including oxypertine, d-amphetamine, imipramine, desipramine, chlorimipramine, amitriptyline, and chlorpromazine in vitro. Mepiprazole was a relatively weak inhibitor of monoamine uptake and exhibited its strongest action on the hypothalamic 5-HT uptake, being almost equipotent with desipramine (IC50 = 0.9 MUM). Furthermore, the influence of the drugs on the retention of 3H-amines previously taken up by whole rat brain synaptosomes was studied. Unlike the tricyclic antidepressants, mepiprazole as well as oxypertine and d-amphetamine markedly increased the efflux of radioactivity during a 20-min incubation at 37 degrees C at low concentrations (10(-6) to 10(-5) M), whereas at 10(-4) M all drugs greatly enhanced the efflux. The ability of mepiprazole to increase 5-HT concentration at the receptor level by a combination of neuronal uptake inhibition and release is discussed in relationship to the central actions of the drug.

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The goal of this study was to evaluate the plausibility and accuracy of commercially available on-site immunoassay urinalysis kits for the screening of compounds of interest within food matrices. In conjunction with this study, a sensitive, robust, and reproducible analytical method, utilizing solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for confirmation analysis, was developed. The food matrices analyzed were tomato juice, apple juice, milk, beer, white wine, ground beef, powdered milk, and all-purpose flour. Compounds fortified into the food matrices included heroin, phencyclidine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, imipramine, doxepin, nitrazepam, diazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, alprazolam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, and lorazepam. Standard curves were prepared for each matrix from 10 to 500 ng/ml for each analyzed compound. All liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry samples were fortified with 20 microl of deuterated internal standard at 90 ng/ml. Quality control standards were prepared at 20 and 400 ng/ml, and > 90% were within 2 SD of the mean for each analyte. The test kits were found to produce up to 85% of the expected results based on concentration levels of adulterants (i-Screen in milk). This study shows that lateral-flow immunoassay test kits are plausible as a rapid, accurate, and reliable screening method in the event of adulteration of the food supply.

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Following pre-treatment with verapamil (20 mg/kg) or a saline solution male Sprague Dawley rats were injected with imipramine (15 mg/kg). Two hours later, the animals were sacrificed, trunk blood collected and brain regions dissected out. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantitate antidepressant drug concentrations in all samples.

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This study assessed the effects of veratrine, a Na(+) channel opener on antidepressant effect of lamotrigine and others antidepressants: two tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): imipramine, a mixed serotonergic noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor, desipramine, a specific noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor and a SSRI: paroxetine, the most potent selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, using an animal model of depression, the forced swimming test. Veratrine (0.125 mg/kg) and lamotrigine (16, 32 mg/kg) or antidepressants (16, 32 mg/kg) were given i.p. 45 and 30 min, respectively, before the test.

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Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine interact with a membrane binding site associated with the uptake of serotonin. Ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone were found to affect the concentration and affinity of imipramine binding sites in the hypothalamus but not the cortex of female rats. In vivo and in vitro, estradiol increased the amount of imipramine binding at physiological concentrations; at high concentrations estradiol decreased imipramine binding. Ovariectomy (OVX) had no effect on imipramine binding, consonant with the biphasic dose-response relationship for estradiol. The effects of progesterone were dependent upon the concentration of estradiol. Effects of physiological concentrations of both estradiol and progesterone on imipramine binding in an isolated membrane preparation suggest that the hormones are affecting this aspect of serotonergic neuronal function by nongenomic mechanisms.

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Human cytochromes P450 (P450s) play a major role in the biotransformation of drugs. The generated metabolites are important for pharmaceutical, medical, and biotechnological applications and can be used for derivatization or toxicological studies. The availability of human drug metabolites is restricted and alternative ways of production are requested. For this, microbial P450s turned out to be a useful tool for the conversion of drugs and related derivatives. Here, we used 10 P450s from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56, which have been cloned, expressed, and purified. The P450s were investigated concerning the conversion of the antidepressant drugs amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, and promethazine; the antipsychotic drugs carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, as well as their precursors, iminodibenzyl and phenothiazine. Amitriptyline, chlorpromazine, clomipramine, imipramine, and thioridazine are efficiently converted during the in vitro reaction and were chosen to upscale the production by an Escherichia coli-based whole-cell bioconversion system. Two different approaches, a whole-cell system using M9CA medium and a system using resting cells in buffer, were used for the production of sufficient amounts of metabolites for NMR analysis. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and imipramine are converted to the corresponding 10-hydroxylated products, whereas the conversion of chlorpromazine and thioridazine leads to a sulfoxidation in position 5. It is shown for the first time that myxobacterial P450s are efficient to produce known human drug metabolites in a milligram scale, revealing their ability to synthesize pharmaceutically important compounds.

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The recurrence of an affective disorder in people who initially recover from major depressive disorder was characterized by using the unique longitudinal prospective follow-up data from the National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression-Clinical Studies.

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To investigate antidepressant effects and interactions between testosterone and imipramine in socially isolated male and female rats.

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tofranil pm generic 2017-01-15

We examined the effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on the immobilization of rats in the forced swim test with the administration of imipramine, desipramine, or buy tofranil lithium. A single administration of either imipramine (10-30 mg/kg, i.p.) or desipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal rats in a dose-dependent manner. Lithium (10-100 mg/kg, p.o.), however, had no affect on the performance of rats in the forced swim test. ACTH (100 microg/day), administered subcutaneously to rats for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days, had no apparent effect on the duration of immobility in this test. The immobility-decreasing effect induced by a single administration of either imipramine (10-30 mg/kg, i.p.) or desipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was blocked by chronic administration of ACTH for 3-14 days. The reduction of immobility, induced by chronic administration of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days, was blocked by treatment with ACTH for 14 days. When lithium (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 15 days concurrently with imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), we observed a significant decrease in immobility in rats treated with ACTH for 14 days. We suggest that chronic treatment of rats with ACTH may prove to be an effective model of tricyclic antidepressants-treatment-resistant depression.

tofranil 25 mg 2016-05-20

Post stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most common complications of ischemic stroke. At present, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, largely because there are no reliable, valid and reproducible animal models of PSD. Here we report a novel animal model of PSD that displays consistent and reliable clinical features of buy tofranil hemiplegic stroke. The animal model encompasses a combination of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and spatial restraint stress. We found that a 60-minute MCAO followed by spatial restraint stress for 2 h daily for 2 to 4 weeks from the fourth day after MCAO induced PSD-like depressive phenotypes in mice. Importantly, the mice showed exacerbated deficits of neurological functions and decreased body weights, which were accompanied with reduced levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine. In addition, we identified increased levels of serum cortisol in our PSD mice. Finally, we found that mice with PSD were responsive to the tri-cyclic antidepressant imipramine as evidenced by their attenuated depressive behaviors, increased body weights, recovered brain serotonin levels, and decreased serum cortisol levels. This mouse model replicates multiple features of human post-stroke depression and thus provides a new model for the investigation of PSD.

tofranil 100 mg 2015-09-22

Aspirin and acetaminophen are, as a rule, effective and well-tolerated compounds for use in mild pain of various etiologies. The major advantage of acetaminophen is the absence of gastrointestinal irritation. Tricyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, and amoxapine are often given with good results to patients who manifest pain buy tofranil as a somatization of depression.

tofranil mg 2017-08-27

In the treatment of endogenous depression REM sleep deprivation and imipramine have similar efficacy. Across drugs, efficacy of antidepressant activity is directly related to capacity of drugs to produce large and sustained reductions of REM sleep. Endogenous depression buy tofranil unimproved by REM sleep deprivation is unimproved by imipramine. Endogenous depression improvement by REM sleep deprivation and by amitriptyline have the same biological correlate, viz, REM rebound. In animals REM sleep deprivation produces several behavioral changes (e.g., increased motor, sexual, aggressive, pleasure seeking, feeding activities) which are the reverse of behavioral changes of human endogenous depression.

tofranil medication information 2015-12-07

The predictive influence of atypical buy tofranil features was not accounted for on the basis of depression severity.

tofranil drug study 2016-02-23

Rat liver lysosomal phospholipase A hydrolyzes both acidic and neutral phospholipids. Numerous cationic amphiphilic drugs including imipramine, propranolol, 4,4'-bis(diethylaminoethoxy)-alpha, beta- diethyldiphenylethane and chloropromazine inhibit phospholipase A. Cationic amphiphilic drugs bind readily to acidic phospholipids but much less readily to neutral phospholipids. Formation of drug-lipid complexes is thought to be an important mechanism involved in the inhibition of lysosomal phospholipases. Therefore, we studied the effects of four cationic amphiphilic inhibitors on lysosomal phospholipase A using one acidic and two neutral phospholipid substrates. The concentration of the drugs required to produce 50% inhibition was much higher when phosphatidylinositol was used as substrate. The degradation of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine was more readily inhibited by these agents than that of phosphatidylinositol. In drug-induced lipidosis, the predominance of acidic phospholipids may be due to redirection of phospholipid metabolism towards the formation of acidic phospholipids with a resultant increased delivery of these lipids to lysosomes. Based on buy tofranil our results, it does not appear to be due to decreased enzymatic hydrolysis of drug-acidic phospholipid complexes, at least when pure phospholipid substrates are used. Lysosomal storage of both acidic and neutral phospholipids appears to be caused by inhibition of lysosomal phospholipase action in view of the probable high intralysosomal levels of these agents.

tofranil medicine 2017-09-19

Panic disorder (DSM-III, DSM-III-R) has been thoroughly studied in recent years. The main evidence for panic disorder as a nosological entity is buy tofranil reviewed, to delineate some important questions for future research. Validation criteria include epidemiological, phenomenological, genetic, neurobiological, pharmacological and behavioral findings. Biological, behavioral and psychodynamic considerations on etiology, pathogenesis and treatment are presented.

tofranil 5 mg 2015-12-24

There buy tofranil is no current evidence supporting the clinical use of antidepressants in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Given the high rate of dropouts in this population, clinicians may consider adding psychotherapeutic supportive measures aiming to keep patients in treatment.

tofranil dosage information 2017-02-12

Diminished HR variability is considered to be associated with depression and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The buy tofranil pharmacological effects of antidepressants and depressive mood itself may contribute to alterations in autonomic cardiac functioning, but a limited amount of data is available. We studied the effects of two different types of antidepressant treatments (imipramine and fluvoxamine), in addition to the effect of depressive mood, on the cardiovascular system in depressed patients.

tofranil y alcohol 2015-11-27

Binding of four tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)--imipramine, desipramine, didesmethylimipramine and amitriptyline--on the lipid part of biological membranes was studied. Heterogeneity in partitioning of these drugs in artificial lipid bilayers (liposomes) was quantified using a radioligand binding method. High-affinity binding sites on the liposomes were found and characterized by apparent dissociation constant (Kd) and by buy tofranil binding capacity (Bmax). Change in the membrane lipid composition affected the binding parameters of the high-affinity binding, while the ligand modification affected non-specific binding (low-affinity adsorption) of TCAs. The possible role and methodological importance of high-affinity binding to the lipid part of biological membranes are both discussed. Determination of radioligand binding on model lipid membranes is recommended to avoid certain problems in interpretation of receptor binding studies.

tofranil tablet 2016-09-16

The effect of lithium on serotonin (5-HT)-mediated responses in the brain was assessed by measuring changes in the prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to L-tryptophan (LTP) in eight normal subjects. On the 4th day of lithium treatment the PRL responses were significantly enhanced, and this enhancement was still apparent after 20 days' buy tofranil treatment. In contrast, GH responses to LTP were not altered. Lithium had no effect on platelet 5-HT content, platelet imipramine binding and platelet 5-HT receptor binding. The ability of lithium to enhance some aspects of brain 5-HT function may be important in its mode of action in manic-depressive illness and may be particularly relevant to its potentiation of the antidepressant effect of tricyclic antidepressants.

tofranil tablets 10mg 2015-03-30

Platelet 5-HT uptake sites were measured in 40 depressed patients and 40 controls using [3H] imipramine binding, defined with desmethylimipramine (DMI) and Na+ dependence, and [3H] paroxetine binding. In control subjects the Bmax of DMI defined [3H] imipramine binding was significantly higher than both Na+ dependent [3H] imipramine (by 30%) and [3H] buy tofranil paroxetine binding (by 22%). The Bmax of Na+ dependent [3H] imipramine and [3H] paroxetine binding did not differ significantly. The Kd of Na+ dependent [3H] imipramine binding was significantly lower than the Kd of DMI defined [3H] imipramine binding. The binding of DMI defined and Na+ dependent [3H] imipramine and [3H] paroxetine did not differ significantly between depressed patients and controls in the total group, in those depressed patients and controls in the total group, in those depressed patients who had never taken antidepressants or in those depressed patients who had been recently withdrawn from antidepressants. This study provides no support for the view that the number of platelet 5-HT uptake sites are reduced in depression.

tofranil 150 mg 2015-10-08

The platelet plasma membrane serotonin transporter requires Na+ for two reactions, serotonin transport and imipramine binding. Although imipramine binding has been thought to reflect the same process required for serotonin binding prior to transport (Talvenheimo, J., Nelson, P.J., and Rudnick, G. (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4631-4635), binding and transport display markedly different responses to Na+. Imipramine binding (and competitive inhibition of transport) apparently requires two sodium ions which bind with a KD of 300 +/- 70 meq/liter. The total number of sites (Bmax) is the same at all Na+ concentrations, but the affinity for imipramine increases from 7.3 x 10(6) M-1 at 20 meq/liter to 110 x 10(6) M-1 at 200 meq/liter. Na+ acts buy tofranil , at least in part, by decreasing the rate of imipramine dissociation from its binding site. Serotonin binding displaces imipramine from its site on the membrane. In contrast to imipramine binding, this displacement is a simple, hyperbolic function of Na+ concentration with a KD for Na+ of 400 +/- 100 meq/liter, which suggests that only one Na+ is required. Serotonin transport is also much less responsive to Na+ concentration. Over the same concentration range in which the affinity for imipramine increases 15-fold, the affinity for serotonin increases only 2-fold. Despite the lack of Na+ effect on the Bmax for imipramine binding, the Vmax for serotonin transport increases as a simple saturable function of Na+ with a KM (Na+) of 52 meq/liter. Thus, substrate translocation as well as binding requires Na+. Since serotonin is cotransported with Na+, the serotonin gradient accumulated depends on the coupling stoichiometry and the magnitude of the Na+ gradient imposed. From the response of the serotonin gradient to imposed Na+ gradients, we calculated a serotonin:Na+ cotransport stoichiometry of 0.9. Taken together, the results suggest that serotonin and imipramine bind either to the same site or to mutually exclusive sites, but maximal imipramine binding requires two sodium ions, while maximal serotonin binding and translocation requires only one.

tofranil drug classification 2016-08-15

The effects on cardiovascular system of a new compound, 10-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-7-chlorobenzo-(b)-(1,8)-naphthyridone-5-monohydrochloride (IF-C-45) were investigated in rats, dogs and cats and compared to the effects induced by imipramine. Within the range of the analysis of peripheral cardiovascular effects IF- Daily Dose Coumadin C-45 acts in a similar way as imipramine does. Its hypotensive and cardiodepressive action is significantly weaker than that of imipramine.

tofranil missed dose 2015-12-03

Comparisons of high- and low-affinity [3H]imipramine binding to whole brain homogenates from adult male and female rats of the Fawn-Hooded and Long-Evans strains were performed. Most strikingly, no significant differences were observed between the two strains in any of the binding parameters, indicating that brain [3H]imipramine binding sites, which may be related to the serotonergic uptake process, appear normal in a strain of rats with serotonin platelet storage pool disease. However, a significant sex difference in high- but not low-affinity whole brain [3H]imipramine Bmax values was Allegra And Alcohol observed, with females of both strains having higher densities than males. The observed sex difference in densities of high-affinity [3H]imipramine binding sites necessitates further research into possible sex hormone interactions with this binding site and serotonergic transmitter systems.

tofranil overdose 2016-06-19

Data for 401 depressed outpatients with mood reactivity who participated in a randomized trial comparing placebo, imipramine, and phenelzine were analyzed for predictors of differential response by stepwise multiple regression techniques. Features of the Columbia criteria for atypical depression including oversleeping, overeating, severe anergy, and pathologic rejection sensitivity were each predictive of a poorer response to imipramine than to phenelzine only when compared to those patients with none of the features. These features were not additive in their contribution to differential outcome. Lack of endogenous features was not predictive of a differential drug treatment response. Compared with patients who have no symptoms of atypical depression, patients with any of the four features had an inferior imipramine response rather than a superior phenelzine response. These analyses indicate that the clear differential responsivity to medication Duphaston Medicine Use treatment in atypical depression is not simply related to any one defining symptom and that further correlates of this apparent biological heterogeneity need to be explored.

tofranil reviews 2017-07-30

The evidence for alterations in the dopaminergic system in animals induced by repetitive antidepressant treatment is discussed. Drugs with dopamine (DA) antagonistic, uptake inhibiting or releasing properties can be expected to cause receptor super- or subsensitivity, resp. MAO inhibitors cause a sustained suppression of DA synthesis due to direct inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by elevated cytosolic DA. With desipramine iprindol, electroconvulsive shock and REM sleep deprivation, there is some evidence for a development of postsynaptic DA receptor Child Zantac Dosage supersensitivity; this might, however, be secondary to effects of these treatments on the noradrenergic system. Nevertheless, it could play a role in the therapeutic effects of antidepressant treatments, in view of the role which the mesolimbic DA system seems to play in reinforcement and reward processes. Subsensitivity of presynaptic DA receptors was reported by two research groups to be caused by a variety of antidepressant treatments on the basis of biochemical, behavioural and electrophysiological data. Others were unable to reproduce or corroborate these findings. Taking into account the information hitherto available, the evidence for the development of presynaptic DA receptor subsensitivity after antidepressant treatment is not considered convincing.

tofranil and alcohol 2015-11-09

Cationic, lipid-soluble organic compounds may interfere with cation-mediated membrane transport processes. Thus, small intestinal absorption may be influenced by lipophilic organic cations. Therefore a series of arylalkylamines was studied in the concentration range from 0.5 to 20 mmol/l for their effect on the transport of various monosaccharides and leucine in the rat small intestine in vitro by means of the tissue accumulation technique. Whereas the monophenyl substituted monoamines (e.g. benzylamine, 2-phenylethylamine, 3-phenylpropylamine) did not show a significant effect on the active transport, the corresponding omega,omega-diphenyl derivatives exhibited a strong inhibition of the active transport of the sugars and the amino acid. These monoamines and drugs of similar structure (e.g. benzoctamine, diphenydramine) exhibited a mixed or non-competitive type of inhibition which correlated quite well with their octanol-water partition coefficients. In contrast, di- or triamines (e.g. harmaline, imipramine, pyrilamine) revealed a rather pure competitive type of inhibition. These findings tentatively suggest a different mode of action on the active transport by lipid-soluble organic amines according to the molecular charge distribution. In addition, Valtrex 500 Mg membrane vesicles were used to examine the effect of the different amines on the sucrase activity. Regarding the cation-dependent hydrolysis of sucrose, however, no distinct pattern developed.

tofranil street drug 2015-04-29

Perazine, a piperazine-type phenothiazine neuroleptic, is the most frequently chosen drug for combination with antidepressants in the therapy of complex or 'treatment-resistant' psychiatric illnesses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of lysosomal trapping to the total tissue uptake of perazine, and the pharmacokinetic interaction between the neuroleptic and antidepressants. Experiments were carried out on slices of different rat organs regarded as a system with functional lysosomes. To distinguish between lysosomal trapping and tissue binding, the experiments were performed in the absence or presence of 'lysosomal inhibitors', i.e. the lysosomotropic compound ammonium chloride or [H+] ionophore monensin, which abolish the pH-gradient of lysosomes. Under steady-state conditions, the highest tissue uptake of perazine was observed for the adipose tissue, which descended in the following order: the adipose tissue>lungs>liver>heart=brain>kidneys>muscles. The contribution of lysosomal trapping to the total tissue uptake amounted to about 40% in the liver, brain and muscles, to 30% in the kidneys, and to 25% in the heart and lungs. In the adipose tissue, no lysosomotropism of perazine was observed. Of the psychotropics studied, perazine was the only drug showing such a high degree of lysosomal trapping in muscles and distinct lysosomotropic properties in the heart. Perazine and the antidepressants used, both tricyclic (imipramine, amitriptyline) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, sertraline), mutually decreased their tissue uptake. The potency of imipramine to decrease perazine uptake was similar to that of the 'lysosomal inhibitors'. Other Propecia Tablets antidepressants seemed to exert a somewhat weaker effect. The above interactions between perazine and antidepressants were not observed in the presence of ammonium chloride, which indicates that they proceeded at the level of lysosomal trapping. The adipose tissue in which the drug uptake was not affected by the 'lysosomal inhibitors' was not the site of such an interaction. Ammonium chloride did not affect the drug metabolism in liver slices; other tissues displayed only a negligible biotransformation of the psychotropics studied. A parallel metabolic interaction between perazine and tricyclic antidepressants took part in liver slices (i.e. perazine and antidepressants mutually inhibited their metabolic pathways), but the influence of such an interaction on the lysosomal uptake of the parent compounds in liver slices did not seem to be great. A substantial decrease in concentrations of the drugs in lysosomes (depot form) observed in vitro may lead to an increase in the concentration in vivo of the neuroleptic and antidepressants at the site of action, which, in turn, may increase the risk of cardiotoxic and anticholinergic side-effects of tricyclic antidepressants and sedative and extrapyramidal effects of the neuroleptic.

tofranil maximum dosage 2016-05-13

This study was conducted to further assess the role of the alveolar macrophage in the induction of pulmonary phospholipidosis by the cationic amphiphilic drug, chlorphentermine (CP). Alveolar macrophages were collected from normal rats by pulmonary lavage, allowed to attach to glass cover slips and incubated with CP in vitro at 37 degrees C. The uptake of CP was measured using [14C]CP. Uptake is rapid, reaching equilibrium by 2 min resulting in the concentration of CP within the cells. The process is temperature-dependent being depressed markedly at 2 degrees C. Two components of uptake were identified. Below 0.2 mM CP, a carrier-mediated mechanism and diffusion are involved whereas, at concentrations above 0.2 mM, the carrier is saturated and diffusion predominates, with the intracellular binding of CP to membranes probably responsible for the striking sequestration. The carrier-mediated component obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics, does not appear to require Na+ Oxytrol Generic Name and is not affected by metabolic inhibitors. This is consistent with the concept that the process occurs by facilitated diffusion. Metabolism of CP does not play a role in the accumulation of the drug. The transport system is different from those involved in glucose, nucleoside or amino acid uptake. Total initial uptake was inhibited by the three cationic amphilic drugs tested, iprindole, chlorcyclizine and imipramine indicating that cationic amphiphilic drugs may share a common uptake system.

tofranil 35 mg 2016-11-14

The authors discuss the borderline syndrome of childhood, review the pertinent literature, and present three case histories demonstrating the salient features of the clinical syndrome. Each patient failed to benefit from intensive hospital treatment until imipramine (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the treatment regimen. One child was treated in a double-blind, imipramine-placebo crossover protocol. Substantial improvement with imipramine was demonstrated in adaptive peer interactions, compliance, and bizarre behaviors. This strongly supports consideration of imipramine a part of the intensive inpatient treatment of the borderline syndrome in children.

tofranil tablet uses 2017-08-24

Rats were trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg rolipram from its vehicle in a two-lever task. Following discrimination training, substitution and antagonism tests were carried out.

tofranil drug class 2017-09-07

Our findings challenge the concept that St John's wort elicits a major change in norepinephrine uptake or monoamine oxidase activity in vivo. The consistent increase in plasma DOPAC concentrations might suggest a novel mode of action or an inhibitory effect on dopamine beta-hydroxylase that should be followed up. We propose that a combination of physiologic and biochemical profiling may help better define the mode of action and potential side effects of herbal remedies.

tofranil syrup 2016-11-29

Treatment of the acute phase of recurrent depression has become both routine and successful in the last decade, but the rates of relapse and recurrence remain a problem. In this study a combined psychopharmacologic/psychotherapeutic approach to the acute and continuation treatment of unipolar depressed patients was used. For 59 patients who completed the continuation phase of treatment, the relapse rate after 8 weeks of recovery was 8.5%. Since other recent studies of recurrent depression have reported relapse rates of 15%-22%, these results suggest that there are advantages in combined treatment.

tofranil 200 mg 2015-03-01

Baseline binding capacity (Bmax) was significantly reduced in patients with OCD (1,342 +/- 952 fmol/mg; protein p < .01) compared with normal controls (2,486 +/- 1309 fmol/mg) and TS patients (2,420 +/- 1,069 fmol/mg; p < .05). Among OCD patients who were subsequently treated on an open-label basis with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Bmax values at baseline differentiated between responders (1,718 +/- 1,041 fmol/mg) and nonresponders (802 +/- 713 fmol/mg protein; p < .05). Response to SSRI was greatest in patients with a positive family history of OCD. Among responders (n = 10), baseline Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Bmax were positively correlated (r = .76, p = .01), as was Clinical Global Impression (r = .67, p = .03).

tofranil pm dosage 2016-03-01

An endogenous modulator for the site labeled by [3H]imipramine which is putatively coupled to the serotonin transporter in human platelets was isolated and purified from plasma. Procedures included sequential chromatography on Cibacron blue-Sepharose 4B, concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B, Mono Q HR 10/10 anion exchange, DuPont GF-250 gel permeation and Mono S HR 5/5 cation exchange columns. The purified modulator is a protein of Mr 45,000 with a very acidic pK (less than 3) and sensitive to various proteinases but heat- and acid-stable. This protein inhibited [3H]imipramine binding to platelet membranes competitively (IC50 approximately 6 microM) and enhanced serotonin uptake in fresh human platelets (EC50 approximately 7 microM). Various physicochemical properties, including chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological as well as amino acid composition analysis revealed that the isolated protein is most probably the human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

tofranil online 2015-09-02

[3H]5-HT exhibited specific binding in membrane preparations of Hymenolepis diminuta. The specific binding was saturable, reversible and temperature dependent. A non-linear Scatchard plot was obtained in a concentration range of 11 nM - 1000 nM [3H]5-HT, which could be resolved into sites having apparent dissociation constants (KD) of 0.10 microM and 6.25 microM for the high-affinity and low-affinity components, respectively. The latter could be selectively eliminated by binding [3H]5-HT to H. diminuta membranes in the presence of 10(-3) M nitroimipramine. Drug displacement studies, using 0.20 microM and 2.0 microM [3H]5-HT, revealed that while low-affinity [3H]5-HT binding was displaced by unlabelled 5-HT and inhibitors of 5-HT uptake, high affinity [3H]5-HT binding was affected only by tryptamine derivatives and, to a lesser extent, methysergide. In addition, high-affinity binding was stimulated by MgCl2 while low-affinity binding showed sodium-dependency. The data implicate the low-affinity site as a putative 5-HT transporter and the high-affinity site as a putative 5-HT 1 receptor. Exposure of H. diminuta membranes to 5-HT resulted in a 3-4 fold stimulation of cAMP levels. The EC 50 for the 5-HT-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (0.76 microM) was of the same order of magnitude as the apparent KD for high-affinity binding. Furthermore, the order of drug potency for the elevation of cAMP levels by 5-HT agonists and reversal by 5-HT antagonists was identical to the order of drug potency for the inhibition of high-affinity binding, suggesting linkage of the putative 5-HT 1 receptor to adenylate cyclase in H. diminuta.