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Lens photographs were graded for the presence and severity of cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataract.
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A total of 28 BSXSB male mice with LN (16 weeks) were randomly divided into observation group and the comparison group, observation group was given 6 mg•kg(-1)•d(-1) simvastatin in 0.1% PBS lavage for 4 weeks, the comparison group was not given any treatment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level and urine trace albumin (Scr) level of two groups were determined. The expression of IL17, HMGB1 and TLR4 protein was detected using immune histochemical method, and the kidney histological damage was observed.
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Of the 310 patients enrolled into the year 2 study, 287 (93%) completed therapy. The mean cumulative exposure to combination therapy was 743 days across the studies. Adverse event rates were similar for all three combination therapy groups. No deaths or treatment-related serious adverse events occurred. The incidence of discontinuation due to adverse events was 2.9% overall. Rhabdomyolysis was not reported in any group. Overall, fenofibric acid + moderate-dose statin for > or =2 years resulted in sustained improvements in HDL-C (+17.4%), TG (-46.4%) and LDL-C (-40.4%).
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Our findings demonstrate that the effects of simvastatin on learning and memory are independent of amyloid beta protein levels. The mechanisms by which simvastatin exerts its beneficial effects may be related to modulation of signaling pathways in memory formation.
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In the context of an international multi-center clinical trial being undertaken in China, 5585 patients with atherosclerotic ischemic stroke were screened in 39 prestigious hospitals in 10 cities. The characteristics collected through electronic questionnaire were described and analyzed.
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Some statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin) are metabolized by cytochrome P450s 3A4 (CYP3A4). Inhibitors of CYP3A4 including some calcium channel blockers (CCBs) might increase statin blood concentration, owing to drug-drug interactions. Risk of adverse events such as acute kidney injury might occur following the coprescription of CYP3A4-metabolized statins and CCBs that inhibit CYP3A4.This was a population-based cohort study. The study analyzed data of patients treated between 1997 and 2011, retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. We enrolled 32,801 patients who received coprescription of statins and CCBs that inhibit CYP3A4 (amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine nicardipine, nifedipine, and verapamil). These patients were divided into 2 groups, according to whether they had received CYP3A4-metabolized statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin) or non-CYP3A4-metabolized statins (fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin). These 2 groups were 1:1 matched by age, gender, and Carlson comorbidity index. All outcomes were assessed within 90 days following drug coprescription.In this study, 5857 patients received coprescription of CYP3A4-metabolized statins and CCBs that inhibit CYP3A4. There were no differences in comorbidity or use of antihypertensive drugs between patients who received CYP3A4-metabolized statins and those who received non-CYP3A4-metabolized statins. Patients who received CYP3A4-metabolized statins had significantly higher risk of acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.35-3.35), hyperkalemia (adjusted OR = 2.94; 95% CI = 1.36-6.35), acute myocardial infarction (adjusted OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.16-2.07), and acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.08-1.68) than those who received non-CYP3A4-metabolized statins.This nationwide cohort study demonstrated the increased risk of adverse events following the coprescription of CYP3A4-metabolized statins and CCBs that inhibit CYP3A4. Therefore, it is important to take into account the potential adverse events while coprescribing CYP3A4-metabolized statins and CCBs that inhibit CYP3A4.
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Three-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors (statins) are first-line treatments for hypercholesterolemia. Although exceedingly well tolerated, treatment with statins incurs a small risk of myopathy or potentially fatal rhabdomyolysis, particularly when coadministered with medications that increase their systemic exposure. Studies compared the multiple-dose pharmacokinetic interaction profiles of pravastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin when coadministered with 4 inhibitors of cytochrome P450-3A4 isoenzymes in healthy subjects. Compared with pravastatin alone, coadministration of verapamil, mibefradil, or itraconazole with pravastatin was associated with no significant changes in pravastatin pharmacokinetics. However, concomitant verapamil increased the simvastatin area under the concentration:time curve (AUC) approximately fourfold, the maximum serum concentration (C(max)) fivefold, and the active metabolite simvastatin acid AUC and C(max) approximately four- and threefold, respectively (all comparisons p <0.001). Similar (greater than fourfold) important increases in these parameters and a >60% increase in the serum half-life (p = 0.03) of atorvastatin were observed when coadministered with mibefradil. The half-life of atorvastatin also increased by approximately 60% (p = 0.052) when coadministered with itraconazole, which elicited a 2.4-fold increase in the C(max) of atorvastatin and a 47% increase in the AUC (p <0.001 for C(max) and AUC). Clarithromycin significantly (p <0.001) increased the AUC (and C(max)) of all 3 statins, most markedly simvastatin ( approximately 10-fold increase in AUC) and simvastatin acid (12-fold), followed by atorvastatin (greater than fourfold) and then pravastatin (almost twofold). Pravastatin has a neutral drug interaction profile relative to cytochrome P450-3A4 inhibitors, but these substrates markedly increase systemic exposure to simvastatin and atorvastatin.
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To assess whether drug treatment in common practice can prevent disease, we analysed four preventive cardiovascular randomised clinical trials (RCTs), expressing efficacy by 1-year Number Needed to Treat (NNT) in RCT and common practice effectiveness by the Disease Impact Number (DIN) in all subjects at risk and by the Population impact Number (PIN) in the entire population, based on a Swedish population survey. Adjustments were made for non-adherence. Calculations were made of alternative 1-year drug costs and number of years an average general practitioner (GP) would need to work in order to prevent one event using the actual treatment. Secondary prevention of MI by simvastatin (NNT, DIN and adjusted PIN = 37, 93 and 2657; GP work time 2.7 years; drug costs Euro 1020 - 13505), and prevention of stroke by antihypertensive treatment in high-risk subjects (elderly with systolic blood pressure > 160 mm Hg; NNT, DIN and adjusted PIN = 167, 239 and 11950; GP work time 6 years; drug costs Euro 6095 - 51567) appeared medically and economically effective. Primary prevention of MI by pravastatin (NNT, DIN and adjusted PIN 208, 2080 and 24470; GP work time 12.2 years; drug costs Euro 5736 - 117676) or by antihypertensive drug treatment in low-risk subjects (diastolic blood pressure 90-99 mm Hg) (NNT, DIN and adjusted PIN 1667, 3334 and 116982; GP work time 58.5 years; drug costs Euro 60895 - 511718) seemed ineffective and expensive.
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During treatment mean LDL-cholesterol levels were 2.7 mmol/l in the simvastatin group and 2.1 mmol/l in the atorvastatin group. A major coronary event occurred in 463 (10.4%) simvastatin patients and in 411 (9.3%) atorvastatin patients (p = 0.07). Death from any cause occurred 374 (8.4%) in the simvastatin group and 366 (8.2%) in the atorvastatin group (p = 0.81). Nonfatal acute myocardial infarction occurred 321 (7.2%) and 267 (6.0%) in the two groups (p = 0.02). Patients in the atorvastatin group had higher rates of drug discontinuation due to non-serious adverse events; transaminase elevation resulted in 43 (1.0%) versus 5 (0.1%) withdrawals (p <0.001).
Men and women (age > or = 18 years) with documented CHD and on a stable dose of simvastatin 10 mg or 20 mg for at least 6 weeks were recruited for this study. After a 4-week simvastatin 10 or 20 mg plus placebo and diet run-in period, patients were eligible for randomization if LDL-C > 2.60 and < or = 4.20 mmol/l and triglycerides (TG) < or = 4.00 mmol/l. Eligible patients were randomized to a double-blind comparative study with ezetimibe 10 mg co-administered with on-going simvastatin 10 mg or 20 mg (n=181) versus placebo to match ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin 10 mg or 20 mg (n=191) for 6 weeks.
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Patients were followed up at 4-month intervals for 36 months for VF progression per Anderson's criteria. Clinical parameters were checked for association with progression in multivariate analysis.
Statins are being widely used for the therapy and prevention of several types of tumors, including human chronic myelogenous leukemia, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unknown. Therefore, inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis and involved molecules were investigated in K562 cells after incubation with simvastatin.The results showed that simvastatin diminished K562 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. At the same time, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium concentration increased. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) content and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression were significantly higher in the simvastatin-treated group than in the corresponding control group. The elevated ROS level and intracellular calcium concentration, enhanced mRNA expression of iNOS and total NO content might be responsible for the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of simvastatin in K562 cells.
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Myocyte size and total collagen content of placebo and simvastatin groups did not show a statistically significant difference at any biopsy time point. Myocardium TNF-alpha content (% tissue area stained) at 1 week after transplantation was similar in the simvastatin and placebo groups. At the 24(th) week after transplantation, when compared with Week 1 values, we found a significant decrease in myocardium TNF-alpha content in the simvastatin group (15.0% +/- 2.3% vs 5.8% +/- 2.4%, p = 0.02) that was not observed in the placebo group (15.0% +/- 1.5% vs 12.0% +/- 2.6%, p = not significant).
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On the basis of this in vitro model of asthma, we suggest that the combination of a statin and a corticosteroid could augment the Treg/Th17 cell ratio and thus more effectively suppress airway inflammation in asthma patients. This may be particularly relevant in the treatment of severe asthma where Th17 cells are activated and linked to neutrophilic inflammation.
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Sterol 27-hydroxylase has been suggested to be involved in an alternative pathway for the elimination of cholesterol from macrophages and early atherosclerotic lesions. We have previously shown that human lung macrophages as well as monocyte-derived macrophages have a relatively high activity of sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27). This enzyme converts intracellular cholesterol into 27-hydroxycholesterol and cholestenoic acid that flux from cultured cells into the medium. It is shown here that human monocytes have very low CYP27 activity and CYP27 mRNA levels. During differentiation into macrophages, both CYP27 activity and CYP27 mRNA levels increase markedly after 4 days of culture in serum-free medium. Addition of macrophage-colony stimulating factor had no significant effect on the induction and addition of fetal calf serum had an inhibitory effect. Cholesterol synthesis was found to be a critical factor for the production of 27-oxygenated products by the macrophages cultured in serum-free medium. The increased capacity of the differentiated cells to eliminate intracellular cholesterol is of interest and supports the contention that CYP27 is an antiatherogenic factor.
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Endothelial dysfunction and C-reactive protein play a pivotal role in development of atherosclerosis and act as markers for future adverse cardiac events. Statins reduce C-reactive protein levels and improve endothelial function. However, little information is available on endothelial function and its determinants in veins. We investigated the association between saphenous vein endothelial function and C-reactive protein levels in patients treated with statins undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.
A randomised, double-blind study.
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The fixed combination therapy with ezetimibe/simvastatin showed a clinically significant additional lipid-lowering potential as compared with established statin monotherapies and enabled more patients at cardiovascular risk to reach the LDL-C target level of <100 mg/dl.
Thirty-seven participants (exercise plus statins: n = 18; exercise only: n = 19) completed the study. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased by 10% (p < 0.05) in response to exercise training alone, but was blunted by the addition of simvastatin resulting in only a 1.5% increase (p < 0.005 for group by time interaction). Similarly, skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity increased by 13% in the exercise-only group (p < 0.05), but decreased by 4.5% in the simvastatin-plus-exercise group (p < 0.05 for group-by-time interaction).
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We examined the effects of four 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, and cerivastatin) on the production and expression of inflammatory cytokines and on enzyme expression involving prostaglandin and superoxide production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). All HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors significantly reduced interleukin-1beta and -6 mRNA expression and their protein levels in the culture medium, and also inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA expression and their protein levels. And these drugs induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARgamma mRNA expression and their protein levels in HUVEC and hepatocyte. Moreover, the mRNA levels of p22phox, a 22-kD subunit and the protein levels of p47phox, a 47-kD subunit of nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, was decreased by treatment with either simvastatin, fluvastatin or cerivastatin, and this effect was reversed by mevalonate, geranylgeraniol, farnesol, and cholesterol. The changes induced by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors might be due to regulation of cellular cholesterol content level, cellular cholesterol metabolic pathway, and cellular PPARalpha activity, which was related with inflammation. This unique anti-inflammatory effect in addition to its hypolipidemic action, may be beneficial in preventing the vascular complications that are induced by hyperlipidemia.
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CHD/CHD risk-equivalent patients in a large US managed-care database, who added ezetimibe onto simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin, had greater LDL-C reductions and goal attainment than those who uptitrated these statin therapies. Our study suggests that high-risk CHD patients in need of more intensive LDL-C lowering therapy may benefit by adding ezetimibe onto statin therapy.
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The relationship between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) was studied in 58 untreated patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) from eight different kindreds, 17 spouse controls, and 17 unrelated controls. Lp(a) plasma concentrations were not significantly different between FCH subjects (343 +/- 61 mg/L, mean +/- SEM) and controls (249 +/- 52 mg/L). In FCH, log-transformed Lp(a) levels correlated positively with postheparin lipoprotein lipase ([LPL] r = .61, P = .0002) and hepatic lipase ([HL] r = .46, P = .008) activities and total plasma cholesterol level (r = .30, P = .03). In controls, Lp(a) correlated with LPL (r = .50, P = .04) and total plasma cholesterol level (r = .51, P = .003). In eight FCH patients, treatment with the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin resulted in significantly increased mean LPL activities and plasma Lp(a) concentrations. In three of these FCH patients, repeated measurements during 1 year demonstrated that changes in Lp(a) concentrations were paralleled by similar changes in LPL activity, but not HL activity. The observed correlation between postheparin plasma lipolytic activities and Lp(a) plasma concentrations suggests a connection between the metabolism of TRL and Lp(a).
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Hyperglycemia may potentiate the adverse renal effects of angiotensin II (AII). In the kidney, the major target of AII action is the glomerular mesangial cell, where its hemodynamic and proinflammatory action contributes to renal injury. AII action is mediated by several types of cell receptors. Among those, the AT1 receptor has been best studied using specific AII receptor blockers (ARBs). These agents have emerged as major new modalities in the prevention and amelioration of renal disease where the ARB renoprotective anti-inflammatory properties could be more important than previously appreciated. Like the ARBs, statins may also modulate inflammatory responses that are renoprotective and complement their cholesterol-lowering effects.
A total of 3337 adult patients with diabetes were identified with new use of statin therapy during the identification period. A total of 9% (n = 301) started on rosuvastatin, 49.4% (n = 1,649) on atorvastatin, 20.7% (n = 690) on simvastatin, 7.0% (n = 234) on pravastatin, 11.7% (n = 391) on lovastatin and 2.2% (n = 72) on fluvastatin. After controlling for covariates, rosuvastatin patients experienced a significantly greater decrease in LDL-C from baseline (38.7%) than patients taking atorvastatin (34.2%) (p = 0.05), simvastatin (31.5%), pravastatin (24.2%), fluvastatin (26.3%) or lovastatin (24.9%) (p < 0.0001). Rosuvastatin users were significantly more likely to attain LDL-C goal than those taking the other statins (odds ratio: 0.44, 0.28, 0.14, 0.14, 0.19, respectively; p < 0.001). Predicted percent attaining goal was significantly greater for those taking rosuvastatin (87.3%) than for those taking atorvastatin (76.9%), simvastatin (68.7%), pravastatin (55.0%), lovastatin (55.3%) or fluvastatin (61.3%) (p < 0.001).
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To evaluate the nature, type and prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in prescriptions dispensed in community pharmacies in Thessaloniki, Greece. Secondary objectives included the classification of DDIs as per pharmacotherapeutic class of the medications and the investigation of the relationship between medical specialties and the frequency of potential DDIs, as well as the relationship between DDIs and prescription size. Setting DDIs are a common cause of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among patients using multiple drug therapy. In Greece a reliable computerized surveillance system for monitoring potential DDIs is not yet fully established. As a result, the prevalence of such DDIs in prescriptions dispensed by community pharmacies in Greece is unknown.