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Use of typical antipsychotics like haloperidol in treatment of schizophrenia is associated with a high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. In rodents, administration of haloperidol leads to the development of a behavioural state called catalepsy, in which the animal is not able to correct an externally imposed posture. In the present study we evaluated the anticataleptic efficacy of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal formulation containing bioactives of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum, Camellia sinensis, triphala and shilajit in haloperidol induced catalepsy in mice.
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The total 1095 children were screened (831 boys and 264 girls). Out of total 34 teenager boys were diagnosed, as acetowhite positive lesion. All the acetowhite positive lesions were found exclusively in males. Histological findings after 9 month use of Triphala mouth rinse revealed no changes in cells in 23 (85.2%), hyperkeratinization in 2 (7.4%), hyperkeratinization and spongiosis was evident in 1 (3.7%), mild pleomorphism in 1 (3.7%) patient. Comparative evaluation from 0-9 month showed statistically highly significant test (P < 0.01).
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Dentinal hypersensitivity is a common problem and there is a growing interest in herbal based formulations for the treatment of oral diseases. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a commercially available novel herbal dentifrice in reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity.
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PPARα and PPARγ signaling and expression (luciferase assay and western blot) and the insulin-stimulated uptake of 2-NBDG were determined in HepG2 cells. The effects on adipogenesis were determined in 3T3-L1 cells by Oil red O staining and measurement of lipid content by AdipoRed reagent.
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Triphala has a promising anti-inflammatory effect in the inflamed paw of arthritis-induced rats.
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The treated group has shown significantly improved wound closure. Assessment of granulation tissue on every fourth day showed significant reduction in bacterial count with significant level of collagen, hexosamine, uronic acid, and superoxide dismutase in the treated group (P < 0.01). Reduction of matrix metalloproteinase expression observed in the treated group by gelatin zymography and immunoblotting confirms our in vivo assessment.
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This self control study recruited 32 patients with mild to moderate essential HTN admitted for a week long residential integrated yoga therapy program at the integrative health home in Bengaluru. Patients had a daily routine of 6 hours of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) module for HTN that included physical postures, relaxation sessions, pranayama and meditations. LSP, an additional practice, that involved drinking of luke-warm water (with or without a herbal combination, triphala) followed by a set of specific yoga postures that activates defecation reflex, was administered on 2(nd) (LSP without triphala) and 5(th) day (LSP with triphala). Assessments (sitting blood pressure and pulse rate) were done just before and after both the sessions of LSP. Secondary outcome measures such as body mass index (BMI), symptom scores, medication scores, fatigue, state and trait anxiety, general health and quality of life were assessed on 1(st) and 6(th) day of IAYT intervention.
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Mean zone of inhibition in descending order was found as sodium hypochlorite > Propolis > AI > Triphala > C. longa = MC > ethanol. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance which showed a significant difference in the zone of inhibition of sodium hypochlorite and Propolis (P < 0.001).
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In this study, Triphala exhibited better antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis compared to 0.5 and 1% NaOCl (P<0.05).
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The colitis rats treated with higher dose of Triphala (300 mg/kg) exhibited normal parameters similar to normal control group animals, which is on par with standard drug mesalzine effect.
Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells. Further, Triphala efficiently eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Thus, the antioxidant activity of Triphala would likely play a role in its protective actions against X-radiation and bleomycin because both agents damage DNA through the generation of ROS. These observations suggested that the radioprotective activity of Triphala can be, at least partly, studied with the cells cultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.
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Our preclinical studies demonstrate that Triphala is effective in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in both cellular and in vivo model. Our data also suggests that the growth inhibitory effects of Triphala is mediated by the activation of ERK and p53 and shows potential for the treatment and/or prevention of human pancreatic cancer.
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Exposure of Capan-2 cells to the aqueous extract of Triphala for 24 h resulted in the significant decrease in the survival of cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of about 50 microg/ml. Triphala-mediated reduced cell survival correlated with induction of apoptosis, which was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Triphala-induced apoptosis was linked with phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-15 and ERK at Thr-202/Tyr-204 in Capan-2 cells. Above mentioned effects were significantly blocked when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS generation. Pretreatment of cells with pifithrin-alpha or U0126, specific inhibitors of p53 or MEK-1/2, significantly attenuated Triphala-induced apoptosis. Moreover, NAC or U0126 pretreatment significantly attenuated Triphala-induced p53 transcriptional activity. Similarly, Triphala induced apoptosis in another pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 by activating ERK. On the other hand, Triphala failed to induce apoptosis or activate ERK or p53 in normal human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-6) cells. Further, oral administration of 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg Triphala in PBS, 5 days/week significantly suppressed the growth of Capan-2 pancreatic tumor-xenograft. Reduced tumor-growth in Triphala fed mice was due to increased apoptosis in the tumors cells, which was associated with increased activation of p53 and ERK.
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RP-HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of gallic acid (4.30±2.09 mg/g) in the formulation. The formulation showed 23% inhibition of the rat liver microsomes through CYP450-CO complex assay which is comparatively less when compared with the individual components. Further, the effect of standardized formulation dissolved in ethanol showed CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibitory activity at the IC(50) values of 119.65±1.91 μg/ml and 105.03±0.98 μg/ml respectively. Gallic acid was also found to inhibit both the isoforms at the IC(50) values of 87.24±1.11 μg/ml and 92.03±0.38 μg/ml respectively.
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The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long-sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Studies carried out in the past 2 decades have shown that some of the classical Indian Ayurvedic drugs (Amritaprasham, Ashwagandha Rasayana, Brahma Rasayana, Chyavanprasha, Narasimha Rasayana, and Triphala Churna) possess radioprotective effects. In the current review, an attempt is made to summarize the radioprotective observations of these Ayurvedic drugs and the mechanisms responsible for the radioprotective effects.
It is a randomized, retrospective, open-ended study. A total of 32 patients presenting with raised alanine transaminase (>1.5 times normal levels) combined with sonological evidence of fatty liver in the absence of any other detectable cause of liver disease were included in the study. The recruited patients were randomly divided into two groups - The patients in Group-A (n = 21) were given a combination of herbomineral drugs Ārogyavardhinī vaṭi and Triphalā Guggulu along with prescription of pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise); the patients in Group-B (n = 11) were advised only pathya.
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To determine the anti-arthritic effect of triphala in arthritis-induced rats. For comparison purpose, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used.
Functional constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms across the globe. Its high prevalence rate, economic burden, and adverse implications on the quality of life make constipation a major public health issue. Though various treatment options are available for the management of constipation, evidence for their efficacy and safety are limited. An open-label, prospective, interventional, and exploratory clinical trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of "TLPL/AY/01/2008" in 34 patients suffering from functional constipation. "TLPL/AY/01/2008" is an Ayurvedic proprietary polyherbal formulation in powder form, containing Isabgol husk, Senna extract, and Triphala extract. Administration of "TLPL/AY/01/2008" for 14 days showed a significant increase in mean weekly bowel movements from 10.19 ± 05.64 to 18.29 ± 05.72 (P<0.05). The mean average time spent on toilet for bowel evacuation reduced significantly from 11.02 ± 05.43 minutes (baseline value) to 08.70 ± 04.72 minutes on day 14 (P<0.05). Mean stool form score assessed on Bristol stool form scale was improved from 02.97 ± 00.48 (baseline value) to 04.61 ± 00.84 (P<0.05) on day 14. A significant improvement (P<0.05) was also noted in straining during defecation, sensation of incomplete evacuation, sensation of anorectal blockage, and other associated symptoms of functional constipation. The significant improvement in most of the above symptoms was endured for a post-treatment observatory period of one week. All the study patients showed an excellent tolerability to the study drug. These findings suggest that "TLPL/AY/01/2008" is an effective, safe, and non-habit-forming herbal laxative formulation for the management of constipation. Comparative clinical studies with larger sample size would be able to confirm the above findings.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children.
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The novel herbal dentifrice can be recommended for treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity.
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The antimicrobial action of triphala against mutans streptococci closely parallels that of chlorhexidine. It does not have the side effects commonly associated with chlorhexidine and is cost effective.
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In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue.
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"Triphalaguggulu" is an important Ayurvedic formulation comprising of Guggulu, that is, Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari as a base wherein powdered fruits of triphala, that is, Phyllanthus emblica L., Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb and Terminalia chebula Retz, along with powdered fruit of Piper longum L. are compounded. This polyherbal preparation has been strongly recommended in chronic inflammation, piles, and fistula. However, due to the complexity of compound formulation standardization of commercial products is challenging. In the present communication marker-based standardization of "Triphalaguggulu" preparation using gallic acid (for triphala), piperine (for P. longum L.) and guggulsterones (for guggulu) is reported. These compounds of diverse chemistry were successfully separated on a Waters HR-C18 column by isocratic elution with methanol and water (80:20 v/v) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min coupled with photodiode array detector. These optimal chromatographic conditions were used for simultaneous quantification of gallic acid, guggulsterones (E and Z) and piperine in commercial samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry and method was validated as per ICH guidelines.
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Significant (P<0.01) reduction in the cataleptic scores was observed in all NR-ANX-C treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in the NR-ANX-C (25 mg/kg) treated group. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in SOD activity was observed in NR-ANX-C (25 and 50 mg/kg) treated groups and maximum reduction was observed in NR-ANX-C (25mg/kg) treated group.
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Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, is known to cause liver and renal injury in humans when administered in higher and repeated doses that cause acute liver injury. Triphala is a well-known Ayurvedic Rasayana formulation that is prescribed for balancing of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of liver and kidney diseases.
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Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any.
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Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies among US men. We identified gallic acid (GA) as a major bioactive cytotoxic constituent of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation - triphala (TPL). Both TPL and GA were evaluated on (AR)(+) LNCaP prostate cancer and normal epithelial cells.