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Vermox

Vermox is used to treat infections caused by worms such as whipworm, pinworm, roundworm, and hookworm. It is also used to treat infections caused by more than one of these worms at the same time.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Albenza, Zentel, Andazol, Ivermectin, Stromectol, Biltricide, Pin-X, Antiminth, Ascarel, Impavido, Mintezol, Pinworm Caplets, Reese's Pinworm Medicine

 

Also known as:  Mebendazole.

Description

Vermox is used to treat infections caused by worms such as whipworm, pinworm, roundworm, and hookworm. It is also used to treat infections caused by more than one of these worms at the same time.

Vermox is an antihelmintic, or anti-worm, medication. It prevents worms from growing or multiplying in your body.

Vermox is also known as Mebendazole, Ovex, Antiox, Pripsen, Mebex, Wormin.

Dosage

Vermox tablets may be swallowed, chewed, or crushed and mixed with food.

It may be up to 3 days after treatment before the worm is removed from your stomach and intestines. The amount of time it takes to cure the infection depends on how susceptible the worm is to Vermox, and how quickly your own digestive system is moving. If the infection has not been cured within 3 weeks, a second treatment may be necessary.

Treatment of family members and other close contacts may be necessary. Pinworm is spread very easily to others in close contact with the infected person.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Vermox suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Vermox and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Vermox are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Vermox if you are allergic to its components.

Do not take Vermox if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant. Do not breast-feed while taking Vermox.

Children younger than 2 years of age should not take mebendazole unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

It can be dangerous to stop Vermox taking suddenly.

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Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall possess high biochemical activities of malate dehydrogenase (MD) and fumarate reductase (FR), but low activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SD), suggesting that the cyst wall may utilize a partial reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle. When infected mice were given intragastrically with mebendazole, 25-50 mg.kg-1.d-1, albendazole 300 mg.kg-1.d-1 or praziquantel 500 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 7-14 d, no apparent effects on SD and FR activities of the cyst wall were found, while the MD activity was suppressed by all the 3 drugs, the inhibition rates being 34.6-61.6%, 59.8%, and 50.6%, respectively. The results suggested that MD may not be an important target for the antihydatidosis drugs.

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The present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of nitazoxanide compared with that of quinfamide, mebendazole, or both in the treatment of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections. A total of 677 stool specimens from children aged 2-12 years living in 3 communities of Colima, México, were analyzed in order to detect the presence of cysts, trophozoites, eggs, or larvae of intestinal protozoa or helminths. A total of 275 infected children were enlisted in a double-blind controlled study and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups: Group A, nitazoxanide (200 mg for 3 days) and Group B, quinfamide (100 mg for 1 day), mebendazole (200 mg for 3 days), or both. A posttreatment fecal examination was conducted on Day 14 from treatment initiation. In Group A (n = 143), the parasitosis eradication rate was superior to that of Group B (n = 132). However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).

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This study was designed to examine airway goblet cell response during the course of N. brasiliensis infection in rats and to characterize these goblet cells.

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Several drugs are available for mass campaigns against enteric helminths. Mebendazole and pyrantel pamoate are quite effective against ascariasis and reasonably effective against the hookworms. Only mebendazole is effective against trichuriasis. Two drugs have recently been introduced for mass therapy of schistosomiasis, but they remain experimental, pending further evaluation. Other drugs are mentioned, and possible adverse metabolic effects are discussed. The fundamental question remaining is whether the eradication of certain parasites will improve the nutritional status of the infected populations.

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614 preschool children aged 6-59 months.

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To test the hypothesis that the deworming stray dogs around the temple premises effectively reduces the prevalence of CLM among devotees.

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In an experimental patent infection of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in golden hamsters the efficacy of seven anthelmintics was tested; bephenium hydroxynaphthoate, tetramisole, tetrachlorethylene, phenylene 1,4-diisothiocyanate, thiabendazole, parbendazole and mebendazole were studied. Mebendazole was the most effective, with parbendazole, phenylene 1,4-diisothiocyanate, thiabendazole and bephenium hydroxynaphthoate also satisfactory. Tetrachlorethylene and tetramisole were the least effective in our screen.

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Three multivariate calibration methods, Principal Component Regression (PCR), the K-matrix method and Q-mode factor analysis followed by varimax and Imbrie's oblique rotations were applied to the simultaneous spectrophotometric determinations of mebendazole (MBZ)-cambendazole (CBZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ)-mebendazole in commercial samples of Exelmin and Helmiben. The calibration set concentrations were selected to contain a +/-10% variation in the quantity of active ingredients as declared by the manufacturer. The Q-mode factor analysis provides superior results for the two pharmaceutical formulations. The K-matrix method proved to be totally inadequate for these determinations. Almost all Q-mode results have relative errors much smaller than 5% of the active ingredient contents. This investigation shows that PCR and Q-mode factor analysis can be used to determine MBZ-CBZ and TBZ-MBZ in commercial drugs.

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Mebendazole (MBZ) is an anthelmintic drug which inhibits tubulin polymerization and eventually causes apoptosis in target organisms. Antitumor activity of MBZ has been reported in various cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MBZ on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells in vitro and in vivo. MBZ reduced cell proliferation in the KKU-M213 cell line associated with a remarkable enhancement of caspase-3 gene expression and enzyme activity. Oral administration of MBZ slightly reduced the growth rate of subcutaneously xeno-grafted KKU-M213 in nude mice. The TUNEL assay showed an increase of apoptotic cell numbers in the xenograft tumor tissue of MBZ-treated mice. The data obtained in this study suggested that MBZ can suppress CCA cell proliferation via caspase-3 activated apoptosis. Further investigation of the antitumor effects of MBZ might support the use of MBZ as an alternative drug for CCA treatment.

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Two cases of cerebral echinococcosis in children emphasize the need to consider the Echinococcus in the differential diagnosis of children with CNS signs and symptoms. One patient died because of delay in seeking medical attention. The other is now a 22-year-old college student with no evidence of recurrence more than five years after removal of Echinococcus cysts from both brain and liver. The newer modalities available for diagnosis are discussed. Therapy with mebendazole is reviewed; this relatively new, highly effective anthelmintic is well tolerated and has been apparently highly effective in a small number of cases.

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To investigate the effects of mebendazole at high dose on the haematology of macropods. Experimental.

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The therapeutic efficacy of Mebendazole (Vermox) was studied in 13 patients: 8 with liver and 5 with pulmonary echinococcosis. The drug was given in a dose of 50-70 mg/kg body mass. Good therapeutic effect was found in 4 patients (2 with liver nad 2 with pulmonary echinococcosis), partial therapeutic efficiency was registered also in 4 patients (2 with liver and 2 with pulmonary echinococcosis) and failure in 5 patients. The drug was more effective in pulmonary echinococcosis, in younger and smaller cysts than in older cysts with thick walls and presence of filial cysts. The efficacy of the treatment is related to the drug plasma concentration but the results depend on the cysts condition, too. The careful examination of the patients--X-ray, ultrasonography and computer tomography--before, during and after the treatment ensures objective evaluation of the treatment results.

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Prospective and randomized.

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The assessment of a ten-year clinical trial of continuous therapy in eight patients revealed further evidence of a significant therapeutic effect of mebendazole on alveolar hydatid disease. Life-expectancy was increased when compared to untreated historical controls, especially in the patients over 55 years of age. All symptomatic patients showed subjective improvement. In four patients, three had a 50% or greater reduction in the diameter of massive hepatic lesions, and in the fourth, progressively enlarging metastases were arrested. Fall in the IHA titre suggested that the causative organism had been destroyed in two additional patients. Of greater significance was the absence of progression of the disease process as measured by changes in the size of the hepatic lesion or lack of development of distant metastases in patients under therapy. In contrast, progressive enlargement of hepatic lesions or the appearance of distant metastases were cardinal features of untreated cases (15 of the 16 cases followed). In vivo determination of viability of tissues of the larval Echinococcus multilocularis from patients receiving long-term therapy was considered important in evaluating efficacy of the drug. Such tissues, obtained by autopsy from two patients under continuous therapy for four and ten years, failed to proliferate when inoculated into rodents (red-backed voles), whereas similar inoculations from untreated patients or those receiving 15 months' or less of therapy brought about production of vesicles in rodents in eight of 11 tests (73%). These two deaths, unrelated to therapy, resulted from late fibrotic constriction of end-stage parasitic lesions about the portal vein and major bile ducts. The clinical findings in combination with negative in vivo tests and other data indicate that the mebendazole therapy significantly alters the clinical course of alveolar hydatid disease. The evidence strongly indicates that long-term therapy may eventually have a lethal effect on the larval cestode in advanced disease.

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Aplastic anemia has been linked to environmental exposures, from chemicals and medical drugs to infectious agents. The disease occurs more frequently in Asia than in the West, with incidence rates 2- to 3-fold higher. We report updated results of an epidemiologic study conducted in Thailand from 1989 to 2002, in which 541 patients and 2261 controls were enrolled. Exposures were determined by in-person interview. We observed significantly elevated relative risk estimates for benzene (3.5) and other solvents (2.0) and for sulfonamides (5.6), thiazides (3.8), and mebendazole (3.0). Chloramphenicol use was infrequent, and no significant association was observed. Agricultural pesticides were implicated in Khonkaen (northeastern Thailand). There were significant associations with organophosphates (2.1), DDT (6.7), and carbamates (7.4). We found significant risks for farmers exposed to ducks and geese (3.7) and a borderline association with animal fertilizer (2.1). There was a significant association in Khonkaen with drinking other than bottled or distilled water (2.8). Nonmedical needle exposure was associated in Bangkok and Khonkaen combined (3.8). Most striking was the large etiologic fraction in a rural region accounted for by animal exposures and drinking of water from sources such as wells, rural taps, and rainwater, consistent with an infectious etiology for many cases of aplastic anemia in Thailand.

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The recurrence rate was investigated in 19 patients with non-resectable alveolar echinococcosis after discontinuation of a long-term therapy with mebendazole (average treatment 4.3 years). A control group consisted of 14 patients who underwent radical surgery and finished a course of prophylactic postoperative mebendazole treatment of 2 years. In the controls, no recurrence was observed after a post-therapy period averaging 3.5 years. In contrast, recurrence occurred in 7/19 patients (37%) with non-resectable alveolar echinococcosis an average of 1.6 years after discontinuation of the long-term mebendazole therapy. The absence of clinically detectable recurrence in the remaining 12 patients seems to be due either to spontaneous inactivation of alveolar echinococcosis preceding chemotherapy or too short post-therapy surveillance. The patients with recurrence responded favorably to reintroduction of chemotherapy. The data indicate that mebendazole therapy is parasitostatic rather than parasiticidal.

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A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of benzimidazole (BZ)-resistant small strongyles in horses in a southeastern Pennsylvania practice. Resistant parasites were found in 291 of 342 horses surveyed. Anthelmintic practices and pasture management factors in use for 3 to 6 years did not correlate with the presence of resistant small strongyles. Benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles were recovered in horses that had been treated alternately with BZ and non-BZ products and in horses receiving BZ products as infrequently as twice a year. However, inasmuch as the horses may have been infected with resistant small strongyles before the various anthelmintic schedules were implemented, it was not possible to attribute BZ-resistance to any particular pattern of drug use. Fifty-one (14.9%) horses had BZ-susceptible small strongyles: these horses were on poor overall parasite control programs and had received BZ products no more than once a year. Benzimidazole-piperazine and non-BZ drugs were effective in herds infected with BZ-resistant small strongyles.

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In the present study, extraction of mebendazole across a supported-liquid membrane (SLM) was performed based on two different driving forces: (1) pH gradient over the SLM, and (2) electrical field sustained over the SLM. The extracted drug concentration was studied using reversed-phase HPLC-UV. At passive extraction conditions, mebendazole was extracted from alkaline samples (0.01 mmol L(-1) NaOH) into 1-undecanol immobilized in the pores of a porous hollow fiber of polypropylene (SLM), and then transported into 25 μL of 100mM HCl as the acceptor solution. Under electrokinetic migration conditions, mebendazole transported under applied voltage from acidic solutions (100 mmol L(-1) HCl) through 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) immobilized in the pores of hollow fiber, into 25 μL of 100 mmol L(-1) HCl as the acceptor solution. The effects of several factors including the nature of organic solvent, pH of donor and acceptor solutions, extraction time and stirring speed on the extraction efficiency of the drug were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, preconcentration factors (PF) of 211 and 190 were obtained for the drug based on passive transport and electromembrane extraction (EME), respectively. Also, linear range of 0.5-1000 μg L(-1) with estimation of coefficient higher than 0.994 was obtained for both of the proposed methods. The results showed that EME has higher speed in comparison with simple passive transport. The methods were successfully applied to extract mebendazole from plasma and urine samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

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The common anthelmintics, oxantel, mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel were assessed for their comparative activity against Trichuris muris in mice. Mice were infected with T. muris and the infection was maintained by a brief cortisone administration during the second week of infection. Mice carrying the infection with different life cycle stages, viz. fourth stage larvae (L4), pre-adult and adult stages were dosed with anthelminitics. The worm burdens in control infection groups varied although infection dose and other conditions were uniformly followed. With various dose regimens tested, oxantel was highly potent; it eliminated completely pre-adult and adult stages, respectively at 25 and 12.5 mg kg-1 dose levels with significant activity also against adult worms at a 1.56 mg kg-1 dose level and against pre-adults at a 6.25 mg kg-1 level. Pre-adults required twice the dose given to that of adults for complete (100%) activity. Mebendazole was the next most active; a dosage of 37.5 mg kg-1 was completely active against pre-adults whereas a dosage of 2 x 50 mg kg-1 was required for complete elimination of adult worms. In addition, about 90% of the worms were eliminated with a single dose of 150 mg kg-1. However, a significant activity was seen against adults at a 25 mg kg-1 level and pre-adults at 37.5 mg kg-1, the lowest level tested. In comparison, albendazole did not induce complete clearance of pre-adult and adult stages even when tested at dose levels as high as 150 and 2 x 75 mg kg-1, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Undergraduate students had inadequate knowledge, moderately accurate beliefs and inappropriate practices concerning antibiotics, and a high rate of self-medication. This highlights the need for focused educational intervention and stricter governmental regulation concerning antibiotic use and sale in retail pharmacies.

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The development of anthelmintic chemotherapy has provoked re-evaluation of the management of hydatid disease. We reviewed the case records of 74 patients with 93 episodes admitted to hospitals in Auckland, New Zealand, between 1967 and 1982. Median stay was 29 d (range 1-172). 46 (62%) of the patients were male: 34 (45%) were European and 38 (51%) Maori. The median age was 39 years (range 14-85). The majority of patients presented with symptoms and signs related to local effects of the cyst. 57 (77%) patients had at least one operation and while 34 (60%) had a major surgical complication, only 3 died. At follow-up in 1984, 38 (67%) of the surgical patients and 10 of the 17 (65%) who were not operated on were alive. 9 mebendazole recipients were evaluated: 5 (55%) responded symptomatically, but only one was cured by mebendazole alone. One stopped mebendazole because of side-effects. 2 patients took albendazole: one was cured and one had a symptomatic response. Thus surgery is not always needed. The role of chemotherapy requires further evaluation.

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Although Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) infection rate in Okinawa Prefecture was less than 2% by the traditional method, it has been proven to be 6.2% by the new technique--agar plate method. Thiabendazole has strong activity to eradicate the organism, but it is well known that the rate of severe side effects is extremely high. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the new treatment for the infection by mebendazole and its combination with thiabendazole. The reason for use of the drug is based on the reports of successful treatment of S. stercoralis infection in humans with the mild and infrequent side effects produced by the drug. Thirty three patients were orally given mebendazole 100 mg twice daily for 28 days. Twenty six patients were given thiabendazole 500 mg thrice daily for 5 days and after that, mebendazole 100 mg twice daily for 9 days. This combination therapy was repeated twice. The following results were obtained: 1) Out of a total of 59 patients, the cure rate was 83.3% (20/24) in single use of mebendazole and 100.0% (22/22) in the combination therapy. 2) Constipation (9.1%) and headache (9.1%) were of relatively high incidence in the mebendazole group, but they were mild. Nausea (19.2%) and headache (15.4%) were observed in the combination therapy group and the drug was discontinued in 2 patients. 3) The incidence of the elevation of S-GOT, S-GPT was noted in 71.4% (20/28) for the mebendazole group and 52.2% (12/23) for combination therapy group. All 13 patients of the mebendazole group were negative in lymphocyte stimulation test for mebendazole.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The effects of some parasitic infection (bilharziasis, toxocariasis and trichinosis) on the brain of experimentally infected mice were investigated. Eighty animals were classified into four groups, group I contained five non infected animals as a control group. The other groups each contained twenty-five mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (group II), Toxocara canis (group III) and Trichinella spiralis (group IV). Each infected group was divided into two subgroups (a,b). Subgroup (a) left untreated and subgroups (b) treated by praziquantel (in group II) and mebendazole (in group III and IV). Histopathological and immunological examination using peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) technique and neurotransmitters estimation (nor-epinephrine, dopamine and serotonine) were carried. In the untreated animals, there were mild histopathological changes and mild antigenic deposition in subgroups (IIa and IIIa) and marked changes in subgroup (IVa). There were significant decrease in dopamine in subgroup (IIIa), not improved after treatment (subgroup IIIb) and significant decrease in nor-epinephrine and serotonine in subgroup (IVa) improved after treatment in subgroup (IVb). The neurotransmitters changes may explain the motor, behavioural and emotional changes that occurred with these parasites.

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Three different benzimidazole derivatives, albendazole [methyl-5-(propylthio)-2-benzimidazolcarbamate], mebendazole (methyl-5-benzoyl-2-benzimidazolcarbamatic acid methyl ester), and fenbendazole [methyl-5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazolcarbamate] were tested in vivo against Glugea anomala parasitizing the connective tissue of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Naturally infected sticklebacks were incubated in aerated plastic aquaria (10 1) at 22 degrees C in water containing 0, 1, 5, 10, or 50 micrograms of either albendazole, mebendazole or febendazole for 2 or 6 h. For intermittent treatment, 2 micrograms substance was administered three times for 6 h at intervals of 36 h. At the ultrastructural level, at all developmental stages of G. anomala there were no significant differences in the kind of damage caused by either albendazole, mebendazole, or febendazole. Starting with a dose of 1 microgram/ml for 2 h, each of the drugs irreversibly damaged uni- and multinucleate meronts, sporogonial plasmodia, and sporoblasts. Disorganized spores were also observed. Treatment with higher doses (10 micrograms/ml, 2 or 6 h) caused malformations of the merogonic and the sporogonic stages, a significant reduction in the number of ribosomes, and disruptions of the nuclear membranes. The first recognizable treatment effect was an enlargement of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In the sporogonial plasmodia, the membranes of the sporophorous vesicle envelopes were lumpy or even completely destroyed. After incubation with the highest dose (50 micrograms/ml, 6 h), microtubules were apparent within the karyoplasm of the uninucleate meronts. After interval treatment, all forms of damage were intensified, especially in the mature spores. When treatment was done three times at low doses (3 x 2 micrograms/ml, 6 h, 36-h intervals), spore infectivity was drastically lowered. Therefore, it seems likely that an intermittent regimen of medicinal baths can be successfully applied against susceptible Microsporidia in fish.

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A rational strategy for chemotherapy demands that dosage schedules be based on an adequate knowledge of clinical and biochemical pharmacology. Many anthelmintic drugs (e.g. suramin, diethylcarbamazine, hycanthone) were introduced before modern techniques for drug evaluation (controlled clinical trials) and before the development of specific and sensitive analytical methods for the assay of drugs and metabolites in biological fluids. Thus, many of the regimens used today for the treatment of parasitic diseases are largely empirically derived. By means of specific analytical methodology (high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry) introduced in the 1960s, it is now possible to measure drugs and their metabolites with specificity and sensitivity. Much of this review deals with compounds which are active against the major systemic helminths, i.e., filariae (diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and suramin) and schistosomes (niridazole, metrifonate, oxamniquine and praziquantel), but recent advances in the treatment of hydatid disease involving the benzimidazole carbamates albendazole and mebendazole are also discussed. Among the imidazole derivatives, mebendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after a therapeutic dose, but that fraction which is absorbed and escapes hepatic first-pass extraction is pharmacologically active against systemic helminths. Albendazole is more completely absorbed, but is almost undetectable in plasma due to its rapid conversion to an active sulphoxide metabolite. This compound may well become the drug of choice for the chemotherapy of echinococcosis. Levamisole, the 1-isomer of tetramisole, is rapidly and completely absorbed, but has not been widely used in systemic helminthiases because of severe side effects associated with prolonged dosage. Diethylcarbamazine is microfilaricidal against Onchocerca volvulus, but its use has been associated with major adverse effects resulting from its action on the microfilariae. These effects are related to the concentration of the drug in the plasma which, in turn, is influenced by urinary pH. The elimination half-life of diethylcarbamazine is prolonged and renal clearance reduced in alkaline urine. Under these conditions the microfilaricidal effect is enhanced, but the adverse reactions to treatment are more severe. Suramin is the only available antifilarial agent with macrofilaricidal activity. It has a long elimination half-life (36 to 54 days), and is highly (99.7%) bound to plasma protein which limits its removal from the blood.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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vermox 500mg tablets 2016-08-25

The relative efficacy of mebendazole (MEB) and albendazole (ALB) was tested by treating 51 patients with single, multiple and multi-organ hydatid buy vermox cysts; 28 patients were treated with MEB, 50-70 mg kg-1 body weight daily for six to 24 months, and 23 with ALB, 10 mg kg-1 body weight daily in four courses of 30 days with 15-day intervals between courses. The therapeutic effect during the follow-up was assessed by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and chest X-ray. The criteria used when assessing the results were: 'success', evidence of effect on all cysts; 'partial success', evidence of effect on some of the cysts; and 'no success', no changes in cyst morphology. Treatment with MEB was successful in eight cases (28.6%), partially successful in eight (28.6%) and unsuccessful in 12 (42.8%). Treatment with ALB was successful in 10 cases (43.5%), partially successful in 10 (43.5%) and unsuccessful in three (13.0%).

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The authors present a young male patient with two intracranial lesions, one in the left occipital lobe, the other in the left temporal lobe. These masses were totally removed and both proved to be alveolar hydatid cysts. Surgery for a large buy vermox hepatic mass, diagnosed after the first craniotomy, was refused by the patient.

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The effects of some parasitic infection (bilharziasis, toxocariasis and trichinosis) on the brain of experimentally infected mice buy vermox were investigated. Eighty animals were classified into four groups, group I contained five non infected animals as a control group. The other groups each contained twenty-five mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni (group II), Toxocara canis (group III) and Trichinella spiralis (group IV). Each infected group was divided into two subgroups (a,b). Subgroup (a) left untreated and subgroups (b) treated by praziquantel (in group II) and mebendazole (in group III and IV). Histopathological and immunological examination using peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) technique and neurotransmitters estimation (nor-epinephrine, dopamine and serotonine) were carried. In the untreated animals, there were mild histopathological changes and mild antigenic deposition in subgroups (IIa and IIIa) and marked changes in subgroup (IVa). There were significant decrease in dopamine in subgroup (IIIa), not improved after treatment (subgroup IIIb) and significant decrease in nor-epinephrine and serotonine in subgroup (IVa) improved after treatment in subgroup (IVb). The neurotransmitters changes may explain the motor, behavioural and emotional changes that occurred with these parasites.

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Ca2+ and Mg2+ caused a concentration-dependent activation of ATP hydrolysis by mitochondrial membranes of Hymenolepis diminuta, a rat intestinal cestode. Ca2+ was the more potent, but Mg2+ the more effective. The Lineweaver-Burk plot yielded Km and Vmax values of 1.15 nM and 217.4 nmol Pi min-1 mg-1 protein for Ca(2+)-dependent activity, and 1.86 mM and 333.3 nmol Pi min-1 mg-1 protein for Mg(2+)-dependent activity, respectively. Neither Na+ nor K+, nor a combination of the two buy vermox cations, induced the hydrolysis of ATP. Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+/K+ ATPase, did not affect the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by Mg2+ alone or in combination with Na+ or K+. The membrane-bound enzyme was not affected by neuraminidase and concanavalin A. Ca2+ and Mg2+ also induced appreciable hydrolysis of other nucleoside triphosphates by the membranes. Some known anthelmintics, e.g. niclosamide, praziquantel and mebendazole, had no effect on ATPase activities. In addition to other compounds including respiratory inhibitors and uncouplers of phosphorylation, ruthenium red, which blocks Ca2+ influx into the cestode mitochondria, had no influence on the rate of ATP hydrolysis induced by the cations. Triton X-100 was found most suitable for solubilization of both activities. The differences between cestode ATPase and its mammalian counterpart have been discussed.

vermox tablets 2015-11-26

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of the flubendazole (FLBZ) and ivermectin (IVM) combination against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces buy vermox and metacestodes. Protoscoleces and groups of ten peritoneal cysts obtained from BALB/c mice were incubated with the two drugs, either separately or in combination, at the following final concentrations: 10 microg/mL FLBZ, 1 microg/mL FLBZ, 1 microg/mL IVM, 10 microg/mL FLBZ + 1 microg/mL IVM, and 1 microg/mL FLBZ + 1 microg/mL IVM. The maximum protoscolicidal effect was found with the combination 10 microg/mL FLBZ + 1 microg/mL IMV. After 1 day of incubation, the presence of numerous blebs in the tegument of protoscoleces was observed. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the primary site of damage was the tegument of the parasite. The effect of the two drugs on hydatid cysts obtained from mice was more rapidly detected in cysts treated with the combination of FLBZ + IVM than when drugs were used separately. Ultrastructural studies revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the multicellular structure feature and underwent considerable degenerative changes after in vitro treatment. The outcomes obtained demonstrated the favorable effect of the combination of FLBZ and IVM against E. granulosus.

vermox liquid dosage 2015-12-09

The indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) tests were used for diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of 17 patients with alveolar hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. Follow-up periods ranged from 2 to 22 years. At the time of diagnosis 16 (94%) patients' sera gave IHA titers greater than or equal to 1:128. Serum specimens from 13 patients were examined by IEP; nine (69%) revealed the arc 5, and three buy vermox of the four arc 5-negative sera revealed one or more non-characterized bands. Titers declined markedly during the first year following radical surgical resection of the larval lesions; in three cases clinical evidence of recurrence was preceded by rising serologic titers. Antibody has persisted at high levels in non-resected patients treated continuously with high doses of mebendazole.

vermox 500 mg 2015-06-08

The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infections buy vermox were found to be significant in El Abasto. No differences were detected in the case of T. trichiura. When prevalence and parasitic burden of A. lumbricoides were compared among controls within a single community (at the beginning and end of the study), no significant differences were observed in sample A, but a significant difference was seen in sample B. Insofar as T. trichiura is concerned, there were significant differences among controls in both samples.

vermox 20 mg 2016-06-07

Three trials were carried out on landrace pigs of various ages to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of flubendazole. The pigs were either artificially infected with Metastrongylus apri or naturally or artificially infected with the gastrointestinal nematodes Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum or Hyostrongylus rubidus. For mass medication of young pigs and fatteners a dose regimen of 30 ppm flubendazole in the feed for 10 consecutive days was 100 per cent effective against the four nematode species. For individual medication a single dose of 5 mg/kg bodyweight administered in a small amount of feed was also 100 per cent buy vermox effective. No side effects were observed.

vermox tomar alcohol 2017-03-25

Our results buy vermox strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

vermox tablets uk 2015-09-30

Ketoconazole, an orally active antifungal drug, is known to inhibit testicular androgen production both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of ketoconazole and 13 other imidazole drugs on rat testicular microsomal 17 alpha-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase (3 beta-HSD-I) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (17 beta-HSOR). The order of decreasing inhibitory effect (determined from Ki values) on 17 alpha-hydroxylase (substrate [3H]progesterone; Km = 89 +/- 0.65 nmol/l; SEM, n = 8) was bifonazole (Ki = 86 +/- 3.3 nmol/l; SEM, n = 4) greater than ketoconazole (160 +/- 4.92) greater than clotrimazole (170 +/- 5.81) greater than miconazole (599 +/- 7.22) greater than econazole (688 +/- 6.98) greater than tioconazole (901 +/- 1.71) greater than isoconazole (1090 +/- 6.96) and on 17,20-lyase (substrate, [3H]17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone; Km = 250 +/- 0.75 nmol/l; SEM, n = 8) was bifonazole buy vermox (56.5 +/- 3.4) greater than clotrimazole (81.5 +/- 3.1) greater than ketoconazole (84 +/- 3.5) greater than miconazole (243 +/- 6.3) greater than econazole (325 +/- 5.1) greater than tioconazole (505 +/- 5.2) greater than isoconazole (610 +/- 6.34). However, these imidazole drugs did not inhibit the 3 beta-HSD-I or 17 beta-HSOR activities. A common structural feature of the imidazole drugs having an inhibitory effect was the presence of one or more aromatic rings on the imidazole side chain. In contrast, the imidazole drugs having the imidazole ring fused to a benezene ring, i.e. benzimidazoles (astemizole, mebendazole, thiabendazole) and those having an aliphatic side chain on the N-1 of the imidazole ring (carbimazole, metronidazole, nimorazole, tinidazole) did not inhibit 17 alpha-hydroxylase, 3 beta-HSD-I or 17 beta-HSOR enzyme activities. However some did inhibit 17,20-lyase activity but only at high concentrations. The results of the present study suggest that some imidazole drugs may be useful in clinical situations requiring the suppression of androgen production, for example in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostatic cancer.

vermox drug interactions 2015-10-29

Sixty children (age 3-15 years) with hydatid disease of the liver were treated. The patients were divided into 2 equal groups (control and main groups).The hydatid disease of the liver was revealed in 22 (33.6%) patients, combined hydatid disease of the liver and lung were noted in 38 (66.4%) patients. The "capitonnage" of the residual cavity was applied in the control group and omentoplasty--in the main group. Chemotherapy with Nemazol (dose 10-15 mg/kg/day) was carried out. In order to reduce the negative influence of Nemazol on patients and to accelerate reparation processes of liver parenchyma Vobenzyme (2-3 pills/3 times/day) was applied. The number of complications was 23.2 % in the control group. The adhesive bowel obstruction was noted in 6.6% of patients, bleeding and jaundice in 3.3%, the residual cavity suppuration in 10%. Complications were registered in the main group in 6.6% of children (the adhesive bowel obstruction in 3.3%, preservation of the residual cavity after a year in 3 buy vermox .3%). The number of relapses in the control group was 6 (12%), there were no relapses in the main group. Thus the procedure of preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy allowed avoidance of the development of relapses of hydatid disease of the liver. Omentoplasty is the most rational method of treatment of residual cavity in surgery of hydatid disease of the liver in children.

vermox online 2016-01-24

Long-term survival was 87% (group A) and 76% (group B). The profiles of specific antibodies against EmII/3-10 antigen normalized within 3 years in most group A-patients, but remained above the cut-off value in 40% of group B-patients. This lack of normalization was associated with lower bioavailability of mebendazole. AE-recurrence after 'radical' surgery (up to 13 years) was associated with high anti-EmII/3-10 concentrations in 7 of 8 cases. Following abrogation of longterm chemotherapy in buy vermox group B, no AE-recurrence occurred in 9/18 patients, suggestive of parasitocidal efficacy and documented by a normal EmII/3-10 profile.

vermox pills 2017-05-14

This study evaluated a school-based and a community-based scheme for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of schistosomiasis mansoni among school-aged children in views of resolution CD49.R19 of the Pan American Health Organization toward the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem in the Americas and subsequent commitments endorsed by the Brazilian government. The school-aged population from a representative municipality of the endemic area of Northeastern Brazil was randomly allocated to either school-based or community-based scheme. The two schemes were compared with regard to coverage of diagnosis by the Kato-Katz method (KK) at baseline, treatment of the positives for Schistosoma mansoni with praziquantel, treatment of the positives for soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) with mebendazole, as well as follow-up of treatment efficacy and reinfection assessed respectively at four and 12 months after treatment. Nutritional status of the positives for S. mansoni was assessed at baseline and re-assessed at 12 months after treatment. Coverage of diagnosis and treatment was satisfactory (>75%) in both schemes. Diagnosis coverage at baseline and buy vermox at 12 months was significantly higher in the community scheme, whereas treatment coverage did not differ significantly between the two schemes either at baseline or at 12 months. The number of children covered per day was significantly higher in the schools than in the community at baseline but not at follow-up, when daily coverage was higher in the community. With regard to S. mansoni, overall treatment efficacy rate at four months was 90.8%, and reinfection rate at 12 months was 21.6%. For STH, overall treatment efficacy was 45.4% and reinfection, 32.8%. The nutritional status of the positives for S. mansoni at baseline did not change significantly at 12 months post-treatment. Actions targeted at this particularly vulnerable high-risk group should combine school-based and community-based interventions as well as preventive measures to reduce transmission.

vermox buy 2015-02-08

Capillaria philippinensis eggs, larvae, and adults were identified in the stool of a 41-year-old female physician from Cairo, Egypt, who had never traveled abroad. She had eaten local and imported fish. She suffered from borborygmi, abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and loss of weight for greater than 3 months. Treatment with Flubendazole (R17889-Janssen) 200 mg twice daily for 30 days resulted in buy vermox clinical and parasitological cure.

vermox online pharmacy 2016-05-23

This study aimed to test the antiproliferative effect of three benzimidazole anthelmintics in intestinal cancer cells and to investigate whether these drugs, which inhibit tubulin polymerization, can potentiate the efficacy of the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel (PTX). Four intestinal cancer cell lines, SW480, SW620, HCT8, and Caco2, with different origins and growth characteristics were used. The antiproliferative effect of albendazole (ABZ), ricobendazole (RBZ), flubendazole (FLU), and their combinations with PTX was tested using three different end-point viability assays, cell cycle distribution analysis, and the x-CELLigence System for real-time cell analysis. ABZ and FLU inhibited cell proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent and time Requip Renal Dose -dependent manner through cell arrest in the G2/M phase. RBZ was not effective at any concentration tested. The cell lines differed in sensitivity to FLU and ABZ, with HCT8 being the most sensitive, showing IC₅₀ values for ABZ and FLU that reached 0.3 and 0.9 μmol/l, respectively. Combinations of PTX+ABZ and PTX+FLU decreased cell viability more effectively when compared with treatment with individual drugs alone. The anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs ABZ and FLU show a significant cytostatic effect and potentiate the efficacy of PTX in intestinal cancer cells.

vermox reviews 2017-04-11

A 44 Glucovance Recommended Dosage -year-old woman, who had spent much of her life in Fiji and India, was treated with a high dose of prednisolone for rheumatoid arthritis complicated by gold lung. The onset of abdominal symptoms, an exacerbation of respiratory symptoms, and a persistent high eosinophil count and serum IgE level, led to the detection of numerous Strongyloides larvae in her faeces and sputum.

vermox buy online 2015-10-22

Alterations in immunological response before and after chemotherapy were investigated in hamsters infected with A. ceylanicum. Four reference anthelmintics mebendazole, albendazole, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate and one newly synthesized anthelmintic compound 81-470 were used. Drugs in curative doses were administered on day 30 Propecia 1mg Tablets post infection and the humoral response was assessed by counter immunoelectrophoresis and ELISA and cell mediated immunity by delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. In infected untreated animals the precipitins appeared on day 30 and remained prominent till day 250 post infection. However with ELISA the antibodies could be demonstrated as early as day 3 post infection and peaked on day 40. Delayed type of hypersensitivity could not be demonstrated during the course of infection. All the drugs including Comp. 81-470 were effective in removing the parasites. Precipitin antibodies were only demonstrable till day 60 post treatment. ELISA depicted gradual depletion of antibody titre following treatment with mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel pamoate. In levamisole treated hamsters the initial fall in serum antibody was restored by day 20 post treatment. With Compound 81-470, immediately after the treatment there was sharp rise in antibodies concentration followed by gradual fall and on day 60 post treatment the titre was still higher than the pretreated titre. Thus the study denotes that effective therapy will bring down immune responses of the host if the drug possess no immunopotentiating action. Therefore the immune parameters may be used as supportive indicator to successful therapy particularly in systemic parasites where parasitic forms are nondemonstrable in excreta or blood.

vermox 30ml dosage 2015-02-23

The objective of this study is to develop nanostructured lipid formulations of Compritol for the delivery of mebendazole. The formulations were prepared with Compritol 888 ATO, squalane, and Pluronic F68. Nine batches with different amounts of modifier, squalane, and drug Detrol Generic Cost were prepared. The formulations were characterized by evaluating particle size, morphology, and zeta potential. The thermal properties of the formulations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The encapsulation efficiency of each formulation and the drug release rates from each formulation were quantified by UPLC. The particles were spherical and had median particle sizes between 300 and 600 nm (50th percentile). A linear relationship was observed between Compritol/squalane composition and the melting point of the mixture. The DSC scans of the formulations revealed some recrystallization of the drug from the formulations, and the amount of recrystallization correlated with the amount of squalane in the formulation. Approximately, 70% efficiency of encapsulation was observed in the formulations with 30% (w/w) squalane, and these formulations also had faster dissolution rates compared to the other formulations. Overall, the formulations with 30% squalane are the preferred formulation for future testing.

vermox 600 mg 2017-11-21

Several potential triggers that induce hatching of T. muris were studied, including gastrointestinal enzymes, acidic Risperdal Dissolving Tablet environment and intestinal microflora. Next, optimal culture conditions for T. muris L1 were determined assessing a wide range of culture media. T. muris L1 were incubated in the presence of mebendazole, ivermectin, nitazoxanide, levamisole or oxantel pamoate at 37°C. The viability of the parasites was evaluated microscopically after 24 hours. The usefulness of fluorescent markers (resazurin, calcein AM, ethidium homodimer-1 or fluorescein-conjugated albumin) in drug sensitivity testing was also assessed.

vermox order online 2016-04-06

Information about genetic changes during the selection process could indicate mechanisms underlying the spread of resistance to anthelmintic drugs. For clarification of the role of the Mpi locus encoding mannose-phosphate isomerase enzyme in determining resistance, genotyping of Oesophagostomum dentatum strains was performed using an isoelectrofocusing technique. In levamisole- and pyrantel-selected strains the allele associated with resistance has probably been found. Significant values for genetic differentiation between treated and untreated strains of common origin were recorded by F(st) indices (theta = 0.078; P = 0.0008). The specific genomic makeup of a flubendazole-resistant Sinemet Dosage Interval strain, which did not correlate with that of the remaining isolates, might be ascribed to a different action of the anthelmintic or different environmental conditions under which resistance against this drug arose. The absence of heterozygotes in male populations indicated an XX/X0 system of sex determination for the Mpi locus, thus providing a greater potential for the development of resistance. A possible involvement of alleles linked with mannose-phosphate isomerase in alterations of membrane receptors that can be associated with resistance against imidothiazole-based drugs is discussed.

vermox online bestellen 2016-02-05

Improvement of FLBZ aqueous solubility due to CDs resulted markedly higher than that observed for mebendazole and albendazole. However, oppositely to what was expected, the absorption-related pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any marked formulation-dependant effect. After the i.a. administration of FLBZ, the AUC and the Tmax of the parent compound were significantly (P Levitra Pill Picture < 0.05) reduced, which is consistent with ruminal bypass.

vermox plus dosage 2015-10-15

A follow-up study is Epivir Solution Generic reported of 18 children 4 y after treatment for the Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) and matched control children. The TDS children were initially severely stunted and had extremely low developmental levels. They showed catch-up in height of 1.9 z-scores even though they remained in very poor environments. Their intelligence quotients, school achievement and cognitive function remained significantly lower than those of the controls. Controlling for their earlier developmental levels, the TDS children showed a small improvement in mental development relative to the controls.

vermox 2 tablets 2016-02-22

Introducing of the alternative PAIR (puncture-aspiration-injection-reaspiration) method for treatment of hepatic echinococcosis in practice dates from 1992 year. A Working group dealing with the problems and standardization of the method has been created by WHO. The major aspects of this treatment are summarized in the bulletin of WHO of 1996 year. On the last World Congress of Ultrasound Allegra 90 Mg , held in Florence, Italy in 1999 this method was reported as safe and effective treatment modality. The necessity for further prospective studies was also emphasized. The aim of the Working group for performing of PAIR, created at the Clinical Centre of Gastroenterology, University Hospital "Queen Joanna" in 1999 is to report the preliminary results and declare the possibilities for its application. Nine patients (6 males, 3 females) with 11 cysts (I, II and IIIa types after Gharbi) measured 3-9 cm were punctured and followed up for a 6 months period. 95% ethanol was used as protoscolicidal agent with concomitant preventive oral treatment with Mebendazole. No serious complications were observed. In all patients separation of the germinative membrane was verified. 2/5 cysts < 3.5 cm completely disappeared, 7/11 diminished their size without signs of vitality, while 2/11 remained vital. One ofe the cysts had a biliary communication which necessitated the injection of 20% NaCl instead of ethanol. The serological ritres significantly decreased in all patients. The risk of anaphylaxis and seeding is negligible while keeping the technique of PAIR precisely. The PAIR treatment of hepatic echinococcosis presents great progress with its safety, low risk and excellent therapeutic results.

vermox con alcohol 2015-05-29

A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65%) to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%). The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times), mebendazole drug self Singulair Off Brand -medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish.

order vermox online 2017-07-06

Two patients receiving oral high-dose mebendazole therapy for echinococcosis were found to have severe, reversible neutropenia, apparently due to marrow suppression; platelets and RBCs were also reversibly suppressed in one. High blood levels of mebendazole (239 ng/mL) in one patient may have resulted in the neutropenia and several toxic side effects, as well as a striking shrinkage of the patient's pulmonary and liver cysts. Neutropenia with high-dose mebendazole therapy may occur in up to 5% of patients and may be much more common than previously recognized. The WBC count should be monitored frequently during the first several weeks of therapy. Further experience will be needed to determine whether neutropenia is related to mebendazole levels.

vermox suspension 2016-08-12

Prospective randomized trials comparing palliative resections, radical resections, and conservative treatment are lacking. Most papers analyzed case series retrospectively. The number of palliative operations is significant. In the past, palliative resections were recommended in order to enhance anthelminthic drug efficacy but advances in conservative and interventional treatment improved the prognosis of AE. Prolonged survival by systematic palliative resections is not evident. However, palliative surgery is an option to treat persistent bacterial infection, fistulas, and obstructing or compressing masses. The indication is based on individual considerations and decisions.

vermox 100mg reviews 2015-02-09

Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid cyst, CE) as a zoonotic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is still an important economic and public health concern in the world. One of the treatment options for CE is surgical removal of the cysts combined with chemotherapy using albendazole and/or mebendazole before and after surgery. Currently, many scolicidal agents, which have some complications, have been used for inactivation of the cyst contents. Therefore the development of new scolicidal agents with low side effects and more efficacies is an urgent need for surgeons. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro scolicidal effect of selenium nanoparticles biosynthesized by a newly isolated marine bacterial strain Bacillus sp. MSh-1 against protoscoleces of E. granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically aspirated from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations (50-500 μg/ml) of Se NPs (in size range of about 80-220 nm) were used for 10-60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. The results indicated that biogenic Se NPs at all concentrations have potent scolicidal effects especially at concentrations 500 and 250 μg/ml after 10 and 20 min of application, respectively. In conclusion, the findings of present study proven that Se NPs have potent scolicidal effects, therefore may be used in CE surgery. However, the in vivo efficacy of these NPs remains to be explored.