zoloft and alcohol
This case report reviews the aeromedical factors associated with considering a return to flight status of an aviator treated with sertraline 25 mg PO QD 5-7 d x mo(-1) for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Particular emphasis is given to her performance on serial neuropsychological assessments while both on and off of the medication.
cold medicine zoloft
At study endpoint, 42 (69%) of the 61 acute positive responders maintained positive response and 32 (53%) achieved remission. Compared to the acute positive responders, 6 (27%) of the 22 acute partial responders had achieved positive treatment response at study endpoint (p < .001). Eight acute positive responders (13%) and 5 acute partial responders (22%) developed mania.
zoloft 150 mg
We used male goldfish (Carassius auratus) as a model species to determine the uptake, elimination, and bioaccumulation of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Goldfish were exposed to EE2 via two different routes: water (135ng/L±12.8 standard deviation) for 72h, and food (231ng/g±42 SD) for 120h. We observed a rapid uptake of EE2 in goldfish, reaching 8.4ng/g±1.2 dry weight (dw) after the first hour of exposure with an uptake rate coefficient (k1) of 45h(-1). The elimination rate coefficient (k2) was determined by a depuration experiment to be 0.0786h(-1). In the feeding experiment, EE2 concentrations increased rapidly, reaching an average of 1.4ng/g after 3h following the first dietary exposure with an estimated absorption efficiency (α) of 0.106. An average of 2.66ng/g±0.87 (n=8) was determined in the 24-72h samples, whereas EE2 concentrations in fish fell below our method detection limits (0.67ng/g) for all samples after 72h, suggesting efficient elimination over time. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) for EE2 reached a maximum of 377, similar to BCFs measured for other pharmaceuticals like fluoxetine and sertraline. Our kinetic data were also used to model various scenarios of EE2 uptake in the aquatic environment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe aqueous and dietary EE2 uptake and elimination in fish, as well as providing important data to model EE2 kinetics in fish.
zoloft patient reviews
Increasing evidence indicates widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in municipal effluent discharges and surface waters. Studies that characterize the fate and effects of PPCPs in aquatic systems are limited, and to our knowledge, data regarding pharmaceutical accumulation in fish of effluent-dominated ecosystems have not been previously reported. In the present study, fish populations were sampled from a reference stream and an effluent-dominated stream in north Texas, USA. Lepomis macrochirus, Ictalurus punctatus, Cyprinus carpio, and Pomoxis nigromaculatus were killed; the liver, brain, and lateral filet tissues dissected; and the tissues stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Fish tissues were extracted using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the negative chemical ionization mode. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine and sertraline and the SSRI metabolites norfluoxetine and desmethylsertraline were detected at levels greater than 0.1 ng/g in all tissues examined from fish residing in a municipal effluent-dominated stream. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of SSRI residues in fish residing within municipal effluent-dominated systems.
zoloft dose elderly
We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in women aged 40 to 60 years with 14 or more hot flushes per week (N=99). Women were randomly assigned initially to daily oral sertraline (50 mg) or identical placebo for 2 weeks. If no substantial side effects were noted, the dose was increased to two tablets daily (100 mg sertraline or placebo) and continued for an additional 4 weeks. Hot flush frequency and severity were recorded on a daily diary. Hot flush score was calculated as frequency multiplied by severity. Participants also completed questionnaires addressing quality of life, menopausal symptoms, sleep quality, sexual function, mood, and side effects.
zoloft medication reviews
The main clinically used antidepressant drugs are selective monoamine reuptake inhibitors, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, sertraline), selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor (nomifensine) and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (reboxetine), but they have various side effects. Because cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists (SR141716A, AM251) enhance monoamine release, they might be beneficial in the therapy of affective disorders. We hypothesized that the use of monoamine reuptake inhibitors in combination with cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists would allow a lower dose of monoamine reuptake inhibitors to be used in the therapy of depression, thereby reducing or eliminating the side effects. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combination of SR141716A or AM251 with citalopram, sertraline, nomifensine or reboxetine at subthreshold doses to see whether these combinations would show an additive effect in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test with mice. Subthreshold doses of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which separately had no effect on the immobility of mice in the tests, showed a clear effect when the drugs were administered at 40 and 30 min, respectively, before the tests, without any change of motor activity. Therefore, the use of subthreshold doses of these agents in combination might be useful to enhance mainly serotonergic neurotransmission, and to reduce or eliminate the side effects of citalopram and sertraline.
zoloft 50mg medication
During her third pregnancy, a woman becomes preoccupied with illness and death. When the dysphoria continues after her child is born, how would you evaluate and manage the problem?
zoloft brand name
Efficacy and safety of sertraline (zoloft) have been assessed in 26 patients, aged from 7 to 15 years, with depressive states of different severity and psychopathological structure which are combined with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Changes in patient's status are analyzed using psychometric scales during 6 weeks of treatment. It has been concluded that Zoloft is effective and safe drug for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive disorders concomitant to obsessive-compulsive disorders in children age.
zoloft maximum dosage
We considered randomized trials comparing antidepressant medications to placebo or an alternative pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. We also included trials comparing different doses, using pharmacotherapy to prevent relapse or re-initiate smoking cessation or to help smokers reduce cigarette consumption. We excluded trials with less than six months follow-up.
zoloft 350 mg
The main finding of the present small pilot study was that agomelatine may be a promising agent in the treatment of symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as in the improvement of health-related behaviours, in depressed patients with type 2 DM possibly offering some advantages over sertraline. However, the lack of a placebo control group limits the generalisability of the findings and warrants further studies.
zoloft normal dosage
Mood disorders are a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury that exerts a deleterious effect on the recovery process and psychosocial outcome of brain injured patients. Prior psychiatric history and impaired social support have been consistently reported as risk factors for developing mood disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, biological factors such as the involvement of the prefrontal cortex and probably other limbic and paralimbic structures may play a significant role in the complex pathophysiology of these disorders. Preliminary studies have suggested that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline, mood stabilizers such as sodium valproate, as well as stimulants and ECT may be useful in treating these disorders. Mood disorders occurring after TBI are clearly an area of neuropsychiatry in which further research in etiology as well as treatment is needed.
High rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) activity has been shown to predict antidepressant treatment response; however, it is unclear whether this is a fixed versus variable marker of responsiveness. The authors measured rACC theta current density in 22 subjects 5 weeks before and again immediately before 5 weeks of blinded treatment with sertraline. Mixed-effects regression analysis found that the relationship between response and rACC activity depended significantly on the timing of the rACC assessment; rACC activity measured immediately before treatment was a significantly better predictor of response. rACC activity may constitute a variable "state" indicator of responsiveness to antidepressants.
zoloft 60 mg
We examined the baseline clinical and neuropsychological profile of 38 patients from a larger, double-blind, randomized, 12-week clinical trial comparing nortriptyline with sertraline in depressed older adults. Ten patients met quantitative criteria for MRI-defined VD based on the highest quartile of deep white matter hyperintensity (DWMH) volume. Fourteen patients met qualitative criteria for MRI-defined VD based on a DWMH score of 2 or higher on the Fazekas' modified Coffey rating scale.
In a subset of patients, ALS is associated with frontotemporal dysfunction (ALS-FTD). Clinically, ALS-FTD may present with a variable spectrum of cognitive and behavioural deficits. We report a 53-year-old ALS-FTD patient developing inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) manifesting as a vigorous sexual drive with exhausting demands for sexual intercourse and physical aggressions against his wife. This distressing symptom could be alleviated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline. ISB is an embarrassing symptom for most patients and their caregivers and may therefore be under-reported. Since effective treatment is available, we suggest an open and proactive discussion of sexual issues in this patient group.
zoloft overdose quantity
Treatment guidelines for major depressive disorder (MDD) recommend a continuous use of antidepressants for several weeks, while recent meta-analyses indicate that antidepressant efficacy starts to appear within 2 weeks and early treatment nonresponse is a predictor of subsequent nonresponse.
In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.
zoloft 25 mg
We examined whether antidepressants alter expression of psychopathic personality traits in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data were collected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week trial evaluating the efficacy of sertraline (50-200 mg/day) combined with either tri-iodothyronine (T3) or matching placebo in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder. Administration of sertraline was open-label; T3/placebo was double-blind. At the baseline and week 8 visits, patients completed the short form of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), a well-validated self-report measure assessing two major factors of psychopathy: Fearless Dominance (PPI-1) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (PPI-2). Change in PPI scores were assessed using paired t-tests for all participants who completed a baseline and postrandomization PPI. Ninety patients (84 completers and six who terminated the trial early) were eligible for the analysis. Both PPI factors changed significantly from baseline to endpoint, but in opposing directions. The mean score on PPI-1 increased significantly during treatment; this change was weakly correlated with change in depression scores. In contrast, the mean score on PPI-2 decreased significantly, but these changes were not correlated with changes in depression scores. Independent of their effects on depression, antidepressants increase adaptive traits traditionally observed in psychopathic individuals, such as social charm and interpersonal and physical boldness. Antidepressants reduce other, more maladaptive, traits associated with psychopathy, including dysregulated impulsivity and externalization.
zoloft increase dosage
The second-generation antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and other compounds with different mechanisms of action. All second-generation antidepressants are metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. Concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isozymes involved in the biotransformation of specific antidepressants may alter plasma concentrations of these agents, although this effect is unlikely to be associated with clinically relevant interactions. Rather, concern about drug interactions with second-generation antidepressants is based on their in vitro potential to inhibit > or = 1 CYP isozyme.
zoloft 400 mg
Treatment of symptomatic intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a difficult task for the practicing nephrologist. Minimizing patient factors that precipitate IDH as well as dialysis procedure-related components that lower blood pressure are the initial approaches to this problem. However, despite these maneuvers, hypotension often persists in a group of high-risk patients. Pharmacologic interventions are often used to reduce IDH. Unfortunately, many of the available therapies are marginally effective and/or poorly tolerated. A few therapies appear to be efficacious and well tolerated-carnitine, sertraline, and midodrine. This article reviews the various pharmacologic therapies used for IDH and makes recommendations for treatment of this difficult problem.
zoloft starting dose
Serotonin transporters (SERT) are target-sites for commonly used antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and so on. Imaging of these sites in the living human brain may provide an important tool to evaluate the mechanisms of action as well as to monitor the treatment of depressed patients. Synthesis and characterization of an improved SERT imaging agent, ADAM (2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine)(7) was achieved. The new compound, ADAM(7), displayed an extremely potent binding affinity toward SERT ( K(i)=0.013 nM, in membrane preparations of LLC-PK(1)-cloned cell lines expressing the specific monoamine transporter). ADAM(7) also showed more than 1,000-fold selectivity for SERT over norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine transporter (DAT) ( K(i)=699 and 840 nM, for NET and DAT, respectively). The radiolabeled compound [(125)I]ADAM(7) showed an excellent brain uptake in rats (1.41% dose at 2 min post intravenous [IV] injection), and consistently displayed the highest uptake (between 60-240 min post IV injection) in hypothalamus, a region with the highest density of SERT. The specific uptake of [(125)I]ADAM(7) in the hypothalamus exhibited the highest target-to-nontarget ratio ([hypothalamus - cerebellum]/cerebellum was 3.97 at 120 min post IV injection). The preliminary imaging study of [(123)I]ADAM in the brain of a baboon by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 180-240 min post IV injection indicated a specific uptake in midbrain region rich in SERT. These data suggest that the new ligand [(123)I]ADAM(7) may be useful for SPECT imaging of SERT binding sites in the human brain.
Therapeutic drug monitoring necessitates efficient, fast and reliable analytical methods validated by external quality control. We therefore devised an isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method with ultraviolet detection and optimised this to quantify mirtazapine, reboxetine, moclobemide, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, doxepin, nordoxepin, clomipramine, norclomipramine, trimipramine, mianserine, maprotiline, normaprotiline, amisulpride, clozapine, norclozapine, quetiapine, risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone in human serum. After solid-phase extraction of the drugs and metabolites, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleosil 100-Protect 1 column with acetonitrile-potassium dihydrogenphosphate buffer as mobile phase. The method was validated for therapeutic and toxic serum ranges. A linear relationship (r>0.998) was obtained between the concentration and the detector signal. Recoveries were between 75 and 99% for the drugs and metabolites. The accuracy of the quality control samples, expressed as percent recovery, ranged from 91 to 118%; intra- and inter-assay-relative standard deviations were 0.9-10.2% and 0.9-9.7%, respectively. Additional external quality control is carried out since 3 years. This method is applicable to rapidly and effectively analyze serum or plasma samples for therapeutic drug monitoring of about 30 antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics.
zoloft 70 mg
The following participant characteristics were associated with greater likelihood of achieving remission from depression with AD + PE than with AD alone: aged 75 and older (effect size 0.32), polypharmacy (0.35), greater aerobic capacity (0.48), displaying psychomotor slowing (0.49), and less-severe anxiety (0.30). The longer the PCLP had been established at a particular center, the more individuals were recruited at that center. After participating in the study, PCPs expressed positive views on AD + PE as a treatment for LLMD and were more likely to use this as a therapeutic strategy.
zoloft 200 mg
Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are severe psychiatric disorders characterised by impaired social interaction, reduced verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of interest and behaviour, with onset in the first 3 years of life. As part of a multimodal approach that includes educational and behavioural interventions, appropriate use of pharmacotherapy in patients with PDDs can improve some symptoms and behaviours and increase the patient's response to nonpharmacological interventions. Pharmacotherapy is aimed at stabilising the dysregulated systems that are thought to underlie the abnormal behaviours, namely the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.This paper critically reviews the available literature on the pharmacotherapy of PDDs in children and adolescents. Pharmacological, efficacy and safety data on drugs acting on serotonin (serotonergic agents such as clomipramine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and fluvoxamine), on both serotonin and norepinephrine (venlafaxine and mirtazapine), dopamine (dopamine-blocking antipsychotics such as haloperidol and pimozide), and on both serotonin and dopamine (atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone) are presented. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of other psychotropic medications, such as the opioid antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor agonists (clonidine and guanfacine), psychostimulants, mood stabilisers, glutamatergic compounds (lamotrigine, amantadine), buspirone, and secretin. Available evidence suggests that atypical antipsychotics (mainly risperidone and olanzapine) are particularly indicated when more serious behavioural symptoms, such as aggression, self-injurious behaviours and hyperactivity, are prominent. Serotonergic agents may be effective in children with repetitive phenomena or affective symptoms. Social relatedness is more frequently refractory to both atypical antipsychotics and serotonergic agents. Further research into the drug treatment of PDDs, including placebo-controlled trials and long-term, naturalistic follow-up studies of large samples of patients of different age ranges, is warranted.
zoloft 750 mg
The impetus for seeking help for assault-related difficulties often rests upon the victims themselves. Yet, we know very little about what factors influence a woman's decision to seek a particular kind of help after an assault. To learn more about these factors, data from 273 women with varying degrees of trauma history and subsequent PTSD symptoms were collected. All participants read a standard, "if this happened to you, what would you do" scenario describing a traumatic event and subsequent trauma-related psychiatric symptoms. Participants were given the same trauma scenario (i.e., sexual assault) and three treatment options to choose from: sertraline (SER), prolonged exposure (PE), or no treatment. Ratings of treatment credibility, personal reactions to treatment options, and treatment choice were examined. Women were more likely to choose PE than SER for the treatment of chronic PTSD. Perceived credibility of the treatment and personal reactions coincided with women's choices. By better understanding who would choose which treatments for PTSD and why, we will improve our ability to tailor how we approach discussing treatment options with these women.
zoloft dosage forms
Data were collected across 11 centers. Psychiatric diagnosis was made as per the International Classification of Diseases Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders 10(th) edition criteria based on Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the data of psychotropic prescriptions was collected.