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Zofran

Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dexamethasone, Scopolamine, Anzemet

 

Also known as:  Ondansetron.

Description

Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).

Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.

Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.

Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.

Dosage

Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.

Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

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To study the serum level of ondansetron after oral administration of intravenous ondansetron, and test the palatability of the drug after being flavored.

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The anti-emetic profile of the novel brain penetrant tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist MK-0869 (L-754,030) 2-(R)-(1-(R)-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylethoxy)-3-(S)-(4-fluor o)phenyl-4-(3-oxo-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)methylmorpholine and its water soluble prodrug, L-758,298, has been examined against emesis induced by cisplatin in ferrets. In a 4 h observation period, MK-0869 and L-758,298 (3 mg/kg i.v. or p.o.) inhibited the emetic response to cisplatin (10 mg/kg i.v.). The anti-emetic protection afforded by MK-0869 (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) was enhanced by combined treatment with either dexamethasone (20 mg/kg i.v.) or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (0.1 mg/kg i.v.). In a model of acute and delayed emesis, ferrets were dosed with cisplatin (5 mg/kg i.p.) and the retching and vomiting response recorded for 72 h. Pretreatment with MK-0869 (4-16 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the emetic response to cisplatin. Once daily treatment with MK-0869 (2 and 4 mg/kg p.o.) completely prevented retching and vomiting in all ferrets tested. Further when daily dosing began at 24 h after cisplatin injection, when the acute phase of emesis had already become established, MK-0869 (4 mg/kg p.o. at 24 and 48 h after cisplatin) prevented retching and vomiting in three out of four ferrets. These data show that MK-0869 and its prodrug, L-758,298, have good activity against cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets and provided a basis for the clinical testing of these agents for the treatment of emesis associated with cancer chemotherapy.

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A random sample (N = 962) of Oncology Nursing Society members who designate themselves as practicing in the area of chemotherapy.

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Treatment results of advanced soft tissue sarcomas are still suboptimal. To evaluate the clinical effects of a combination therapy (FADIP) with Adriamycin (ADM), ifosfamide (IFO), cisplatin (DDP) plus continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (FU) as a synergistic factor for alkylating agents, a phase II study was initiated in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas of different histological subtypes. Fifty-six previously untreated patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas of different histological subtypes (24 females, 31 males, median age 51.3 years, median Karnofsky performance status 80%) were included in this study. Treatment consisted of ADM 50 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, IFO 4,000 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, mesna 800 mg/m2 i.v. 3 x with 8-hour intervals on day 1 starting with IFO administration, FU 500 mg/m2 i.v. as 24-hour infusion on days 1 + 2, DDP 100 mg/m2 i.v. on day 2. This regimen was repeated every 4 weeks for at least 2 cycles. Major WHO grade III/IV hematological toxicity was observed in 35/56 patients. One toxic death due to severe neutropenia and fungal pneumonia occurred. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered in 8/35 neutropenic patients. Time to recovery was significantly reduced and no infectious complication was observed. WHO grade III/IV toxic diarrhea was observed in 8 patients requiring intravenous fluid replacement. WHO grade III/IV nausea occurred in 11 patients, 9/11 responded to symptomatic treatment with ondansetron alone. The overall response rate was 30.3%. The median duration of response (complete/partial response, CR/PR) was 18.1 months, the median progression-free interval was 4.5 months. The median survival time of all patients was 11.8 months, and 18.1 months in responding patients (CR/PR). Tumor-related pain was effectively reduced in 15/31 patients under treatment. FADIP produces comparable response rates to other standard treatment regimens in soft tissue sarcomas. Prolonged duration of response and median survival may be due to the use of continuous infusion of FU as a synergistic factor to alkylating agents. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is effective in reducing the otherwise observed high rate of WHO grade III/IV hematological toxicity with severe neutropenia.

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In the 24 hours after surgery, aprepitant 40 mg was more effective than ondansetron for all five endpoints evaluated: (1) no significant nausea (56.4% vs. 48.1%); (2) no nausea (39.6% vs. 33.1%); (3) no vomiting (86.7% vs. 72.4%); (4) no nausea and no vomiting (38.3% vs. 31.4%); and (5) no nausea, no vomiting, and no use of rescue (37.9% vs. 31.2%) (p < 0.035 for the odds ratio for each comparison). Numerically more patients receiving aprepitant 125 mg also achieved these endpoints compared with ondansetron.

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Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that is often resistant to common analgesics, such as opioids, but is sensitive to some antidepressants, an effect that seems to be mediated by spinal cord 5-HT3 receptors. Because the analgesic potential of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitors is understudied, we evaluated the potential antinociceptive effect of the reversible MAO-A inhibitors moclobemide and 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole (2-DMPI) in a mouse neuropathic pain model induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Neuropathic mice showed a decreased mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) 7 days after lesion compared with the baseline PWT, characterizing the development of hyperalgesia. Moclobemide (100-300 μmol/kg, s.c.) and 2-DMPI (30-300 μmol/kg, s.c.) treatments were able to reverse the CCI-induced hyperalgesia, with 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) values of 39 (18-84) and 11 (4-33) μmol/kg, and maximum inhibition (Imax) values of 88±14 and 98±15%, respectively, at the 300 μmol/kg dose. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the MAO-A activity in the lumbar spinal cord of CCI-submitted mice compared with sham-operated animals. Furthermore, the antihyperalgesic effects of both 2-DMPI and moclobemide were largely reversed by intrathecal injection of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (10 μg/site). These results suggest a possible involvement of MAO-A in the mechanisms of neuropathic pain and a potential utility of the reversible inhibitors of MAO-A in the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat it.

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This paper describes a multicentre, double-blind, parallel group study which compared ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg i.v. x 3) plus dexamethasone (20 mg i.v.) with metoclopramide (3 mg/kg i.v. x 2) plus dexamethasone (20 mg i.v.) and diphenhydramine (50 mg i.v.) for the prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis and nausea. Two hundred and eighty-nine consecutive patients receiving chemotherapy containing cisplatin at doses > or = 50 mg/m2 entered the study and 267 patients were evaluable for efficacy. The ondansetron regimen was significantly superior compared with the metoclopramide regimen in the control of acute emesis and nausea. Ondansetron plus dexamethasone provided complete protection against retching and vomiting in 79% of patients compared with 59% of patients given the metoclopramide combination (p < 0.002). Similarly ondansetron plus dexamethasone completely prevented nausea in 77% of patients, whereas the metoclopramide combination protected 66% of patients (p < 0.051). Success (no nausea and no emesis) was afforded to 69% of those patients given ondansetron plus dexamethasone as opposed to 50% of patients given the metoclopramide combination (p < 0.003). From day 2-4 all patients received the same anti-emetic regimen of oral metoclopramide and intramuscular dexamethasone. Significantly fewer patients who had received the ondansetron regimen on day 1 vomited on days 2 and 3 compared with those who had received the triple drug combination (84-86 and 68-71%, respectively, p < 0.006). Nausea was also better controlled in this group on day 2. On subsequent cisplatin cycles, the incidence of acute vomiting rose to 53% in those patients given the metoclopramide regimen, but remained low (26%) in the group treated with ondansetron plus dexamethasone. Patients receiving the metoclopramide regimen had significantly more sedation than patients receiving ondansetron plus dexamethasone (12 vs. 2%; p < 0.005). Extrapyramidal reactions were only observed in metoclopramide-treated patients (3%). The results of this study suggest that ondansetron plus dexamethasone is a more effective and better tolerated anti-emetic regimen compared with metoclopramide plus dexamethasone and diphenhydramine for the prevention of acute cisplatin-induced emesis.

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University affiliated, 280-bed pediatric hospital.

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Cochlear implants are now an acceptable therapeutic option for those patients with irreversible hearing loss and deaf-mutism. The surgery is time consuming and complicated. Hence, the technique of anaesthesia plays a crucial role in success of cochlear implant surgery. Cochlear implant patients have various types of syndromes which are important from anaesthetic as well as surgical point of view. Pre-implant preparation requires objective assessment of hearing, plain X-rays of skull and a CT scan of the temporal bone. Anaesthesia is required for objective assessment of hearing in children under five years of age, to obtain X-rays of skull, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT scan, brain evoked response audiometry (BERA) testing and finally for cochlear implant surgery. Anaesthetic considerations include preoperative familiarisation with the patient and his family. Syndromal illnesses have specific anaesthetic significance such as presence of difficult airway or prolonged QT interval. Parental presence is highly desirable during induction of anaesthesia. Electro-surgical instruments especially monopolar ones, should not be used once the cochlear implant is in place.

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In the year under review there have been steady advances in anaesthesia. Premedication in children is best achieved with oral midazolam formulated in flavoured syrups, and the inhalational induction of anaesthesia may be accomplished using sevoflurane. Pain management of the most common surgical procedure performed in children, tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, is still sub-optimal, but combinations of opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are helpful. There are, however, some concerns regarding the possible increases in postoperative blood loss after tonsillectomy when non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Middle ear surgery leads to a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and these are best managed by utilizing a total intravenous anaesthetic technique with propofol, the avoidance of nitrous oxide, and administration of dexamethasone and a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist such as ondansetron.

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Wistar rats can develop a high preference for 3% alcohol after a period of forced alcohol exposure and 2 days of alcohol withdrawal. If these rats are selected at a medium (> or = 60%) and a high (> or = 85%) level of alcohol preference, it is possible to study the effects of various compounds on alcohol intake and alcohol preference in rats with two different levels of alcohol preference. With this procedure, it was demonstrated that the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide can reduce alcohol preference at doses > or = 10.0 mg/kg in the high alcohol preference group, by increasing the water consumption without affecting alcohol drinking. Chlordiazepoxide had no effects in the medium alcohol preference group. The 5-HT uptake inhibitors fluoxetine and citalopram reduced alcohol intake and alcohol preference in both the medium and the high alcohol preference groups by means of a reduction in consummatory behaviour. Both drugs clearly affected total fluid intake and body weight gain. The 5-HT1A agent buspirone reduced alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the group of medium alcohol preferring rats at doses between 0.0025 and 0.63 mg/kg. The drug did not change water drinking so that total fluid consumption diminished. At doses > or = 2.5 mg/kg buspirone, there was an increased alcohol consumption. Buspirone was without important effects on the high alcohol preferring rats. The 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron reduced alcohol intake in both the medium and high alcohol preferring rats at doses between 0.01 and 0.16 mg/kg. The drug had no effects on alcohol preference and water consumption. At some doses, there was a reduction in total fluid intake. The 5-HT2/1C antagonist ritanserin reduced alcohol intake and alcohol preference at doses between 0.04 and 2.50, and 0.16 and 10.0 mg/kg in the medium and high alcohol preferring rats, respectively. Together with the decrease in alcohol consumption there was an increase in water drinking, leaving total fluid intake unaffected. The activity of ritanserin was less pronounced in the high as compared to the medium alcohol preference group. These results indicate that various serotonergic agents can affect alcohol intake and alcohol preference by different mechanisms of action.

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the results of our study suggest that MO protects ulcer formation by modulating 5-HT secretion through EC cell via 5-HT(3) receptors in gastrointestinal tract.

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Recently, a study on 5 patients [Holbrook et al.: J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;132:1219-1220] documented the efficacy of the intravenous administration of ondansetron in children with acute symptoms due to food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). We report on the experience at our institution using ondansetron during oral food challenge (OFC) in 5 children affected by FPIES. In all 5 cases, the use of intramuscular ondansetron led to a complete and rapid resolution of symptoms within 15 min. Intramuscular administration, without the need for intravenous access for an infusion or steroid administration, enables this therapy to be easily performed, even at home (i.e. out of a hospital setting). A home treatment with ondansetron cannot be considered as an alternative to a medical examination with eventual treatment in hospital, which is advised after any acute episode of FPIES. We consider ondansetron to be very useful in the management of acute FPIES. Further study is required to confirm its efficacy.

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In this randomized double-blind study, 131 patients were assigned to either group A (paracetamol+placebo), group B (paracetamol+pregabalin+placebo) or group C (paracetamol+pregabalin+dexamethasone). Pre-operatively, patients received either paracetamol 1000 mg, pregabalin 300 mg, dexamethasone 8 mg or placebo according to their allocation. Post-operative pain treatment included paracetamol 1000 mg 4× and ketobemidone 2.5 mg p.n. Ketobemidone consumption, pain scores [visual analogue scale (VAS)], nausea, sedation, dizziness, number of vomits and consumption of ondansetron were recorded 2, 4 and 24 h after the operation. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

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The severity of sickness in the first 5 days after cancer chemotherapy was compared in patients who had or had not received ondansetron 8 mg three times daily. Patients were divided into those having highly emetic chemotherapy, irrespective of gender and women having moderately emetic drugs. Ondansetron appeared to be more effective in the former group.

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To determine whether the addition of dexamethasone to ondansetron (OND + DEX) is a more effective antiemetic regimen than ondansetron (OND) alone in children receiving chemotherapy.

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Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, methodological limitations of the trials limit our conclusions and further research reflecting current chemotherapy regimens and newer anti-emetic drugs is likely to modify these conclusions.

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The results show that outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and cost-effective in selected patients, and that the mock home setting provides a means of studying the safety of transition of care.

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Postoperative nausea, a common complication in patients receiving general anesthesia, was studied in this randomized investigation to compare the efficacy of 70% inhaled isopropyl alcohol and intravenous ondansetron. For the study, 100 healthy women, ASA physical status I or II, scheduled for outpatient gynecologic laparoscopic procedures randomly received 4 mg of intravenous ondansetron or isopropyl alcohol for the treatment of postoperative nausea. Nausea was measured on arrival to the postanesthesia care unit, at first complaint of nausea, every 5 minutes after initiation of therapy until nausea resolution, and every 15 minutes thereafter using a 0 to 10 verbal numerical rating scale. At 5, 10, and 15 minutes, the median verbal numerical rating scores between the ondansetron and alcohol groups were 6.00 and 3.00, 5.00 and 3.00, and 5.00 and 2.00, respectively (P = .002, .015, and .036, respectively). No statistically significant differences were found at any other time interval. Mean times from initiation of therapy to a 50% reduction in nausea between the ondansetron and alcohol groups were 6.3 minutes and 27.7 minutes, respectively (P = 0.022). Based on this study, it seems postoperative nausea can be resolved quicker using 70% inhaled isopropyl alcohol compared with intravenous ondansetron in women undergoing outpatient gynecologic laparoscopic procedures.

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The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram decreases the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the mouse brain in vivo. The underlying mechanism was studied by recording the accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in hypothalamus and hippocampus after inhibition of the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity with m-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD 1015). Depletion of 5-HT with reserpine markedly reduced the citalopram-induced decrease of 5-HTP but not that evoked by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT, which indicates that the presence of endogenous 5-HT is necessary for full effect of citalopram. In contrast to the almost complete antagonism of the decrease in 5-HT synthesis induced by 8-OH-DPAT, the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100,635 only slightly affected the citalopram-evoked decrease in 5-HT synthesis. Likewise, the 5-HT1B receptor antagonists NAS-181 and GR127935 only slightly antagonised the citalopram effect although they strongly inhibited the decrease in 5-HT synthesis induced by the 5-HT1B receptor agonist anpirtoline. Combined treatment with 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonists did not produce any additive antagonistic effect on the citalopram-induced decrease in 5-HT synthesis. The 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist ketanserin, the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron and the 5-HT4 receptor antagonist RS-39604 had no effect on the citalopram-induced decrease in 5-HT synthesis. The same was found for several other non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonists, e.g. cyproheptadine, dihydroergotamine, methiothepin, methysergide, metergoline and mianserin. It is concluded that the citalopram-induced decrease in 5-HT synthesis differs in sensitivity from that mediated by 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B receptor agonists and citalopram also seems to require endogenous 5-HT for its full effect.

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In the murine colon, local RAS may play a significant role in the control of contractile activity. Ang II positively modulates the spontaneous contractile activity via activation of post-junctional and pre-junctional AT(1A) receptors, the latter located on the enteric neurones, modulating the release of tachykinins and acetylcholine.

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The effects and mechanisms of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) with long pulses on intestinal motility were investigated in conscious dogs. Eighteen dogs were equipped with serosal electrodes and an intestinal cannula in the small bowel. The first experiment was designed to study the effect of one-channel IES on intestinal motility and the extent of this effect. The second experiment was conducted to study the effect of IES on intestinal motility and the involvement of neural pathway. The IES with long pulses significantly inhibited intestinal motility. Intestinal motility of the entire measured segment (40-220 cm distal to the stimulation electrodes) was inhibited by 60-74% with the single-channel IES with long pulses. Hexamethonium, guanethidine, phentolamine, propranolol partially, but not N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), ondansetron and naloxone prevented the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. We conclude that single-channel IES inhibits intestinal motility within a distance of at least 2 m. This inhibitory effect induced by IES with long pulses is mediated via sympathetic but not nitrergic, serotoninergic 5-HT(3) and opiate pathway.

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The study was carried out to compare the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) added to Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery.

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Sixty patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia for spinal fusion were randomly assigned to receive sevoflurane-nitrous oxide-oxygen (group SO, n = 20), sevoflurane-remifentanil-nitrous oxide-oxygen (group SR, n = 20), or propofol-remifentanil-oxygen (group PR, n = 20) in a double-blinded manner. All patients within 1 hour after induction received PCA (fentanyl 0.4 µg/kg/ml and ondansetron 16 mg) administered intravenously at a basal infusion rate of 1 ml/h, after being intravenously injected with a loading dose of fentanyl (1 µg/kg). Data for fentanyl requirement, verbal Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) pain score at rest, and presence of nausea or vomiting were collected at 1, 24, and 48 hours after surgery.

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Serotonin receptors are involved in the accelerating effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying. This effect seems to be enhanced by pre-treatment with octreotide, possibly as a result of the modification of the gastrointestinal hormonal environment.

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GC-7101 revealed a prokinetic effect through enhancing the contractile responses of ESMCs, tone increases, enhancing the carbarchol- or EFS-induced contractile responses of LES muscle strips, and the acceleration of GE and GIT. We have identified the significant potential of GC-7101 for the development of new prokinetic drugs through this study.

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The well established bowel cleansing method using a polyethylene glycol-based solution (Fordtran) is limited by the necessity of large volume intake, which proves difficult for many patients. Therefore, a new method using small volumes (2 x 90 ml) of oral sodium phosphate is employed more and more frequently. Its only disadvantage is the occurrence of considerable nausea or occasional vomiting in about 25% of patients. To ascertain whether nausea could be reduced, 426 patients were given an antiemetic (ondansetron, metoclopramide, cisapride) or placebo on a randomized, double-blind basis, one hour before sodium phosphate intake.

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Three hundred twenty-two patients who had been given > or = 50 mg/m2 of cisplatin were randomly assigned to receive, from days 2 to 4 after chemotherapy, oral ondansetron (8 mg twice daily) or oral metoclopramide (20 mg every 6 hours), both associated with intramuscular dexamethasone (8 mg twice on days 2 and 3, and 4 mg twice on day 4). Patients received the same intravenous prophylaxis for acute emesis: ondansetron 8 mg and dexamethasone 20 mg. Nausea and vomiting were assessed daily until day 6 after chemotherapy.

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Serotonin and serotoninergic drugs have significant effects on respiration, at many sites throughout the nervous system, and serotonin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. Thus, understanding the serotoninergic mechanisms underlying respiratory control may help discover novel pharmacotherapies for sleep-disordered breathing. Ondansetron, a serotonin (5-HT) antagonist selective for the 5-HT3 receptor subtype has recently been shown to suppress sleep-related central apneas in rats, particularly in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. To evaluate the potential of ondansetron in the treatment of obstructive sleep-disordered breathing, we have performed randomized trials of two doses of ondansetron (20 and 40 mg orally) and placebo (4 studies for each of the 3 conditions) in our animal model of obstructive sleep apnea, the English Bulldog. Ondansetron significantly reduced the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) in REM sleep from 24.15+/-4.85 events/hour at placebo to 11.01+/-1.56 events/hour with high dose treatment, n=4, p<0.05. In contrast, the effects of drug on the RDI in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep (5.23+/-1.30 events/hour, placebo; 4.31+/-1.36, with 20 mg ondansetron and 2.89+/-1.30 with 40 mg ondansetron, n=4) were not significant. Ondansetron, however, had no effect on either sleep efficiency or sleep architecture, and there were no effects on either oxyhemoglobin saturation nadirs or on the sleep time with saturations <90%. Although a trend towards reduction in the latter measure of oxygenation was seen at the higher dose of ondansetron. These data suggest a therapeutic potential for ondansetron in obstructive sleep-disordered breathing, particularly REM sleep apnea.

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The stability of ondansetron hydrochloride, dexamethasone sodium phosphate, and lorazepam in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) minibags and glass bottles was studied. Triplicate solutions of 8 or 32 mg of ondansetron (as the hydrochloride salt) mixed with 20 mg of dexamethasone phosphate (as the sodium salt) with or without 2 mg of lorazepam were compounded in 50-mL PVC minibags and glass bottles containing either 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at 23-25 degrees C. Duplicate measurements were performed when drugs were added and at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after addition. Samples of the 32-mg ondansetron admixtures were collected under aseptic conditions to inspect for precipitation and to count particles with a laser particle analyzer. Samples of all admixtures were evaluated for chemical stability by stability-indicating high- buy zofran performance liquid chromatography. Ondansetron hydrochloride and dexamethasone were physically compatible and chemically stable for up to 24 hours under the study conditions. The concentration of lorazepam in PVC containers dropped below 90% of the original concentration within four hours. In addition, particle counts in lorazepam-containing solutions were higher when 0.9% sodium chloride injection was the diluent than when 5% dextrose injection was the diluent. In admixtures containing all drugs, ondansetron hydrochloride and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for up to 24 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

zofran brand name 2015-01-01

Promethazine was significantly more effective than ondansetron for treating PONV after failed ondansetron buy zofran prophylaxis. Promethazine 6.25 mg was as effective as higher doses.

zofran with alcohol 2015-01-01

The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8 mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8 mg buy zofran manufactured by Tarchomińskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated.

zofran 32 mg 2015-11-22

The antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron and dexamethasone (Ondex) was randomly compared to that of high-dose metoclopramide, dexamethasone, and orphenadrine (Control) in the prevention of emesis induced by cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin chemotherapy in 64 chemotherapy-naive breast cancer patients. For the control of buy zofran acute emesis (day 1), patients were randomized to receive either ondasetron 8 mg p.o. 1 hour prior to chemotherapy (CT) and repeated after 6 and 12 hours plus dexamethasone 20 mg i.v. 40 minutes prior to CT (Ondex) or dexamethasone 20 mg i.v. 40 minutes prior to CT, orphenadrine 40 mg i.m. 35 minutes prior to CT and metoclopramide 3 mg/kg i.v. 30 minutes prior to CT and repeated after 90 minutes followed by 40 mg p.o. every 3 hours for 4 times (Control). To control delayed emesis, patients on Ondex received ondansetron 8 mg PO t.i.d. days 2 and 3 and patients in the Control arm received metoclopramide 0.5 mg/kg p.o. q.i.d. and dexamethasone 8 mg i.m. b.i.d. days 2 and 3. Complete and major control of acute emesis was observed in 74%/94% and 44%/67% of patients treated with Ondex and Control, respectively (p < .01/p < .005). Acute nausea was absent in 38% and 34% of patients treated with Ondex and Control, respectively (p = NS). Complete and major control of delayed emesis (days 2-5) was observed in 65%/91% versus 44%/66% of patients in the Ondex and Control arms, respectively (p = NS/p < .01). In patients receiving 6 courses of FEC/FAC, control of acute emesis was significantly superior with Ondex at all treatment courses.

zofran 6 mg 2016-07-10

Serotonergic and histaminergic neuronal systems are both involved in mediation of the stress-induced release of the pituitary hormones prolactin (PRL) and ACTH. We investigated the possibility of an interaction between serotonin (5-HT) and histamine (HA) in regulation of PRL and ACTH secretion in conscious male rats. Animals were pretreated systemically with antagonists to 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors prior to intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of HA. The 5-HT1 + 2 receptor antagonist methysergide prevented and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist LY 53857 attenuated the HA-induced PRL release while the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron buy zofran had no effect on this response. None of the three 5-HT receptor antagonists affected the ACTH response to HA. Specific blockade of HA synthesis by alpha-fluoromethylhistidine or blockade of postsynaptic HA receptors by icv infusion of the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine or the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine inhibited the PRL response to 5-HT or to the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5- HTP) given in combination with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (Flx). Blockade of the histaminergic system had no effect on the ACTH response to serotonergic stimulation. The H3 receptors are inhibitory HA receptors. Systemic pretreatment with the H3 receptor agonist R(alpha)methylhistamine, or the H3 receptor antagonist thioperamide had no effect on the hormone response to activation of the serotonergic system by 5-HTP plus Flx. We conclude that the serotonergic and histaminergic neuronal systems interact in their stimulation of PRL secretion, but not in their stimulation of ACTH secretion. This interaction involves serotonergic 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors and histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors. Furthermore, the previously observed inhibitory effect of the H3 receptor agonist R(alpha)methylhistamine on stress-induced PRL and ACTH release seems not to be exerted by activation of presynaptic H3 receptors located on serotonergic neurons but rather on histaminergic neurons.

zofran pill 2016-05-27

The use of ondansetron in children with vomiting after a head injury has not buy zofran been well studied. Concern about masking serious injury is a potential barrier to its use.

zofran 4mg dose 2015-02-15

The effects of drugs selectively effecting central serotonergic systems on immobilization-induced analgesia (SIA) were tested in the rat. The drugs were used in dose ranges previously shown to effect emotional processes. SIA was tested using the tail withdrawal method. It was found that pretreatment of buy zofran rats with para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA), an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, significantly attenuated SIA, measured immediately after stress session. Ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and citalopram, a selective serotonin re-uptake blocker increased the baseline pain threshold, whereas 8-OH-DPAT, a full 5-HT1A receptor agonist and buspirone, a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist expressing also high affinity towards dopaminergic D2 receptors, were without effect on pain perception and stress induced analgesia. It has been concluded, that modification of SIA by serotonergic drugs probably merely reflects changes in the activity of the 5-HT system on the spinal cord level, with minor, if any, contribution of supraspinal emotional centers.

zofran max dose 2015-12-12

Background. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most common medical condition of pregnancy, affecting up to 85% of expecting mothers. In the USA, there is no FDA-approved medication for the treatment of NVP. Objective. To identify the primary concerns of American women leading them to contact the Motherisk NVP Helpline and to characterize the severity of their symptoms and therapy offered in order to develop improved and customized counseling for them. Methods. We reviewed the intake forms of the American women who called the NVP Helpline from 2008 to 2012. We extracted their state of residence, demographic data, severity of NVP symptoms, and other available clinical characteristics. Results. A total of 195 forms were reviewed. Of these, 86% called for information on management of NVP with/without questions about fetal drug safety, while 14% called solely about drug safety during pregnancy/breastfeeding. The majority of women were Caucasian, in their thirties, educated, employed, married and in their second pregnancy buy zofran . Of them 95% were suffering from moderate-to-severe condition with 13% having hyperemesis gravidarum. Conclusion. American women need more information on the management of NVP and on a variety of its aspects in addition to the safety and effectiveness of antiemetic medications. Their leading concern was the use of doxylamine and vitamin B6 combination for NVP treatment followed by the use of ondansetron.

zofran 10 mg 2017-01-23

despite the introduction of newer antiemetics in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), perphenazine is recommended in current guidelines, as the concept of multimodal management of PONV in high-risk patients requires more than two drugs to be combined. The aim of this quantitative systematic review was to assess the efficacy and safety of perphenazine in the buy zofran prophylaxis of PONV in adults and children.

zofran medication 2016-06-04

We carried out searches on the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of buy zofran trials. Searches were current as of July 2005.

zofran 3 mg 2017-11-29

The QT interval is prolonged by the administration of ondansetron in a manner similar to that seen with droperidol buy zofran , whereas dimenhydrinate is not considered to exert significant effects on the QT interval. Individuals with occult QT prolongation are at risk of experiencing malignant dysrhythmias when ondansetron is administered, especially in conjunction with anesthetic agents that also prolong the QT. The incidence of congenital QT prolongation in the general population has been estimated to be 1:2,500, and it may be undiagnosed preoperatively, especially in pediatric patients.

zofran tablet 2017-04-06

The pharmacological characteristics of 5-HT3 receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor) recognition sites labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride and [3H]granisetron in membranes prepared from NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma cells were directly compared to investigate further differences in the binding characteristics of these two radioligands. Competition curves generated with increasing concentrations of 5-HT3 receptor ligands emphasized the pharmacological similarity of the two recognition sites labelled by [3H]-(S)-zacopride and [3H]granisetron. However, analysis of the nature of the competition curves indicated that 5-HT3 buy zofran receptor agonists (5-hydroxytryptamine, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, phenylbiguanide) and quipazine generated Hill coefficients greater than unity when the 5-HT3 receptor recognition sites were labelled with [3H]granisetron whilst these competing compounds displayed Hill coefficients of around unity when the sites were labelled with [3H]-(S)-zacopride. Competition for either [3H]-(S)-zacopride or [3H]granisetron binding by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists granisetron and ondansetron generated Hill coefficients around unity. Furthermore, addition of unlabelled (S)-zacopride (1.0 nM) failed to alter the nature by which quipazine competed for the [3H]granisetron-labelled 5-HT3 receptor recognition site. Consistent with 5-HT3 receptors radiolabelled in rat cortical membranes, the present studies indicate that [3H]-(S)-zacopride may label a different site on the 5-HT3-receptor complex compared to [3H]granisetron.

zofran 5 mg 2017-08-30

Although some antiemetic drugs for PONV have been studied in large numbers of RCTs, many have not been adequately evaluated. Finding relevant RCTs and tabulating their comparison arms is useful for directing future research, and is applicable to any symptom or disorder Cymbalta 10mg Dosage .

zofran dose pediatric 2015-06-15

The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous 5-HT to inflammation Persantine Drugs in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders.

zofran generic name 2017-03-10

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy Augmentin Brand Name (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG.

zofran tabs 2017-04-15

To compare intravenous dexamethasone and ondansetron for the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and Protonix Normal Dosage vomiting (PONV), a main complaint that affects almost 40%-75% of patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

zofran 25 mg 2017-06-11

Envenomation by a large number of hymenopterans can cause Diflucan Drug Class significant morbidity and mortality due to venom load. We present the first case of massive Hymenoptera envenomation by native US Hymenoptera.

zofran drug classification 2017-10-05

The colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) is necessary for fecal pellet propulsion in the murine colon. We have previously shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released from enterochromaffin cells activates 5-HT(3) receptors on the mucosal processes of myenteric Dogiel type II neurons to initiate the events underlying the CMMC. Our aims were to further investigate the roles of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(7) receptor subtypes in generating and propagating the CMMC using intracellular microelectrodes or tension recordings from the circular muscle (CM) in preparations with and without the mucosa. Spontaneous CMMCs were recorded from the CM in isolated murine colons but not in preparations without the mucosa. In mucosaless preparations, ondansetron (3 microM; 5-HT(3) antagonist) plus hexamethonium (100 microM) completely blocked spontaneous inhibitory junction potentials, depolarized the CM. Ondansetron blocked the preceding hyperpolarization associated with a CMMC. Spontaneous CMMCs and CMMCs evoked by spritzing 5-HT (10 and 100 microM) or nerve stimulation in preparations without the mucosa were blocked by SB 258719 or SB 269970 (1-5 microM; 5-HT(7) antagonists). Both NAN-190 and (S)-WAY100135 (1-5 microM; 5-HT(1A) antagonists) blocked spontaneous CMMCs and neurally evoked CMMCs in preparations without the mucosa. Both NAN-190 and (S)-WAY100135 caused an atropine-sensitive depolarization of the CM. The precursor of 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (10 microM), and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (5 microM; 5-HT(1/5/7) agonist) increased the frequency of spontaneous CMMCs. 5-HTP and 5-CT also induced CMMCs in preparations with and without the mucosa, which were blocked by SB 258719. 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(3), and 5-HT(7) receptors, most likely on Dogiel Type Bystolic Medication Shortage II/AH neurons, are important in initiating, generating, and propagating the CMMC. Tonic inhibition of the CM appears to be driven by ongoing activity in descending serotonergic interneurons; by activating 5-HT(7) receptors on AH neurons these interneurons also contribute to the generation of the CMMC.

medication zofran 2017-09-24

Granisetron may be a safer option than ondanasetron for prevention and treatment of PONV due to lesser prolongation QTc interval. (ClinicalTrials.gov Accutane Generic Claravis ID: NCT01352130).

zofran medicine 2016-07-09

Compared with ondansetron alone, the casopitant and ondansetron combination results in superior emesis prevention during the first 24 h postoperatively in female patients with Priligy Medication known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

zofran generic image 2016-03-20

In a multicenter trial, we evaluated the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron, a selective serotonin type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, in 42 adult Glucophage Dosage chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving a multiple-day cisplatin regimen (20-40 mg/m2 per day for 4-5 days). Thirty-one patients received 3 daily doses of ondansetron (0.15 mg/kg) given intravenously every 6 hours (first dose 30 minutes prior to cisplatin administration); 11 additional patients received an identical dosage and schedule except that a fourth daily dose was added 17.5 hours after cisplatin administration. No other antiemetics were administered. Forty patients were evaluable for efficacy response. Thirteen patients (33%) had no vomiting at any time during the 5-day study. When emetic episodes were evaluated on a daily basis, complete protection (zero emetic episodes) ranged from 50-75%, and major protection (less than or equal to 2 emetic episodes) ranged from 65-93%. The majority of therapy failures occurred on days 3 and 4. Side effects were minor and transient; no extrapyramidal side effects were observed. Ondansetron appears to be a safe and effective antiemetic when administered during a multiple-day cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen.

zofran dosing 2016-02-08

The available routes of administration commonly used for medications and fluids in the acute care setting are generally limited to oral, intravenous, or intraosseous routes, but in many patients, particularly in the emergency or critical care settings, these routes are often unavailable or time-consuming to access. A novel device is now available that offers an easy route for administration of medications or fluids via rectal mucosal absorption (also referred to as proctoclysis in the case of fluid administration and subsequent absorption). Although originally intended for the palliative care market, the utility of this device in the emergency setting has recently been described. Specifically, reports of patients being treated for dehydration, alcohol withdrawal, vomiting, fever, myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, and cardiac arrest have shown success with administration of a wide variety of medications or fluids (including water, aspirin, lorazepam, ondansetron, acetaminophen, methimazole, and buspirone). Device placement is straightforward, and based on the observation of expected effects from the medication administrations, absorption is rapid. The rapidity of absorption kinetics are further demonstrated in a recent report of the measurement of phenobarbital pharmacokinetics. We describe here the placement and Requip Xl Tablets use of this device, and demonstrate methods of pharmacokinetic measurements of medications administered by this method.

zofran dose 2016-11-05

Polysuccinimide (PSI), a biodegradable polymer synthesized from aspartic acid, was reacted with starch and fully assessed by CHN, (1)H-NMR, and FTIR. Zyrtec Gel

zofran common dosage 2016-02-01

Ondansetron therapy was associated with ameliorations of pruritus that appeared to be clinically significant in 5 patients (38%); in these 5 patients the mean decrease in a subjective score of pruritus was 27% of the scale of the score. However, these apparent ameliorations were not associated with robust decreases in scratching activity. For the whole group of 13 patients mean scratching activity during ondansetron therapy was not significantly less than that during treatment with placebo (p = 0.19). The total time that patients were not scratching was similar during treatment with ondansetron and placebo (p = 0.57).

zofran generic lawsuit 2017-07-25

The incidence of PDPH in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (P = 0.001). The incidence of PONV was also significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, MAP was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding heart rate (P > 0.05).

medicine zofran 2017-11-18

Rats may produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in threatening situations. USV of adult male rats in association with aversive stimulation was evaluated as a screening method for anxiolytic drugs. The triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam, the 5-HT uptake inhibitors fluvoxamine and clomipramine, the mixed 5-HT/NA uptake inhibitor imipramine, the full 5-HT1A receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan, the partial 5-HT1A receptor agonists buspirone, ipsapirone and BMY 7378, the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine reduced conditioned USV. The classical benzodiazepines (BZD) diazepam and chlordiazepoxide were ineffective or had a very low potency to decrease USV. The partial BZD receptor agonists bretazenil, alpidem and zolpidem, the BZD receptor antagonist flumazenil, the NA uptake inhibitors desipramine and maprotiline, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron had no effect on conditioned USV. The dopamine-D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol reduced USV at a very high dose. In separate experiments the effects of these drugs on locomotor activity were assessed. There was, however, no direct relationship between effects on motor behaviour and USV. In conclusion, the sensitivity of conditioned USV to 5-HT uptake inhibitors and alprazolam versus the insensitivity to classical benzodiazepines and NA uptake inhibitors provides a very interesting profile, which closely resembles the psychopharmacology of panic disorder. Also the face validity of conditioned USV towards situational panic attacks is high. We therefore propose conditioned USV in adult male rats as a novel behavioural paradigm to screen for anti-panic drugs.

zofran 16 mg 2017-08-20

The results of this pilot study showed the excellent effect of the new 5-HT3 antagonist, ondansteron, in prevention of radiation-induced nausea and emesis. They confirmed results of the other authors [9, 10, 11] that used this antiemetic in the control of radiation-induced emesis. These studies included a variety of radiotherapeutic time-dose fractionation schedules, and some of them [11] included results of the total body irradiation. (ABSTRACT TRUN

zofran tablets dosage 2017-09-13

Four hundred fifty-four patients were randomized. All doses of rolapitant improved CR with the greatest benefit observed with rolapitant 180 mg vs. active control in the overall phase (62.5 and 46.7 %, p = 0.032) and in the acute (87.6 vs. 66.7 %, p = 0.001) and delayed (63.6 vs. 48.9 %, p = 0.045) phases. Rates for no emesis and no significant nausea were significantly (p < 0.05) higher with rolapitant 180 mg vs. active control in the overall, acute, and delayed phases. Treatment-related adverse events were largely considered related to the chemotherapy and included constipation, headache, fatigue, and dizziness which were mostly mild or moderate and were similar across treatment groups.

zofran drug uses 2016-05-13

Nausea and vomiting are typical side-effects of cancer therapy. The management of acute-onset emesis (< 24 hours post-treatment) has improved markedly in recent years and the 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are widely regarded as the antiemetic 'gold standard' during this period. Delayed-onset emesis (> 24 hours post-treatment), however, still represents a therapeutic challenge. Available data indicates that the 5-HT3-receptor antagonists are at least as good as conventional antiemetics in controlling delayed-onset emesis, and that their efficacy in this setting may be improved by the addition of a corticosteroid. As a result, antiemetic guidelines recommend the addition of a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist for the treatment of delayed emesis, particularly for high-risk patients.