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Topamax

Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol

 

Also known as:  Topiramate.

Description

Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.

Dosage

Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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In experiment 1, which occured immediately or 3 hours after training, topiramate was administered to rats, and consolidation of memory was verified 18 days after the conditioning session. In experiment 2, which occured 18-22 days after the training session, rats were submitted to the extinction protocol. Rats received topiramate 14 days before or during the extinction protocol.

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Twenty-six patients (mean age 14 +/- 3.5 years) with bipolar disorder, type I (n = 23) or II (n = 3), who had been treated (mean duration 4.1 +/- 6.1 months) with topiramate (mean dose 104 +/- 77 mg/day) were identified. Response rate (defined by a CGI-Improvement score of < or = 2 at endpoint) was 73% for mania and 62% for overall illness. CGAS scores significantly improved from baseline to endpoint. No serious adverse events were reported.

migraine medication topamax

The first inhibition study of the mitochondrial isozyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) V (of murine origin) with a series of aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides is reported. Inhibition data of the cytosolic isozymes CA I and CA II and the membrane-bound isozyme CA IV with these inhibitors are also provided for comparison. Several low nanomolar CA V inhibitors were detected (KI values in the range of 4-15 nM), most of them belonging to the acylated sulfanilamide, ureido-benzenesulfonamide, 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide, and aminobenzolamide type of compounds. The clinically used inhibitors acetazolamide, methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, and topiramate on the other hand were less effective CA V inhibitors, showing inhibition constants in the range of 47-63 nM. Some of the investigated sulfonamides, such as the ureido-benzenesulfonamides and the acylated sulfanilamides showed higher affinity for CA V than for the other isozymes, CA II included, which is a remarkable result, since most compounds investigated up to now inhibited the cytosolic isozyme CA II better. These results prompt us to hypothesize that the selective inhibition of CA V, or the dual inhibition of CA II and CA V, may lead to the development of novel pharmacological applications for such sulfonamides, for example in the treatment or prevention of obesity, by inhibiting CA-mediated lipogenetic processes.

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The evidence of a strong weight-reducing potential of topiramate is indisputable and clinically significant. Topiramate could be considered in the treatment of bipolar patients who are overweight, or whose concerns about weight gain compromise their compliance with long-term prophylactic medication. So far there is no evidence that topiramate has anti-manic effect and it should not be used as monotherapy.

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Topiramate induced weight loss and improved glycemic control in obese, diabetic patients.

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Migraine occurs in about 15% of the general population. Migraine is usually managed by medication, but some patients do not tolerate migraine medication due to side effects or prefer to avoid medication for other reasons. Non-pharmacological management is an alternative treatment option. We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on manual therapies for migraine. The RCTs suggest that massage therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy might be equally effective as propranolol and topiramate in the prophylactic management of migraine. However, the evaluated RCTs had many methodological shortcomings. Therefore, any firm conclusion will require future, well-conducted RCTs on manual therapies for migraine.

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The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin (PGB-a third-generation antiepileptic drug) in combination with three second-generation antiepileptic drugs (i.e., lamotrigine [LTG], oxcarbazepine [OXC] and topiramate [TPM]) in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model by using the type I isobolographic analysis for non-parallel dose-response relationship curves (DRRCs). Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25mA, 500V, 50Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Potential adverse-effect profiles of interactions of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 in the MES test with respect to motor performance, long-term memory and skeletal muscular strength were measured. In the mouse MES model, PGB administered singly had its DRRC non-parallel to that for LTG, OXC and TPM. With type I isobolography for non-parallel DRRCs, the combinations of PGB with LTG, OXC and TPM at the fixed-ratio of 1:1 exerted additive interaction. In all combinations, neither motor coordination, long-term memory nor muscular strength were affected. In conclusion, the additive interactions between PGB and LTG, OXC and TPM are worthy of consideration while extrapolating the results from this study to clinical settings.

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This experimental design did not allow us to determine whether topiramate also blocked the reconsolidation of fear memory.

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Levetiracetam (LEV) is a new antiepileptic drug with efficacy in partial-onset seizures. We report a case in which generalized-onset absence seizures responded clinically and electrographically to LEV.

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Injury to the ilioinguinal nerve commonly follows during lower abdominal and pelvic surgery, especially with inguinal hernia repair, appendectomy, and hysterectomy. Other potential causes include low abdominal blunt trauma, iliac crest bone graft, psoas abscess, Pott's disease, and prolonged wearing of abdominally constrictive clothing. The actual incidence of ilioinguinal neuralgia is uncertain, as reported percentage ranges between 12% and 62%. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is critical, and appropriate treatments range from conservative pharmacologic management with nonopioid (eg, gabapentin, topiramate) as well as opioid agents, to surgical neurectomy of the proximal portion of the ilioinguinal nerve. Pharmacological treatment is frequently unsuccessful (particularly if delayed) and while surgery is successful in approximately 73% of cases, it can result in problematic paresthesias, and pain may continue to persist in some patients. Thus, minimally invasive techniques, such as peripheral nerve stimulation, may be viable in those patients who are refractory to pharmacological management, as an option to surgery, and who have not gained satisfactory pain relief through surgical intervention. We present three cases of successful pain control of ilioinguinal neuralgia with peripheral nerve stimulation. These cases demonstrate the potential benefits of neurostimulation including durable effective pain relief and decreased use of medication. Putative mechanisms of effect(s) and caveats for continued research to inform prudent employment of this technique are presented.

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E7070 [N-(3-chloro-7-indolyl)-1,4-benzenedisulfonamide] is an anticancer drug candidate under clinical development for the treatment of several types of cancers. We prove here that this compound also acts as a potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. Similarly to the clinically used drugs acetazolamide, methazolamide and topiramate, E7070 showed inhibition constants in the range of 15-31nM against isozymes I, II and IX, being slightly less effective as a CA IV inhibitor (K(i) of 65nM). The X-ray crystal structure of the adduct of hCA II with E7070 revealed unprecedented interactions between the inhibitor and the active site, with three different conformations of the chloroindole fragment of the inhibitor interacting with different amino acid residues/water molecules of the enzyme. A superimposition of these conformations with those of other sulfonamide/sulfamate CA inhibitors indicated that similar regions of the hCA II active site could be involved in the interaction with inhibitors.

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The diagnosis of migraine headache in childhood rests on criteria similar to those used in migraine in adults. It is important, however, to appreciate several fundamental differences. These differences include the duration of attack, which is often far shorter than in an adult, and the location of the attack, which may be bilateral in many children. The treatment of children and adolescents with migraines includes treatment modalities for acute attacks, preventive medications when the attacks are frequent, and biobehavioral modes of therapy to address long-term management of the disorder. The controlled clinical trials of medications in pediatric migraine have suffered from high placebo response rates that may be related to the sites conducting the study (ie, headache specialist vs clinical research organizations). The medications have proved to be safe in the pediatric age group. Treatment modalities for acute migraine include over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as the oral triptans such as sumatriptan succinate, rizatriptan benzoate, and zolmitriptan and the nasal spray formulations of sumatriptan and zolmitriptan. Subcutaneous sumatriptan and parenteral dihydroergotamine have also been used limitedly. Preventive treatment for patients with frequent or disabling migraines (or both) includes the antidepressants amitriptyline hydrochloride and nortriptyline hydrochloride, the anticonvulsants divalproex sodium and topiramate, and the antihistaminic agent cyprohepatine hydrochloride. Biobehavioral approaches aimed at addressing the fundamental lifestyle issues and nonpharmacologic approaches to management are fundamental to long-term success.

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We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

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Management of seizures in learning disabled people is challenging. This prospective study explored the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive topiramate (TPM) in patients with learning disability and refractory epilepsy attending a single centre.

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After a 3-week baseline period, 12 patients receiving VPA monotherapy (500 to 2,250 mg every 12 h) received TPM at three escalating doses (from 100 to 200 to 400 mg every 12 h), each for 2 weeks. Thereafter, the VPA dose was tapered by 25% weekly. Blood and urine samples were collected over 12-h intervals during VPA monotherapy and at the end of each stage of TPM dose escalation and TPM monotherapy.

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A representative population sample of 57 patients with ID (age range 2-61, mean 32.8) was administered add-on TPM for drug-refractory epilepsy.

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We describe ten patients, of an average age of 7 years and 8 months, with refractory epileptic seizures. All were treated with topiramate, associated with the antiepileptic drugs they had been taking previously. During the summer months, when the environmental temperature was over 37 C, they had slight hyperthermia, hypohydrosis or more usually anhydrosis, red faces and tiredness which was markedly worse on effort. In one case there was also retention of urine and four others had known side effects. In seven patients the symptoms disappeared when the dose of TPM was reduced or the environment became cooler. In the other three cases TPM was withdrawn, due to the severe adverse effects seen in two cases and for being ineffective as treatment in the other cases.

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4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a convulsing agent that in vivo preferentially releases Glu, the most important excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Here the ionic dependence of 4-AP-induced Glu release and the effects of several of the most common antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and of the new potential AED, vinpocetine on 4-AP-induced Glu release were characterized in hippocampus isolated nerve endings pre-loaded with labelled Glu ([3H]Glu). 4-AP-induced [3H]Glu release was composed by a tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive and external Ca2+ dependent fraction and a TTX insensitive fraction that was sensitive to the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor, TBOA. The AEDs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine at the highest dose tested only reduced [3H]Glu release to 4-AP between 50-60%, and topiramate was ineffective. Vinpocetine at a much lower concentration than the above AEDs, abolished [3H]Glu release to 4-AP. We conclude that the decrease in [3H]Glu release linked to the direct blockade of presynaptic Na+ channels, may importantly contribute to the anticonvulsant actions of all the drugs tested here (except topiramate); and that the significantly greater vinpocetine effect in magnitude and potency on [3H]Glu release when excitability is exacerbated like during seizures, may involve the increase additionally exerted by vinpocetine in some K+ channels permeability.

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ABT-769 was tested for protection against maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the mouse and for suppression of electrically kindled amygdala seizures and spontaneous absence-like seizures in the rat. The central nervous system safety profile was evaluated by using tests of motor coordination and inhibitory avoidance. The potential for liver toxicity was assessed in vitro by using a mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation assay. Teratogenic potential was assessed in the mouse.

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Patient demographics, VPA treatment regimens, clinical responses, and safety data were recorded and analyzed. Median patient age was 8.5 years (range 1.4-16 yrs). Approximately two thirds received VPA for seizures, and one third for migraines. Patients were given a mean +/- SD VPA loading dose of 28.5 +/- 5.2 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion rate of 1 +/- 0.2 mg/kg/hour. Mean +/- SD serum concentration measured 4.5 +/- 1.6 hours after the loading dose was 83.3 +/- 22.8 microg/ml. Steady-state concentration at 23.3 +/- 3.0 hours after the start of the continuous infusion was 80.0 +/- 26.0 microg/ml. Postload and steady-state serum concentrations were within the target concentration of 50-100 microg/ml in 77% and 69% of patients, respectively. On further analysis, when the target range was expanded to 50-125 microg/ml (125 microg/ml was deemed acceptable if no adverse effects were noted), 89% and 92% of patients, respectively, had postload and steady-state VPA serum concentrations within this range. The response rate was excellent, with nearly 85% of patients achieving a complete or partial response to therapy. Adverse effects were generally mild and uncommon.

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Topiramate is an effective anti-epileptic drug and can be associated with increased risk for urolithiasis because of its effects on acid-base profile. Evidences that supported an association of topiramate and urolithiasis were limited to case reports or series. We investigated the association of topiramate and urolithiasis in a nationwide population-based cohort study.

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Preliminary reports have indicated that valproic acid (VPA) reduces serum concentrations of olanzapine (OLZ). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of VPA and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum concentrations of OLZ and 3 of its major metabolites in a large-scale material of therapeutic drug monitoring samples.

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This study investigated another type of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and antiepileptic drug, zonisamide, in order to evaluate its potential effectiveness for migraine prophylaxis refractory to topiramate, and to assess intolerability to adverse events, paresthesia in particular. This is an open-labeled retrospective single center study. We included headache patients who met the requirement of migraine without aura and were refractory to topiramate. Patients were treated only with zonisamide 100 mg/day, directly switching from topiramate. Patients were monitored every month for three months. A positive response to treatment (responders) was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days at three months after study commencement, compared with baseline. One hundred and twenty migraineurs who were refractory to topiramate were recruited. Compared with baseline, headache days with zonisamide showed a decrease, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Two patients complained of adverse effects, such as paresthesia. These results suggest that zonisamide is effective for migraine prophylaxis refractory to topiramate, or intolerable patients due to topiramate-induced paresthesia.

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Topiramate (TPM) is a new antiepiletic drug with efficacy in several types of seizures. Therapeutic drug monitoring of TPM is essential for effective patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens to determinate the TPM levels during the treatment. Advantages of DBS include short collection time, low invasiveness, ease and low cost of sample collection, transport and storage. Performance comparison between this method and the commercially available fluorescence-polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was made. The analysis was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The calibration curve in matrix using D(12)-topiramate was linear in the concentration range of 0.0166-1.66mg/L (0.5-50mg/L in DBS) of topiramate with correlation coefficient value of 0.9985. In the concentration range of 0.5-50mg/L, the coefficients of variation in DBS were in the range 2.13-11.85% and the accuracy ranged from 93.93% to 110.67%. There was no significant differences between the concentrations (ranging 0.5-50mg/L) measured both FPIA on venous samples and LC-MS/MS assay on simultaneous DBS samples. The sensitivity and specificity of tandem mass spectrometry allow now high throughput topiramate analysis (the improvement was three times in comparison with FPIA). This new assay has favourable characteristics being highly precise and accurate. FPIA also proved to be precise and accurate, but is not always suitable for the sample collection in neonates in whom obtaining larger blood samples is not convenient or possible.

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The emergency department cohort was obtained from a prospective longitudinal cohort study of symptoms following mTBI (n=670; 385 males, 285 females) and a comparison group of children with extracranial injury (n=120; 61 males, 59 females). A retrospective chart review of a separate cohort of children from a brain injury clinic (the treatment cohort) treated for PTH was performed (n=44; 29 females, 15 males; mean age 14 y 1 mo, SD 3 y 1 mo). The median time since injury was 6.9 months (range 1-29 mo). The mean follow-up interval after treatment started was 5.5 weeks (SD 4.3 wks).

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We searched NCBI (PubMed), ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases for studies reporting fracture risk among users of AEDs. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool results across studies.

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To examine the association between antiepileptic drug (AED) receipt and suicide-related behavior (SRB) in older veterans.

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Oral anti-epileptic drugs (AED) represent possible add-on options in refractory status epilepticus (SE). We report our experience in using topiramate (TPM) to treat SE unresponsive to sequential trials of multiple agents.

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topamax drug interactions 2016-06-22

This study was designed to study the analgesic effects of gabapentin alone and in combination with lamotrigine and topiramate in experimental pain buy topamax models.

topamax good reviews 2015-07-22

A case of buy topamax chronic neuropathic pain in the infraorbital region following an untreated displaced zygomatic fracture is presented. The case responded favorably to topiramate and sensory testing revealed signs of nerve damage that remained unchanged over the follow-up period (six months) parallel to an analgesic effect. The clinical pharmacology of topiramate, which is reviewed, includes enhanced neuronal stability and neuroprotection, making it a possible candidate in the treatment of painful orofacial neuropathies.

topamax alcohol cravings 2016-11-28

The study population was pregnant women who enrolled in the North American AED Pregnancy Registry between 1997 and 2011. Data on AED use and maternal buy topamax characteristics were collected through phone interviews at enrollment, at 7 months' gestation, and postpartum. Malformations were confirmed by medical records. The risk of major malformations was calculated among infants exposed to specific AEDs in monotherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy and among an unexposed group. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with logistic regression.

topamax alcohol dependence 2015-12-14

The current evidence is promising but not yet sufficient to support the routine use of topiramate for Tourette syndrome in children due to low quality of the study designs buy topamax . It deserves to confirm in further high-quality, placebo-controlled trials.

topamax and alcohol 2016-12-21

The aim of this article is to focus on buy topamax the fixed-dose combination of phentermine and topiramate, a new antiobesity drug recently approved by the US FDA. The mechanisms of weight loss for each drug in monotherapy is described, followed by the rationale for its use as a combination therapy and a comprehensive review of recently published clinical trials that assessed its efficacy  and safety.

topamax starting dose 2016-07-03

ABT-769 blocked maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol and intravenous pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures with median effective dose (ED50) values of 0.25, 0.38, and 0.11 mmol/kg, p.o., respectively. No tolerance was evident in the intravenous pentylenetetrazol test after twice-daily dosing of ABT-769 (0.3 mmol/kg, p.o.) for 4 days. ABT-769 blocked absence-like spike-wave discharge (ED50, 0.15 mmol/kg, p.o.) and shortened the cortical and amygdala afterdischarge duration of kindled seizures (1 and 3 mmol/kg, p.o.). The protective indices (ED50 rotorod impairment/ED50 seizure protection) were 4.8, 3.2, and 10.9 in the maximal electroshock, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol and intravenous pentylenetetrazol seizure tests, respectively. ABT-769 did not affect inhibitory avoidance performance ( buy topamax 0.1-1 mmol/kg, p.o.). ABT-769 did not affect mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation or induce neural tube defects.

topamax alcohol addiction 2016-07-12

The application of artificial neural networks in the pharmaceutical sciences is broad, ranging from drug discovery to clinical pharmacy. In this study, we explored the applicability of counter-propagation artificial neural networks (CPANNs), combined with genetic algorithm (GA) for prediction of buy topamax topiramate (TPM) serum levels based on identified factors important for its prediction.

topamax high dose 2016-07-15

PSNHDD effect sizes were significant for both topiramate (0.34 and 0.25 at months 2 and 3, respectively) and naltrexone (0.24 and 0.26 at months 3 and 4, respectively). Given a 2-month grace period for naltrexone, the effect size of PSNHDDs was comparable to the effect sizes using traditional outcome measures. With a 1-month grace period for topiramate, it was greater than the majority of traditional outcome measures. Little is gained by allowing up to 1, 2, or 3 heavy drinking days as an end point. Subjects with no HDDs during treatment fared better than those with some HDDs on drinking outcomes and alcohol-related consequences during buy topamax a 1-year follow-up.

topamax 100 mg 2017-07-12

To investigate clinical and buy topamax economic consequences following generic substitution of one vs multiple generics of topiramate (Topamax; Ortho-McNeil Neurologics, Titusville, NJ).

topamax 75 mg 2015-03-14

We report a case of a man with traumatic brain injury. He was started on to prophylactic topiramate which led to a mixed acid-base disorder. He had severe metabolic acidosis buy topamax secondary to renal tubular acidification defect and respiratory alkalosis secondary to hyperventilation. Withdrawal of the offending drug led to the prompt resolution of the acid-base disturbance.

topamax usual dosage 2017-11-05

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antidepressants, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, clonazepam, cognitive therapy, education, family-focused psychoeducation, gabapentin, haloperidol, lamotrigine, lithium, olanzapine, buy topamax psychological treatments, quetiapine, risperidone, topiramate, valproate, and ziprasidone.

topamax drug company 2015-04-29

The choice of an antiepileptic drug depends firstly on its efficacy in specific seizure types and epilepsies. However, it is imperative to consider whether possible adverse events will outweigh any benefits. The advantages and disadvantages of vigabatrin, lamotrigine, gabapentin, topiramate, tiagabine and felbamate are considered in some detail, and oxcarbazepine, stiripentol, remacemide, zonisamide and levetiracetam more briefly. Vigabatrin is effective for partial seizures and infantile spasms, but visual field defects are buy topamax limiting its use. Lamotrigine has a wide spectrum, needs to be prescribed with care. Gabapentin is unlikely to cause adverse effects, but has relatively poor efficacy. Topiramate is widely effective, but can be poorly tolerated. Tiagabine is relatively untried in childhood epilepsies. The use of felbamate is restricted to severe refractory epilepsies. Stiripentol can be effective in severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy. Zonisamide has a special place in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies. Levetiracetam, remacemide and oxcarbazepine have been used mainly for partial seizures: further studies of their roles in other circumstances are required.

topamax 15 mg 2016-08-04

Data for 12 and 22 patients (studies 1 and 2 respectively) were evaluated. After starting topiramate, urinary citrate excretion dropped significantly by 30 days (P = 0.016) and 62% of patients had hypocitraturia (citrate <320 mg day(-1) ). At 60 days, urine citrate was even lower than at baseline (P = 0.0032) and 86% of patients had developed hypocitraturia. After starting alkali, urine citrate increased in stone-forming patients on topiramate (198 ± 120 to 408 ± 274 mg day(-1) ; P = 0.042 for difference). 85% of buy topamax patients were hypocitraturic on topiramate alone vs. 40% after adding alkali. The increase in urinary citrate was greater in patients provided ≥ 90 mEq potassium citrate.

topamax buy online 2015-07-20

The influence of age and comedication on the dose-to-level ratio of topiramate was examined in 91 children with epilepsy treated with topiramate. The topiramate dosing and plasma concentrations, as well as those of their concomitant antiepileptic drugs were examined retrospectively. The dose-to-level ratio was used as a measure of clearance and was calculated as the weight-normalized topiramate dose (mg/kg/day) divided by the steady-state trough plasma drug level in the child. The children were classified in age groups and treatment groups; topiramate was administered with an enzyme inducer (n = 32), with a nonenzyme inducer (n = 49), or as monotherapy (n = 10). The topiramate clearance in children aged 0-8 years buy topamax compared with those aged 9-17 years was more than twofold higher if treated with an enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug and 1.5-fold higher if treated with a nonenzyme inducer. Children receiving enzyme inducers had a more than twofold higher clearance compared with those who did not. Within all age groups, significant differences in topiramate clearance were observed between those receiving enzyme inducers and those receiving nonenzyme inducers or monotherapy. Thus younger age and concomitant enzyme inducers, both acting independently, significantly increased the clearance of topiramate in children. This effect has to be considered to optimize treatment in the individual patient.

topamax 800 mg 2015-09-06

Treatment with topiramate Paracetamol Drug Class causes systemic metabolic acidosis, markedly lower urinary citrate excretion, and increased urinary pH. These changes increase the propensity to form calcium phosphate stones.

topamax max dose 2015-03-25

Randomized controlled clinical trials on the analgesic effects of drugs prescribed for trigeminal neuralgia were evaluated. All of them were published until July 2003. Statistical analysis was accomplished with the support of Ceftin And Alcohol Review Manager 4.2.2 software (Cochrane Collaboration, 2003).

topamax alcohol reviews 2015-01-19

Among the multiple mechanisms of action of Dallas Botox Prices topiramate, AMPA/kainate antagonism may be particularly interesting for the treatment of disorders characterized by conditioned cognitive and behavioral cue reactivity.

topamax alcohol abuse 2017-10-08

In an outpatient Propecia Drug Interactions setting, case notes of 27 children who received TPM were retrieved and analysed.

topamax reviews 2015-06-04

Essential tremor was the predominant diagnosis, confirming its high prevalence. There was a predominance of female patients and a peak of Persantine Cost age at onset in the fifth and sixth decades. Asymmetry of the disease was noted in half of patients.

topamax drug classification 2015-06-28

Children with epilepsy treated with one prescription Celexa 15 Mg of AEDs (monotherapy) for at least 1 year were selected. The AEDs included valproic acid (VPA; Deparkin) in 27 children (11 boys and 16 girls) aged 4-18 years, oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) in 30 children (15 boys and 15 girls) aged 5-18 years, topiramate (Topamax) in 19 children (10 boys and 9 girls) aged 6-18 years, and lamotrigine (Lamicta) in eight children (5 boys and 3 girls) aged 5-13 years. Patients with a history of febrile convulsions were selected as the controls.

topamax mg 2016-06-20

Our objective was to estimate 4-year healthcare costs associated with the metabolic profile of patients before Lipitor Generic Dosage and after 1 year of treatment with phentermine (15 mg) and topiramate extended-release (92 mg) [phentermine-topiramate ER].

topamax 50 mg 2015-02-04

This is the first report of a medication affecting sweat chloride values and shows that topiramate therapy can cause elevated sweat chloride concentrations in the absence of clinical manifestations of CF.

topamax 40 mg 2015-12-30

Recent literature on the subject was reviewed, as were the records on a total of 118 patients from two paediatric neurology units between the years 2000 and 2003. With regard to the localisation-related cases, the following recommendations are made: 1. Treatment with monotherapy; 2. Low doses, since any antiepileptic drug can make epilepsy worse, and more so in the case of RBEI; 3. If the seizures get worse with treatment, the doses must be reduced instead of increased; 4) Carbamazepine (CBZ) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) are first choice drugs; clobazam (CLB) is indicated in OBEI and in some atypical BPEI, in which steroids in monotherapy can occasionally prove useful; valproate (VPA) is an alternative for cases of intolerance and exacerbation, and 5. Two-year treatment and electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for exacerbation. As regards idiopathic generalised epilepsies: 1. VPA in monotherapy is recommended in all the forms, 48% were controlled; 18% were controlled with VPA + lamotrigine (LTG); 2. Childhood absence epilepsy is controlled up to 50% with VPA and 85% with VPA + ethosuximide (ESM); 3. LTG, CLB, topiramate (TPM) and Rivotril (CLN) are alternatives to be considered in all types of epilepsies and syndromes that are resistant to medication, and 4. In GCTS, VPA should be chosen in low doses in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy of Janz.

topamax 25mg medication 2017-06-28

A series of patients with CM were grouped according to whether they met abuse criteria or not. They were advised to stop taking the drug that they were abusing. Treatment was adjusted to match their crises and preventive treatment with topiramate was established from the beginning. The number of days with headache and intense migraine in the previous month and at four months of treatment was evaluated.

topamax pill 2017-01-02

Topiramate may have potential for the adjunctive treatment of depression in obese patients, but close monitoring of weight and adverse effects is warranted.

topamax y alcohol 2016-10-21

Hoechst 33258 and PI double immunofluorescence revealed that the number of dying cells after 6-OHDA treatment was greater than after TPM treatment. Compared with the 6-OHDA group, there were more neurons with greater cell viability in the 6-OHDA plus TPM group.

topamax 400 mg 2016-02-22

Acetone (5 or 7.5 mmol/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of CBZ, LTG, PB, and VPA against MES-induced seizures; effects of OXC, PHT, and TPM were not changed. Acetone (7.5 mmol/kg) did not enhance the acute adverse-effect profiles of the studied AEDs. Acetone (5 or 7.5 mmol/kg, i.p.) did not affect total brain concentrations of the studied AEDs. In contrast, VPA, CBZ, LTG, OXC, and TPM significantly decreased the concentration of free acetone in the brain; PB and PHT had no effect.