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The use of a noninvasive skin chamber technique in vivo in pollen-sensitive patients allowed us to quantify the time-course release of histamine and the recruitment of inflammatory cells (i.e., neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils) in skin sites challenged with pollen, histamine, and compound 48/80. The new H1-receptor antagonist, cetirizine 2 HCl, orally administered with 10 mg once a day to pollen-sensitive patients in a double-blind, crossover study versus placebo, induced a significant decrease in the wheal-and-flare cutaneous reaction induced by intradermal injection of pollen, histamine, and compound 48/80. It also significantly inhibited the immediate histamine release occurring in skin chambers after pollen introduction, whereas it did not significantly inhibit the late release. In patients receiving placebo, we detected platelet-activating factor-acether in media collected at the sixth hour from chambers filled with pollen. With cetirizine 2 HCl treatment, platelet-activating factor-acether was not detected in chamber media. Interestingly, cetirizine 2 HCl significantly reduced the eosinophil recruitment observed on the superficial dermis 24 hours after pollen challenge.
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Three included therapeutic studies had 182 randomised participants with 162 completing the trials although in one study, children with recurrent wheeze were also included. The two included safety evaluation studies randomised 963 participants with 793 completing the trials. Clinical heterogeneity was evident and limited data prevented combining data for meta-analysis. The two larger therapeutic studies described significant improvement in both the intervention and the placebo/placebo-like arms with no significant difference between the two groups. In the study with the smallest sample size, cetirizine (a second generation anti-histamine) was significantly more efficacious than placebo in reducing chronic cough in children associated with seasonal allergic rhinitis, and the effect was seen within two weeks of therapy. Combined data from the safety evaluation studies revealed a non-significant difference between groups (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 3.82) for cough as an adverse event but the trend favoured the placebo arm.
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H(1)-antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of various allergic diseases. Particularly, a cornerstone of the management of chronic idiopathic urticaria is treatment with H(1)-antihistamines. However, a few cases of H(1)-antihistamine-induced urticaria have been reported. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of recurrent urticaria, which was prominently exacerbated by the administration of H(1)-antihistamines. The patient consented to a provocation test of fexofenadine among drugs including cetirizine and hydroxyzine, which were suspected of inducing severe symptoms in episodes. One hour after challenge with 12 mg fexofenadine (one-fifth of the therapeutic dose), a urticarial reaction rapidly developed on nearly the entire body with remarkably increased levels of plasma histamine (190 nmol/L) and plasma leukotriene B4 (150 pg/mL). In challenge tests with other antihistamines, generalized urticaria occurred 5 and 1 h after intake of 10 mg loratadine and 10 mg bepotastine, respectively, whereas challenges with chlorpheniramine, mequitazine and azelastine were all negative. Skin prick tests with H(1)-antihistamines used in the challenges were all negative, indicating that the urticarial reactions after challenges with the causative drugs might not be immunoglobulin E-mediated. Among the causative drugs in our case, cetirizine and hydroxyzine are the piperazine derivatives, whereas fexofenadine, bepotastine, ebastine and loratadine are the piperidine derivatives. The chemical structures of both derivatives are very similar. Therefore, in this case, H(1)-antihistamine-induced urticaria may have been due to cross-reactivity between metabolites of these drugs, but not to drugs before metabolization. Hypersensitivity to H(1)-antihistamines should be considered when urticarial lesions worsen after H(1)-antihistamine treatment.
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The safety of cetirizine has been confirmed in this prospective study, the largest and longest randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled safety investigation of any H(1 )-antagonist ever conducted in children and the longest prospective safety study of any H(1 )-antagonist ever conducted in any age group.
Mishaps can occur during dental procedures, some owing to inattention to detail and others are totally unpredictable. They usually include anaphylaxis or allergic reactions to materials used for restorative purposes or drugs such as local anesthetics. A patient reported to our department with moderate dental fluorosis, and the treatment was planned with indirect composite veneering. During the procedure while cementation acute allergic reaction occurred, the specific cause could not be identified after allergic testing. During the procedure while cementationacute allergic angioedema of upper lip. Anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergy, hereditary atopic eczema, cellulitis, cheilitis granulomatosa, and cheilitis glandularis. The patient was reassured and given prednisolone 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg orally, once daily for 3 days after which the symptoms subsided. This paper will discuss the pathogenesis, classification, identification, and management of angioedema during dental procedures.
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All doses of levocetirizine significantly (P < 0.0001) inhibited both wheals and flares in a dose-related manner. Only the 10 mg dose of desloratadine achieved significant inhibition of response. ANOVA showed levocetirizine to be significantly (P < 0.0001) more active than desloratadine. Neither drug caused significant sedation or loss of motricity.
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Combined montelukast/cetirizine pretreatment significantly reduced in-season symptom score for sneezing, eye itching, nasal itching, rhinorrhea, and congestion. Montelukast plus cetirizine were more effective than cetirizine alone in preventing eye itching, rhinorrhea, and nasal itching. Moreover, combined pretreatment with montelukast and cetirizine delayed appearance of AR symptoms. Eosinophil nasal lavage fluid counts were significantly increased during pollen season in placebo and montelukast-only groups. No differences were observed in basophil counts. The in-season ECP level was significantly increased in all groups except montelukast-plus-cetirizine group. In-season MCT levels were not increased.
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Allergic rhinitis is an IgE mediated hypersensitivity reaction of the nasal mucosa characterised by nasal discharge, obstruction, and pruritus.
Systemic administration of the known H1-antagonists suppresses histamine sensitivity of both skin and nasal mucosa in the same degree. Drugs with more potent antihistaminic activity (fexofenadin and cetirisin) inhibited allergen-induced reactions more effectively. The order of the tested drugs by suppression of allergen-provoked skin and nasal reactions (by lowering antiallergic activity) is the following: fexofenadin and cetirisin > ebastin and loratadin > clemastin.
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Complete remission was obtained in ten patients (62.5%) from Group A and seven patients (44%) from Group B (p = 0.28). The UAS in Group A was 1.53 ± 2.09 versus Group B 2.06 ± 1.34 (p = 0.20). The CU-Q2oL in Group A was 12.93 ± 19.20 versus Group B 12.68 ± 10.30 (p = 0.20). At the end of treatment, 13 patients (81%) from Group A and 14 patients (87.5%) from Group B had some type of adverse effect (p = 1.0).
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Antihistamines are poorly degraded/eliminated under the biological treatment processes applied in the wastewater treatment plants and, consequently, they are continuously being discharged along with other drugs to the aquatic environment.
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Almost 25,000 inquiries were submitted to the REC. Pharmacists can use this information to advise, counsel, and refer NCAA athletes regarding the use of banned and permitted substances. Education programs regarding stimulants, dietary supplements, and the risk of using substances such as animal byproducts are needed, and pharmacists can participate in these programs.
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A HPLC method for the determination of the cetirizine dichloride in tablets was developed and validated. The determination was performed with a LiChrosorb RP-18 column, mobile phase of KH2PO4 (0.01 mol/l)--acetonitrile 65:35 (v/v), flow rate: 2 ml.min-1, UV detection at 230 nm and methyl paraben as an internal standard.
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In contrast to diphenhydramine, when compared with placebo, levocetirizine did not modify the CFF (primary endpoint), regardless of the dosing scheme (-1.62 Hz [-2.61, -0.64] and -0.81 Hz [-1.80, 0.19], respectively, 3 h after dosing on day 1). CRT was decreased with both levocetirizine and placebo up to 5 h after dosing on day 1 and up to 3 h after dosing on day 5. Body sway data were similar with levocetirizine and placebo but increased with diphenhydramine. LMT was similar in all three groups. No relevant difference between placebo and levocetirizine was recorded by the subjects on their assessment of alertness using the VAS, whilst decreased alertness was reported following diphenhydramine 50 mg.
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A 47-year-old woman developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to a knee brace after anterior cruciate ligament repair, manifesting as numerous erythema multiforme-like lesions. No previous cases of ACD to this Townsend Rebel knee brace, which is commonly worn postoperatively, have been reported. The patient was treated with triamcinolone ointment, cetirizine, and diphenhydramine. On follow-up, the lesions had resolved. We share this case to increase knowledge of this reaction pattern and encourage further similar reports to clarify the nature of the reaction.
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The mechanisms involved in enhanced cough induced by central and inhaled NGF in guinea pigs were investigated. Cough and airway function were assessed by plethysmography following inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) NGF treatment. Expression of TrkA and/or TRPV1 was determined in bronchi and/or brainstem by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. I.c.v. and inhaled NGF enhanced citric acid induced-cough and airway obstruction. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with antagonists of TrkA (K252a) or TRPV1 (IRTX) significantly reduced both the NGF (i.c.v.) enhanced cough and airway obstruction whereas the NK1 antagonist (FK888) inhibited only cough. The H1 antagonist (cetirizine) did not affect either. Inhaled NGF increased phosphorylation of TrkA receptors in the bronchi but not the brainstem at 0.5h post-treatment. TrkA mRNA was elevated at 0.5h in the bronchi and at 24h in the brainstem while TRPV1 mRNA was elevated from 0.5h to 24h in brainstem and at 24h in the bronchi. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with IRTX, but not K252a, significantly inhibited the inhaled NGF-enhanced cough. Central NGF administration enhances cough and airway obstruction by mechanisms dependent on central activation of TrkA, TRPV1 and NK1 receptors while inhaled NGF enhances cough via a mechanism dependent on central TRPV1 and not TrkA receptors. These data show that NGF, in addition to its effects on the airways, has an important central mechanism of action in the enhancement of cough. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting NGF signaling in both the airways and CNS may be more effective in the management of cough.
Because intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1 and recruitment of eosinophils are crucial in supporting allergic inflammation, their down-regulation may bring additional benefits in patients' recovery. We have assessed nasal eosinophilia and serum soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) concentrations in relation to nasal symptoms in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) treated for 6 weeks with either desloratadine, levocetirizine, montelukast alone, or in combination.
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It has been proposed that the histamine 1 (H(1)) receptor not only promotes allergic reactions but also modulates autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes. In line with this, it has recently been reported that the H(1)-receptor antagonist cetirizine can counteract the activation of signals/factors pertinent to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and cytokine-induced β-cell destruction. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to determine whether H(1)-receptor antagonists affect cytokine-induced β-cell death and signaling in vitro.
Treatment for allergic conjunctivitis has markedly expanded in recent years, providing opportunities for more focused therapy, but often leaving both physicians and patients confused over the variety of options. As monotherapy, oral antihistamines are an excellent choice when attempting to control multiple early-phase, and some late-phase, allergic symptoms in the eyes, nose and pharynx. Unfortunately, despite their efficacy in relief of allergic symptoms, systemic antihistamines may result in unwanted adverse effects, such as drowsiness and dry mouth. Newer second-generation antihistamines (cetirizine, fexofenadine, loratadine and desloratadine) are preferred over older first-generation antihistamines in order to avoid the sedative and anticholinergic effects that are associated with first-generation agents. When the allergic symptom or complaint, such as ocular pruritus, is isolated, focused therapy with topical (ophthalmic) antihistamines is often efficacious and clearly superior to systemic antihistamines, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with an oral or intranasal agent. Topical antihistaminic agents not only provide faster and superior relief than systemic antihistamines, but they may also possess a longer duration of action than other classes including vasoconstrictors, pure mast cell stabilisers, NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Many antihistamines have anti-inflammatory properties as well. Some of this anti-inflammatory effect seen with 'pure' antihistamines (levocabastine and emedastine) may be directly attributed to the blocking of the histamine receptor that has been shown to downregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and, in turn, limit chemotaxis of inflammatory cells. Some topical multiple-action histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists (olopatadine, ketotifen, azelastine and epinastine) have been shown to prevent activation of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, or inhibit release of leukotrienes, platelet-activating factors and other inflammatory mediators. Topical vasoconstrictor agents provide rapid relief, especially for redness; however, the relief is often short-lived, and overuse of vasoconstrictors may lead to rebound hyperaemia and irritation. Another class of topical agents, mast cell stabilisers (sodium cromoglicate [cromolyn sodium], nedocromil and lodoxamide), may be considered; however, they generally have a much slower onset of action. The efficacy of mast cell stabilisers may be attributed to anti-inflammatory properties in addition to mast cell stabilisation. In the class of topical NSAIDs, ketorolac has been promoted for ocular itching but has been found to be inferior for relief of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine and emedastine. Lastly, topical corticosteroids may be considered for severe seasonal ocular allergy symptoms, although long-term use should be avoided because of risks of ocular adverse effects, including glaucoma and cataract formation.
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Several nonsedating histamine H1-receptor antagonists are associated with torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare electrocardiographic, monophasic action potential, and arrhythmogenic effects of sedating and nonsedating H1-receptor antagonists, and (ii) identify correlates of drug-induced torsades de pointes in an isolated ventricle model. Isolated, electrically paced (1-3 Hz) rabbit ventricles were Langendorff-perfused with either drug-free Tyrode's solution or one of the following: (i) the sedating H1-receptor antagonist hydroxyzine (0.1-30 microM), (ii) cetirizine, a nonsedating metabolite of hydroxyzine (1-300 microM), and (iii) the nonsedating, putatively arrhythmogenic H1-receptor antagonist astemizole (0.1-30 microM). Volume conducted electrocardiographic signals and monophasic action potentials from the periapical left ventricular endocardium and epicardium were recorded. There were no apparent changes in control (n = 15) or hydroxyzine-perfused (n = 7) hearts. Cetirizine (n = 13) produced a mild biphasic electrocardiographic QT interval prolongation and was associated with early afterdepolarizations, but not with torsades de pointes. Astemizole (n = 11) lengthened QT intervals, and at high concentration (30 microM) induced torsades de pointes in 10 of 11 hearts (P < 0.001 vs. all other groups). These findings are consistent with previously reported repolarizing current inhibition by cetirizine, but may additionally indicate "compensatory" inhibition of inward currents at higher concentrations. By contrast, astemizole-induced changes are consistent with unopposed repolarizing current inhibition.
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During each study period, SAR and PAR subjects were exposed to grass pollen or house-dust mite allergens, respectively for 6 h on 2 consecutive days in the VCC. Each day, medications were administered 2 h after the start of the challenge; with a washout of at least 5 days between each period. The main criterion for evaluation of efficacy was the major symptom complex (MSC) for SAR and the complex symptom score (CSS) for PAR.
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The Central Nervous System (CNS) impairment induced by moderate alcohol (ALC) ingestion may be enhanced if other drugs are taken simultaneously. Rupatadine (RUP) is a new H(1)-antihistamine which also inhibits platelet activating factor (PAF) release in inflammatory reactions.
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In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, eight atopic and eight healthy subjects received cetirizine (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 days before cutaneous tests. Intradermal tests (IDT) and prick tests (PT) were performed with BK (20 nmol/ml for IDT and 20 micromol/ml for PT), histamine (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT), and compound 48/80 (100 microg/ml IDT and 100 mg/ml PT) as positive controls and saline as negative control. The skin responses were monitored by measurement of wheal and flare areas.
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A PMSS in CIU patients evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of desloratadine in clinical practice. At Visit 1 (baseline), demographic and CIU history were recorded and patients/physicians rated the severity of CIU symptoms, interference with sleep/daily activities and the general state of urticaria. Patients also noted the use and effectiveness of previous antihistamine therapy. At the end of treatment (Visit 2), CIU symptom severity and other disease criteria were re-assessed. Adverse events reported during or < or = 30 days after treatment were collected.
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Cetirizine and hydroxyzine produce prompt, long-lasting peripheral H1-blockade in skin. We hypothesized that after oral administration of these H1-receptor antagonists, skin concentrations would be higher than serum concentrations and would correlate with peripheral H1 blockade.
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Mean itch intensity (SE: 0.31 each) was significantly lower following VAa (31.9) compared with all other groups (PAa: 36.5; VC: 36.8; VAp: 37.6; PC: 39.8; PAp: 39.9; NI: 45.7; P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between VAp and VC (P > 0.1), although both therapies were significantly superior to their respective placebo interventions (P < 0.05). Flare size following VAp was significantly smaller (P = 0.034) than that following PAp. D2 attention test score was significantly lower following VC compared with all other groups (P < 0.001).
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Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) has been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of itch. However, the precise mechanism of PAR2-mediated itch remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of several agents on the scratching behavior induced by PAR2-activating peptide (SLIGRL-NH2). Pretreatment of experimental animals with tacrolimus or the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton significantly reduced SLIGRL-NH2-induced scratching behavior, whereas histamine H(1) receptor antagonist cetirizine or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin had little effect. Furthermore, intradermal injection of SLIGRL-NH2 increased cutaneous levels of LTB(4) and PGE(2). In vitro, SLIGRL-NH2 treatment enhanced LTB(4) and PGE(2) release from primary keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Preincubation of keratinocytes with zileuton resulted in a significant decrease of LTB(4) release and treatment of indomethacin led to a significant decrease of PGE(2) in response to SLIGRL-NH2 stimulation. In addition, SLIGRL-NH2-induced secretion of LTB(4) and PGE(2) was significantly inhibited by tacrolimus, whereas cetirizine had no effect. These results indicate that SLIGRL-NH2 stimulates LTB(4) and PGE(2) release from mouse keratinocytes and that enhancement of LTB(4) and PGE(2) secretion contributes to SLIGRL-NH2-induced scratching behavior in ICR mice.
Both antihistamines, significantly increased daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly predicted by rupadatine and pheniramine treatment. Cetirizine and hydroxyzine, seem to have negative influences on mood states. Given the extensive use of antihistamines in clinical settings, these results should be more elaborately examined in further studies.
This was a meta-analysis of original reports from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Clinical studies without detailed reports, open-label, non-randomized and non-controlled studies, or paediatric studies, were excluded. Study subjects were divided into an environmental exposure (EE) group or a natural exposure (NE) group.