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In experiment 1, which occured immediately or 3 hours after training, topiramate was administered to rats, and consolidation of memory was verified 18 days after the conditioning session. In experiment 2, which occured 18-22 days after the training session, rats were submitted to the extinction protocol. Rats received topiramate 14 days before or during the extinction protocol.
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Twenty-six patients (mean age 14 +/- 3.5 years) with bipolar disorder, type I (n = 23) or II (n = 3), who had been treated (mean duration 4.1 +/- 6.1 months) with topiramate (mean dose 104 +/- 77 mg/day) were identified. Response rate (defined by a CGI-Improvement score of < or = 2 at endpoint) was 73% for mania and 62% for overall illness. CGAS scores significantly improved from baseline to endpoint. No serious adverse events were reported.
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The first inhibition study of the mitochondrial isozyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) V (of murine origin) with a series of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides is reported. Inhibition data of the cytosolic isozymes CA I and CA II and the membrane-bound isozyme CA IV with these inhibitors are also provided for comparison. Several low nanomolar CA V inhibitors were detected (KI values in the range of 4-15 nM), most of them belonging to the acylated sulfanilamide, ureido-benzenesulfonamide, 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide, and aminobenzolamide type of compounds. The clinically used inhibitors acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, and topiramate on the other hand were less effective CA V inhibitors, showing inhibition constants in the range of 47-63 nM. Some of the investigated sulfonamides, such as the ureido-benzenesulfonamides and the acylated sulfanilamides showed higher affinity for CA V than for the other isozymes, CA II included, which is a remarkable result, since most compounds investigated up to now inhibited the cytosolic isozyme CA II better. These results prompt us to hypothesize that the selective inhibition of CA V, or the dual inhibition of CA II and CA V, may lead to the development of novel pharmacological applications for such sulfonamides, for example in the treatment or prevention of obesity, by inhibiting CA-mediated lipogenetic processes.
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The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.
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Topiramate induced weight loss and improved glycemic control in obese, diabetic patients.
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Migraine occurs in about 15% of the general population. Migraine is usually managed by medication, but some patients do not tolerate migraine medication due to side effects or prefer to avoid medication for other reasons. Non-pharmacological management is an alternative treatment option. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on manual therapies for migraine. The RCTs suggest that massage therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy might be equally effective as propranolol and topiramate in the prophylactic management of migraine. However, the evaluated RCTs had many methodological shortcomings. Therefore, any firm conclusion will require future, well-conducted RCTs on manual therapies for migraine.
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The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin (PGB-a third-generation antiepileptic drug) in combination with three second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., lamotrigine [LTG], oxcarbazepine [OXC] and topiramate [TPM]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type I isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25mA, 500V, 50Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured. In the mouse MES model, PGB administered singly had its DRRC non-parallel to that for LTG, OXC and TPM. With type I isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs, the combinations of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted additive interaction. In all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength were affected. In conclusion, the additive interactions between PGB and LTG, OXC and TPM are worthy of consideration while extrapolating the results from this study to clinical settings.
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This experimental design did not allow us to determine whether topiramate also blocked the reconsolidation of fear memory.
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Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic drug with efficacy in partial-onset seizures. We report a case in which generalized-onset absence seizures responded clinically and electrographically to LEV.
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Injury to the ilioinguinal nerve commonly follows during lower abdominal and pelvic surgery, especially with inguinal hernia repair, appendectomy, and hysterectomy. Other potential causes include low abdominal blunt trauma, iliac crest bone graft, psoas abscess, Pott's disease, and prolonged wearing of abdominally constrictive clothing. The actual incidence of ilioinguinal neuralgia is uncertain, as reported percentage ranges between 12% and 62%. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical, and appropriate treatments range from conservative pharmacologic management with nonopioid (eg, gabapentin, topiramate) as well as opioid agents, to surgical neurectomy of the proximal portion of the ilioinguinal nerve. Pharmacological treatment is frequently unsuccessful (particularly if delayed) and while surgery is successful in approximately 73% of cases, it can result in problematic paresthesias, and pain may continue to persist in some patients. Thus, minimally invasive techniques, such as peripheral nerve stimulation, may be viable in those patients who are refractory to pharmacological management, as an option to surgery, and who have not gained satisfactory pain relief through surgical intervention. We present three cases of successful pain control of ilioinguinal neuralgia with peripheral nerve stimulation. These cases demonstrate the potential benefits of neurostimulation including durable effective pain relief and decreased use of medication. Putative mechanisms of effect(s) and caveats for continued research to inform prudent employment of this technique are presented.
E7070 [N-(3-chloro-7-indolyl)-1,4-benzenedisulfonamide] is an anticancer drug candidate under clinical development for the treatment of several types of cancers. We prove here that this compound also acts as a potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. Similarly to the clinically used drugs acetazolamide, methazolamide and topiramate, E7070 showed inhibition constants in the range of 15-31nM against isozymes I, II and IX, being slightly less effective as a CA IV inhibitor (K(i) of 65nM). The X-ray crystal structure of the adduct of hCA II with E7070 revealed unprecedented interactions between the inhibitor and the active site, with three different conformations of the chloroindole fragment of the inhibitor interacting with different amino acid residues/water molecules of the enzyme. A superimposition of these conformations with those of other sulfonamide/sulfamate CA inhibitors indicated that similar regions of the hCA II active site could be involved in the interaction with inhibitors.
The diagnosis of migraine headache in childhood rests on criteria similar to those used in migraine in adults. It is important, however, to appreciate several fundamental differences. These differences include the duration of attack, which is often far shorter than in an adult, and the location of the attack, which may be bilateral in many children. The treatment of children and adolescents with migraines includes treatment modalities for acute attacks, preventive medications when the attacks are frequent, and biobehavioral modes of therapy to address long-term management of the disorder. The controlled clinical trials of medications in pediatric migraine have suffered from high placebo response rates that may be related to the sites conducting the study (ie, headache specialist vs clinical research organizations). The medications have proved to be safe in the pediatric age group. Treatment modalities for acute migraine include over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as the oral triptans such as sumatriptan succinate, rizatriptan benzoate, and zolmitriptan and the nasal spray formulations of sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. Subcutaneous sumatriptan and parenteral dihydroergotamine have also been used limitedly. Preventive treatment for patients with frequent or disabling migraines (or both) includes the antidepressants amitriptyline hydrochloride and nortriptyline hydrochloride, the anticonvulsants divalproex sodium and topiramate, and the antihistaminic agent cyprohepatine hydrochloride. Biobehavioral approaches aimed at addressing the fundamental lifestyle issues and nonpharmacologic approaches to management are fundamental to long-term success.
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We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Management of seizures in learning disabled people is challenging. This prospective study explored the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive topiramate (TPM) in patients with learning disability and refractory epilepsy attending a single centre.
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After a 3-week baseline period, 12 patients receiving VPA monotherapy (500 to 2,250 mg every 12 h) received TPM at three escalating doses (from 100 to 200 to 400 mg every 12 h), each for 2 weeks. Thereafter, the VPA dose was tapered by 25% weekly. Blood and urine samples were collected over 12-h intervals during VPA monotherapy and at the end of each stage of TPM dose escalation and TPM monotherapy.
A representative population sample of 57 patients with ID (age range 2-61, mean 32.8) was administered add-on TPM for drug-refractory epilepsy.
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We describe ten patients, of an average age of 7 years and 8 months, with refractory epileptic seizures. All were treated with topiramate, associated with the antiepileptic drugs they had been taking previously. During the summer months, when the environmental temperature was over 37 C, they had slight hyperthermia, hypohydrosis or more usually anhydrosis, red faces and tiredness which was markedly worse on effort. In one case there was also retention of urine and four others had known side effects. In seven patients the symptoms disappeared when the dose of TPM was reduced or the environment became cooler. In the other three cases TPM was withdrawn, due to the severe adverse effects seen in two cases and for being ineffective as treatment in the other cases.
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4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability.
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ABT-769 was tested for protection against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the mouse and for suppression of electrically kindled amygdala seizures and spontaneous absence-like seizures in the rat. The central nervous system safety profile was evaluated by using tests of motor coordination and inhibitory avoidance. The potential for liver toxicity was assessed in vitro by using a mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation assay. Teratogenic potential was assessed in the mouse.
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Patient demographics, VPA treatment regimens, clinical responses, and safety data were recorded and analyzed. Median patient age was 8.5 years (range 1.4-16 yrs). Approximately two thirds received VPA for seizures, and one third for migraines. Patients were given a mean +/- SD VPA loading dose of 28.5 +/- 5.2 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion rate of 1 +/- 0.2 mg/kg/hour. Mean +/- SD serum concentration measured 4.5 +/- 1.6 hours after the loading dose was 83.3 +/- 22.8 microg/ml. Steady-state concentration at 23.3 +/- 3.0 hours after the start of the continuous infusion was 80.0 +/- 26.0 microg/ml. Postload and steady-state serum concentrations were within the target concentration of 50-100 microg/ml in 77% and 69% of patients, respectively. On further analysis, when the target range was expanded to 50-125 microg/ml (125 microg/ml was deemed acceptable if no adverse effects were noted), 89% and 92% of patients, respectively, had postload and steady-state VPA serum concentrations within this range. The response rate was excellent, with nearly 85% of patients achieving a complete or partial response to therapy. Adverse effects were generally mild and uncommon.
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Topiramate is an effective anti-epileptic drug and can be associated with increased risk for urolithiasis because of its effects on acid-base profile. Evidences that supported an association of topiramate and urolithiasis were limited to case reports or series. We investigated the association of topiramate and urolithiasis in a nationwide population-based cohort study.
Preliminary reports have indicated that valproic acid (VPA) reduces serum concentrations of olanzapine (OLZ). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of VPA and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum concentrations of OLZ and 3 of its major metabolites in a large-scale material of therapeutic drug monitoring samples.
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This study investigated another type of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and antiepileptic drug, zonisamide, in order to evaluate its potential effectiveness for migraine prophylaxis refractory to topiramate, and to assess intolerability to adverse events, paresthesia in particular. This is an open-labeled retrospective single center study. We included headache patients who met the requirement of migraine without aura and were refractory to topiramate. Patients were treated only with zonisamide 100 mg/day, directly switching from topiramate. Patients were monitored every month for three months. A positive response to treatment (responders) was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days at three months after study commencement, compared with baseline. One hundred and twenty migraineurs who were refractory to topiramate were recruited. Compared with baseline, headache days with zonisamide showed a decrease, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Two patients complained of adverse effects, such as paresthesia. These results suggest that zonisamide is effective for migraine prophylaxis refractory to topiramate, or intolerable patients due to topiramate-induced paresthesia.
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Topiramate (TPM) is a new antiepiletic drug with efficacy in several types of seizures. Therapeutic drug monitoring of TPM is essential for effective patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens to determinate the TPM levels during the treatment. Advantages of DBS include short collection time, low invasiveness, ease and low cost of sample collection, transport and storage. Performance comparison between this method and the commercially available fluorescence-polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was made. The analysis was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The calibration curve in matrix using D(12)-topiramate was linear in the concentration range of 0.0166-1.66mg/L (0.5-50mg/L in DBS) of topiramate with correlation coefficient value of 0.9985. In the concentration range of 0.5-50mg/L, the coefficients of variation in DBS were in the range 2.13-11.85% and the accuracy ranged from 93.93% to 110.67%. There was no significant differences between the concentrations (ranging 0.5-50mg/L) measured both FPIA on venous samples and LC-MS/MS assay on simultaneous DBS samples. The sensitivity and specificity of tandem mass spectrometry allow now high throughput topiramate analysis (the improvement was three times in comparison with FPIA). This new assay has favourable characteristics being highly precise and accurate. FPIA also proved to be precise and accurate, but is not always suitable for the sample collection in neonates in whom obtaining larger blood samples is not convenient or possible.
The emergency department cohort was obtained from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of symptoms following mTBI (n=670; 385 males, 285 females) and a comparison group of children with extracranial injury (n=120; 61 males, 59 females). A retrospective chart review of a separate cohort of children from a brain injury clinic (the treatment cohort) treated for PTH was performed (n=44; 29 females, 15 males; mean age 14 y 1 mo, SD 3 y 1 mo). The median time since injury was 6.9 months (range 1-29 mo). The mean follow-up interval after treatment started was 5.5 weeks (SD 4.3 wks).
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We searched NCBI (PubMed), ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases for studies reporting fracture risk among users of AEDs. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool results across studies.
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To examine the association between antiepileptic drug (AED) receipt and suicide-related behavior (SRB) in older veterans.
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Oral anti-epileptic drugs (AED) represent possible add-on options in refractory status epilepticus (SE). We report our experience in using topiramate (TPM) to treat SE unresponsive to sequential trials of multiple agents.